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  • 1. 11.1 Rock Deformation
  • 2. Stress
    • The force per unit area acting on a solid.
  • 3. Strain
    • The change in shape or volume of a body of rock as a result of stress.
  • 4. Anticline
    • Formed by the upfolding, or arching, of rock layers.
  • 5. Synclines
    • Downfolds, or troughs, found in association with anticlines
  • 6. Monoclines
    • Large, step-like folds in otherwise horizontal sedimentary strata
  • 7. Normal fault
    • Occurs when the hanging wall block moves relative to the footwall block
  • 8. Reverse fault
    • A fault in which the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block.
  • 9. Thrust fault
    • Reverse faults with dips of less than 45 degrees
  • 10. Strike-slip fault
    • Faults in which the movement is parallel to the trend or strike, of the fault surface
  • 11. Key Concepts
    • The factors that influence the strength of a rock and how it will deform include temperature, confining pressure, rock type, and time.
    • Rocks deform permanently in two ways: brittle deformation and ductile formation.
  • 12. Key Concepts
    • Forces that are unable to deform rock when first applied may cause rock to flow if the force is maintained over a long period of time.
    • The three types of stresses that rocks commonly undergo are tensional stress, compressional stress, and shear stress.
  • 13. Key Concepts
    • The three main types of folds are anticlines, synclines, and monoclines.
    • The major types of faults are normal faults, reverse faults, thrust faults, and strike-slip faults.