In 1984 Computer scientists, Len Bosack and Sandy
Lerner, from Stanford University, found Cisco Systems.
They invented this technology to link their computer
• In 1984 Computer the worldwide leader in networking
Cisco Systems, Inc. isscientists, Len Bosack and Sandy Lerner,
from Stanford University, found Cisco an essential part of
for the Internet. Today, networks are Systems. They invented
this technology to government and home
business, education,link their computer systems together.
• Cisco Systems, and the worldwide Protocol-based (IP)
communications,Inc. isCisco Internetleader in networking for
the Internet. Today, networks are an essential part of
networking solutions are the foundation of these
business, education, government and home communications,
networks. Internet Protocol-based (IP) networking solutions
Cisco hardware, software, and service offerings are used
are the foundation of these networks.
to•create hardware, solutionsand service offerings are used to
Cisco Internet software, that allow individuals,
companies, and countries that allow individuals, companies,
create Internet solutions to increase productivity,
and customer satisfaction and strengthen
improvecountries to increase productivity, improve customer
satisfaction and strengthen Cisco name has become
competitive advantage. The competitive advantage. The Cisco
name has become synonymous with the Internet, as
synonymous with the Internet, as well as with thewell as
with the productivity improvements that Internet business
solutions improvements that Internet business
• An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each
device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet protocol for
• Ip address must be unique in a network.
• Ip address is read with its Subnet mask.
• 32 bits( 0 or 1) divided into 4 octets.
• Ip address has two portions – network and host.
• Each octet has a decimal value ranging from 0 to 255, except for the first octet
which is 1 to 255.
• The first octet cannot be 127 , this is reserved for loopback and also to check if
protocol stack is correctly configured.
• All 0’s define network address.
• All 1’s define broadcast address.
• The ip address 255.255.255.255 defines a general broadcast.
• Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is a method for allocating IP
addresses and routing Internet Protocol packets. The Internet Engineering
Task Force introduced CIDR in 1993 to replace the previous addressing
architecture of classful networkdesign in the Internet.Its goal was to slow
the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 address.
• CIDR values tells about the ON bits
for example:255.224.0.0/11 -> 11 bits are on
255.255.192.0/18 -> 18 bits are on
Maximum range is /30 because 31 & 32 are reserved for hosts.
Telnet: It is a service through which we can access one pc from another pc in
FTP: A method of transferring one or more file from one system to another
system over a network.
TFTP: It is stack version of FTP. TFTP has no browsing ability. It can send and
NFS: It is a service through which we can transfer data and files from linux to
linux or linux to window.
SMTP: Simple mail transport protocol, through this mail can be sent.
DNS:It translate name to IP or Ip to names.
DHCP: It is used to give IP to client automatically.
Router to pc
Pc to pc
Switch to switch
Switch to hub
Hub to Hub
Router to switch
Router to Hub
Pc to hub
Switch to pc
Hub uplink to downlink
ADSL modem to Hub
ADSL modem to PC
Fast ethernet speed:
Gigabit ethernet speed:
DTE(Data terminal equipment)
DCE(Data communication equipment)
POST(Power on Self Test)
present -> not present->rommonmode
yes, setup mode
no, extended mode
ctrl + c
• User mode-allows user to perform few
commands, configurations cannot be
• Priviledge mode- It enables user to view and
change few configurations.
• Global configuration mode- It allows user to
change those configurations which effects the
working of router.
Global configuration mode
• Static routes are user defined manually
created routes.The administrator creates
creates static routes in cisco routers using Ip
• Syntax:ip route destination network subnet
mask next hop router ip address
• Example:• Ip route 220.127.116.11 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.2
• Default routes define a router as the default
router. When there is no entry for the destination
nettwork in the routing table, the router will
forward the packet to its default router.Default
router help in reducng the size of your routing
• Syntac: ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 next hop router
• Ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.2
Metric: Hop count(15)
Distance vector protocol
Max path=4(16) [equal load balancing]
Port no 520
Send update every 30 seconds.
• Cisco proprietary routing protocol
• Advanced distance vector/ hybrid routing
protocol with features such as dynamic
• Classless/ VLSM
• Metric: bandwidth, delay, load, reliability
• Hop count 255
• Multicast 18.104.22.168
Link state protocol
Port no 89
Metric is cost
Unlimited hop count
AD is 110
Table- 1) neighbor 2)topology 3) routing table
Point to point, multicast, broadcast
Concept of area