Chapter 12The Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
Chapter Outline • What is Culture? • How Culture Is Learned • The Measurement of Culture • American Core Values 12 - 2Copyright 2007 by
The sum total of learned beliefs, values, and customs that serve to Culture regulate the consumer behavior of members of a particular society. 12 - 3Copyright 2007 by
A Theoretical Model of Cultures’ Influence on Behavior Figure 12-1 12 - 4Copyright 2007 by
Culture Is Learned Issues • Enculturation and • Enculturation acculturation – The learning of one’s own culture • Language and • Acculturation symbols – The learning of a • Ritual new or foreign • Sharing of culture culture 12 - 5Copyright 2007 by
Discussion Question • How do U.S. marketers target consumers who have moved to the U.S. and are new to the U.S. culture? • How do U.S. marketers target consumers who live outside the U.S. and are adopting parts of the U.S. culture? 12 - 6Copyright 2007 by
This ad would appeal to those fromother countries who are now interested in buying a house in the U.S.
The EU has a Web site for new citizens. weblink 12 - 8Copyright 2007 by
The Movement of Cultural Meaning Figure 12.2 12 - 9Copyright 2007 by
Culture Is Learned Issues • Enculturation and • Without a common acculturation language shared • Language and meaning could not exist symbols • Marketers must choose • Ritual appropriate symbols in • Sharing of culture advertising • Marketers can use “known” symbols forCopyright 2007 by associations 12 - 10
This Web site explores animals as symbols for advertising. weblink 12 - 11Copyright 2007 by
This ad usesthe symbol of a magnet toemphasize its benefits.
Culture Is Learned Issues • Enculturation and • A ritual is a type of acculturation symbolic activity • Language and consisting of a series of symbols steps • Ritual • Rituals extend over the • Sharing of culture human life cycle • Marketers realize that rituals often involveCopyright 2007 by products (artifacts) 12 - 13
Discussion Question • What are some rituals (religious, educational, social) that you have experienced? • What artifacts or products were part of that ritual? • How did marketers influence the choice of these artifacts? 12 - 14Copyright 2007 by
Culture Is Learned Issues • Enculturation and • To be a cultural acculturation characteristic, a belief, • Language and value, or practice must symbols be shared by a • Ritual significant portion of the society • Sharing of Culture • Culture is transferred weblink through family, schools,Copyright 2007 by houses of worship, and 12 - 15
This ad uses characters well known in the U.S. culture.
Table 12.2 Selected Rituals and Associated Artifacts SELECTED RITUALS TYPICAL ARTIFACTS Wedding White gown (something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue) Birth of child U.S. Savings Bond, silver baby spoon Birthday Card, present, cake with candles 50th Wedding anniversary Catered party, card and gift, display of photos of the couple’s life together Graduation Pen, U.S. Savings Bond, card, wristwatch Valentine’s Day Candy, card, flowers New Year’s Eve Champagne, party, fancy dress Thanksgiving Prepare a turkey meal for family and friends 12 - 17Copyright 2007 by
Table 12.3 Facial Beauty Ritual of a Young TV Advertising Sales Representative 1. I pull my hair back with a headband. 2. I take all of my makeup off with L’Oreal eye makeup remover. 3. Next, I use a Q-tip with some moisturizer around my eyes to make sure all eye makeup is removed. 4. I wash my face with Noxzema facial wash. 5. I apply Clinique Dramatically Different Lotion to my face, neck, and throat. 6. If I have a blemish, I apply Clearasil Treatment to the area to dry it out. 6. Twice weekly (or as necessary) I use Aapri Facial Scrub to remove dry and dead skin. 7. Once a week I apply Clinique Clarifying Lotion 2 with a cotton ball to my face and throat to remove deep-down dirt and oils. 8. Once every three months I get a professional salon facial to deep-clean my pores. 12 - 18Copyright 2007 by
The Measurement of Culture • Content Analysis • Consumer Fieldwork • Value Measurement Instruments 12 - 19Copyright 2007 by
A method for systematically analyzing the content of verbal and/or pictorial Content communication. The Analysis method is frequently used to determine prevailing social values of a society. 12 - 20Copyright 2007 by
A cultural measurement technique that takes place within a natural Field environment that Observation focuses on observing behavior (sometimes without the subjects’ awareness). 12 - 21Copyright 2007 by
Characteristics of Field Observation • Takes place within a natural environment • Performed sometimes without the subject’s awareness • Focuses on observation of behavior 12 - 22Copyright 2007 by
Researchers who participate in the Participant- environment that they Observers are studying without notifying those who are being observed. 12 - 23Copyright 2007 by
Value Measurement Survey Instruments • Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) – A self-administered inventory consisting of eighteen “terminal” values (i.e., personal goals) and eighteen “instrumental” values (i.e., ways of reaching personal goals) • List of Values (LOV) – A value measurement instrument that asks consumers to identify their two most important values from a nine-value list that is based on the terminal values of the Rokeach Value Survey • Values and Lifestyles (VALS) – A value measurement based on two categories: self-definition and resources 12 - 24Copyright 2007 by
Table 12.5 Excerpt from the Rokeach Value Survey TERMINAL VALUES INSTRMENTAL VALUES A comfortable life Ambitious An exciting life Broad-minded A world at peace Capable Equality Cheerful Freedom Clean Happiness Courageous National security Forgiving Pleasure Helpful Salvation Honest Social recognition Imaginative True friendship Independent Wisdom Intellectual 12 - 25Copyright 2007 by
This adreferences a terminal value.
American Core Values • Achievement and • Individualism success • Freedom • Activity • External conformity • Efficiency and • Humanitarianism practicality • Youthfulness • Progress • Fitness and health • Material comfort 12 - 27Copyright 2007 by
Discussion Question • Have you observed changes in any of the core values over the past 4 years? • Why did those changes occur? • How have they affected marketers? 12 - 28Copyright 2007 by
Criteria for Value Selection • The value must be pervasive. • The value must be enduring. • The value must be consumer-related. 12 - 29Copyright 2007 by
Toward a Shopping Culture • Is shopping what we do to create value in our lives? • The younger generation is shopping more • This has an effect on credit card debt 12 - 30Copyright 2007 by