Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute of Technology
Problems with the Current System
The way in which the companies are developing their
networks is problematic — all are currently preceding in
different directions with their technology improvements.
3G systems still have inherent flaws. They are not welldesigned for data; they are improvements on a protocol.
A data-centered protocol is needed. If one were to create
two identical marketplaces in which cellular providers
used 3G and 4G respectively was originally designed for
Need of 4G
Consumers demand more from their technology. Whether it be a
television, cellular phone, or refrigerator, the latest technology
purchase must have new features. With the advent of the Internet, the
most-wanted feature is better, faster access to information. Cellular
subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as
instant messaging, stock quotes, and even Internet access right on
their phones. But that is far from the limit of features; manufacturers
entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video
capability. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when
access to all necessary information the power of a personal computer,
sits in the palm of one’s hand. To support such a powerful system, we
need pervasive, high-speed wireless connectivity.
An Insight into 4G
4G , an acronym for fourth generation system, is a term used
to describe the next step in wireless communication.
A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP
solution where voice data and streamed multimedia can be
given to users on an “Anytime, Anywhere” basis and at
higher data rates than previous generation.
4G will be fully IP based integartion system, will be capable
of providing between 100 Mbit/s with premium quality and
Increased speed is a crucial requirement for 4G . Data rate
increased by 10 to 50 times over 3G will put streaming audio
and video access into the hands of the consumers.
Goals of 4G
*Interactive multimedia Voice & Video streaming
*High speed global internet access
*Service portability with scalable mobile services
*High capacity & low cost services
*Improved information security
*Spectral Bandwidth efficiency
Better coding techniques like concatenated FEC coding
is used in order to improve network performance and
send much large blocks of data while reducing bit-error
Whats new in 4G
Unifies existing cellular standards
Circuit switched & packet switched
Features include:-phone calls
-Send/ receive large data
- High speed web navigation/maps
-Speed: 144kb/s- 2Mb/s
Packet switching only
Send/ receive large data
-Extremely high speed(10-50x>3G)
-Real time audio
-Ip based integration system
-speed : 100 Mb/s-1Gb/s
ACCESS SCHEMES OF 4G
In the 1st generation wireless standards used plain TDMA but it
proved to be less efficient in handling the high data rate
In the 2nd generation system, the combination of FDMA and
TDMA was used.
Increased data rate and efficiency to handle the multipath
channel , anabled the 3rd generation systemsr to use CDMA as
the Access scheme.
New access scheme like interleaved FDMA and multi carrier code
division multiple access(MC-CDMA) are gaining more importance
IFDMA provides less power fluctuation and thus avoids amplifier
4G will be based on packet switching only. This will
require low latency data transmission.
4G generation wireless will support IPV6 which is an
important network layer technology thatcan support
a large number of wireless enabled devices.
By increasing the number of ip addresses , IPV6
removes the need for Network address
With the available address space and number of
addressing bits in IPV6, many innovative coding
schemes can be developed for 4G devices.
The vision for the future development of 4G is that
there will be a steady & continuos evolution.
In conjunction with the future development of 4G
there may be an inter-relationship with other radio
In the future wireless service provisions will be
characterised by global mobile access, high quality of
service and easy and simple access to multimedia
services for voice, data, www, GPS etc via one user
4G in public safety
Sensors in public vehicle
Cameras in traffic light
First responder route selection
Traffic control during disasters
India moving to 4G networks
China has already decided to move to 4G network,
since there was many problem in allocating 3G
spectrum to telecom networks and in setting up 3G
mobile network at high costs.
We are lucky in india that our network particularly
that of the incumbent and IP2 licenses like railways,
power grid, electricity boards etc have connected
about 30,000 exchanges by Optical fiber.
These fiber ends can then be connected to all villages
by free spectrum available and all villages can be
connected for delivery of voice telephony,
broadband, TV, e-governance, e-education,eagriculture etc.
The fourth generation promises to fulfil the goal of
PCC(Personal computing & communication)- a vision
that affordably provides high data rates everywhere
over a wireless network.
4G provides with a very efficient wireless
communication system for seamless roaming over
various network including internet which uses IP
It will dominate the wireless communication, and its
converged system system will replace most
conventional wireless infrastructure.