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  • 1. 16.1 Ocean Circulation
  • 2. Ocean currents- masses of ocean water that flow from one place to another. The amount of water can be large or small.
  • 3. Surface currents- movements of water that flow horizontally in the upper part of the ocean’s surface.
    Surface currents develop from friction between the ocean and the wind that blows across its surface.
  • 4. Gyres- are huge circular-moving current systems dominate the surfaces of the oceans. There are five main ocean gyres: the North Pacific Gyre, the South Pacific Gyre, the North Atlantic Gyre, the South Atlantic Gyre, and the Indian Ocean Gyre.
  • 5. The coriolis effect- is the deflection of currents away from their original course as a result of Earth’s rotation.
    Because of the Earths rotation, currents are deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • 6. Ocean currents have an important effect on climates.
    When currents from low-latitude regions move into higher latitudes, they transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas on Earth.
    As cold water currents travel toward the equator, they help moderate the warm temperatures of adjacent land areas.
  • 7. Upwelling- is the rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water.
    Upwelling brings greater concentrations of dissolved nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphates, to the ocean surface.
  • 8. Density currents- are vertical currents of ocean water that result from density differences among water masses.
    An increase in seawater density can be caused by a decrease in temperature or an increase in salinity.
  • 9. Most water involved in deep-ocean density currents begins in high latitudes at the surface.
    Density currents can also result from increased salinity of ocean water due to evaporation.
    A simplified model of ocean circulation is similar to a conveyor belt that travels from the Atlantic Ocean through the Indian and Pacific oceans and back again.

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