Influence of Culture and Subculture on Consumer Behavior
What is culture and subculture? CultureIt is a detailed examination of the character of the total society, including such factors as language, knowledge, laws, religion, food customs, music, art, technology, work patterns, products, and other artifacts that give a society its distinctive flavor. In a sense, culture is a society’s personality.Culture is the sum total of learned learned beliefs, values, and customs that server to direct the consumer behavior of members of a particular society.• SubcultureIt is a distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society.
Relationship between culture and subculture Sub cultural traits Dominan Of easterners t cultural Sub cultural Traits of (east of the Traits of westerners (west of Mississippi river U.S Citizens Mississippi River)
Influence of culture Consumers both view themselves in the context of their culture and react to their environment based upon the cultural frame work that they bring to that experience. Each individual perceives the world through his own cultural lens. Culture Satisfies Needs Culture is also associated with what a society’s members consider to be a necessity and what they view as a luxury. For instance,55% of Americans adults consider a microwave to be a necessity and 36% consider a remote control for a TV or VCR to be necessity.
Culture is Learned At an early age, we begin to acquire from our social environment a set of beliefs, values, and customs that make up our culture. Anthropologists have identified three distinct forms of cultural learning: 1. Formal learning: in which adults and older siblings teach a young family member “How to behave”; 2. Informal learning: in which a child learns primarily by imitating the behavior of selected others, such as family, friends, or TV stars. 3. Technical Learning: Which teachers instruct the child in an educational environment about what, how and why it should be done.Advertising can influence all three types of cultural learnings.
Culturally Constituted WorldAdvertising/Fashion Fashion System System Consumer GoodsPossession Grooming Exchange Rituals DisinvestmentRituals Rituals Rituals Individual Consumer
Enculturation and Acculturation The learning of one’s own culture is known as enculturation. The learning of a new or foreign culture is known as acculturation.Language and SymbolsTo communicate effectively with their audiences, marketers must use appropriate Language and symbols to convey desired products characteristics. Symbols Verbal Non verbal
RitualsA Ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps occurring in a fixed sequence and repeated over time.The standpoint of marketers is the fact that rituals tends to replete with ritual artifacts that are associated with or some how enhance the performance of the ritual.
Culture is Shared Culture is viewed as group customs that link together the members of the society. Common language is the critical component that makes it possible for people to share values, experiences, and customs.Social Institutions transmitting the element of culture and sharing of culture1. Family : primary agent for enculturation2. Educational Institutions : imparts learning skills, history, patriotism, citizenship and technical training.3. Religious Institutions : Perpetuate religious consciousness, spiritual guidance, and moral training.4. Mass Media : wide range of cultural values.
Culture is Dynamic To fulfill the need gratifying role, culture continually must evolve if it is to function in the best interests of a society. The marketers must carefully monitor the socio culture environment in order to market an existing product effectively or to develop promising new products.
Measurement of Culture Content Analysis Consumer Fieldwork Value measurement survey instrumentsContent AnalysisConclusion about a society, or specific aspects of a society, or a comparison of two or more societies sometimes can be drawn from examining the content of particular messages. Content analysis, as the name implies, focuses on the content of verbal, written, and pictorial communications. It can be used as a relatively objective means of determining what social and cultural changes have occurred in a specific society.
Consumer Fieldwork : In this study the trained researchers, they are likely to select a small sample of people from a particular society and carefully observe their behavior. Based on their observations, researchers draw conclusion about values, belief, and customs of the society.Characteristics of field observation are :1. It takes place within a natural environment;2. It is performed sometimes without the subject’s awareness.3. It focuses on observation of behavior.
Value Measurement Survey Instrument :In this researchers observed the behavior of members of a specific society and inferred from such behavior or underlying values of the society. Researchers use data collection instruments called value instruments to ask people how they feel about such basic personal and social concept as freedom, comfort, national security, and peace.
Subcultures . . .. . . a subdivision of a national culture that is based on some unifying characteristic. . . . members share similar patterns of behavior that are distinct from those of the national culture.
Sub CultureCategories Examples1. Nationality Jamaican,Vietnamese,French2. Religion Mormon, Baptist, Catholic3. Geographic region Northeast, Southwest etc.4. Race Pacific Islander, Native American, Caucasian.5. Age Senior citizen, teenager6. Gender Female, male7. Occupation Bus driver, mechanic, engineer.8. Social class Lower, middle, upper.9. Ethnicity Similar values and customs.
Age SubculturesConsumers undergo predictable changes in values, lifestyles, and consumption patterns as they move through their life cycle. Four Major Age Trends Baby Boomers Generation X Generation Y Elderly
The Baby-Boom Generation. . .. . . are those Americans born between 1946 and 1964 and share lifestyle similarities. . . . number 77 million.
The Baby Boom Generation Roomer chinos are needed now. Their difficulty in finding good jobs has led to RYAs and ILYAs.
Generation X . . .. . . is small in number, but possesses $125 billion of discretionary income This group is known for valuing religion, formal rituals (e.g., proms) and materialism, and has more negative attitudes toward work and getting ahead than the boomers had at their age.
Generation Y . . . This group, like Xers, is more heterogeneous in racial and socioeconomic terms than the boomers. They are pragmatic, value oriented, weighing price quality, relation ships, brand embracing.
The Elderly The “Graying of America” refers to the fourth major age trend By the year 2020 Americans over 65 will outnumber teenagers two to one. Process information differently. Experience motor skill declines which mean walking, writing, talking, etc. abilities deteriorate.
Ethnicity . . .. . . refers to a group bound together by ties of cultural homogeneity (i.e., linked by similar values, customs, dress, religion, and language).
African-American Subculture Represents almost 13 percent of the U.S. population. Income deprivation a major factor: In the 1990s, 37 % of African- American households had incomes of under $15,000.
The Hispanic Subculture . . . is the second-fastest-growing ethnic sub- cultural group in the United States and will become the largest ethnic minority in the U.S. by the year 2010. Commonalities: – Language (82 % of U.S. Hispanic households speak primarily Spanish). – Religion (over 85% of Hispanics are Catholic). – Tendency to live in metropolitan areas (63%).
Hispanic SegmentationThere are at least four distinct segments: Mexicans (65.2 % of U.S. Hispanics) Cubans (4.3 %) Puerto Ricans (9.6 %) Central and South Americans (14.3 %)
The Asian-American Subculture. . . is the fastest-growing ethnic subculture in the United States. The percentage of Asian-Americans who graduated from college is nearly twice that of white Americans Asian-American family incomes are significantly higher than the other ethnic subcultures More than Hispanics, Asian-Americans differ in language and culture of origin
Comparing Anglo-, African-American andHispanic Buying No brand loyalty differences No differences in coupon proneness, impulse buying, or shopping for generic products African-Americans and Hispanics are more likely to shop for bargains
Representation in Advertisements African-Americans and Hispanics are slightly under-represented. Asians are slightly over- represented.
Regional Subcultures . . . . . . have distinct lifestyles resulting from variations in climate, culture, and ethnic mix of people. Consequently, different product preferences exist.
Geodemographics . . . . . . takes as a unit of analysis the neighborhood (i.e., census blocks) and obtains demographic information on consumers within the neighborhood.