LIBRO DE GRAMÁTICA      Por Taloradora
1. Pagina Titulada            9. Subjunctive in Adj Clause2. Indice de Materiales       10. Commands3. Presente (-AR; -ER;...
EL PRESENTEPresent Tense is used to express habitual actions that will takeplace in the near future.    -AR               ...
EL PRESENTE: LOS VERBOS              CON CAMBIOS DE RAÍZ                   (o-ue)                              (e-i)      ...
EL PRESENTE : “YO”                                  IRREGULARVerbs with –go in the yo form            Tener               ...
Time: Hour, day, and date.         Geographic or Physical Location¿Qué hora es?                      ¿Dónde estás?Possesio...
SER Y ESTAR: CON              ADJECTIVOSSer and estar both mean “to be”, but the context theyare used in can mean two very...
L O S V E R B O S C O M O G U S TA R  “Gustar” is unique because it’s only conjugated two ways:“Gusta” and “Gustan”. Which...
SUSTANTIVOS Y ARTICULOS  In Spanish, nouns normally come in either a “masculine” form or a “feminine”    form. Words endin...
ADJECTIVOSSpanish adjectives, or adjetivos, agree in gender and number with the nouns theymodify. Most adjectives ending i...
Preterite is used for actions that were         Imperfect is used for actions that were completed in the past. The endings...
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVEPresent Subjunctive is different from normal Spanish conjugations because itis a mood instead of a tens...
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE                                                                           EXPRESSIONS OF   VERBS OF WI...
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE: NOUN CLAUSE   The subjunctive is used mainly in multiple clause sentences which express  will, influe...
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE:             ADJECTIVE CLAUSE     When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something (thean...
COMMANDS           AFFIRMATIVE                                     NEGATIVETÚ                                            T...
O B J E C T P RO N O U N S : I N D I R E C T & D I R E C T  Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. Direct object...
O B J E C T P RO N O U N S : C O N T I N U E D       Lo is also used to refer to an abstract thing or idea that has no gen...
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES &                    PRONOUNS Adjectives in the possessive form are used to express ownership. Spani...
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES &             PRONOUNS CONTINUED  Stressed possessive adjectives follow the nouns they modify. They ...
DEMONSTRATIVE          ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS   Demonstrative adjectives specify to which noun a speaker is referring. Th...
PREPOSITIONAL                             PRONOUNSPrepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions. Except f...
PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNS #2The pronoun sí (himself, herself, itself) is the prepositional   pronoun used to refer back to th...
REFLEXIVESReflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se). In a reflexive    construction, the sub...
Portal                                      ParaposeExpressing movement along, through,         Expressing purpose.around,...
TO BECOME  Spanish has several verbs and phrases that mean to become. Many of these                   constructions make u...
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Grammar book on roids

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Grammar book on roids

  1. 1. LIBRO DE GRAMÁTICA Por Taloradora
  2. 2. 1. Pagina Titulada 9. Subjunctive in Adj Clause2. Indice de Materiales 10. Commands3. Presente (-AR; -ER; -IR) 11. Object Pronouns4. Ser y Estar 12. Possessive Adj & Pronouns5. Verbos Como Gustar 13. Demonstrative Adj & Pronouns6. Nouns/ Articles/ Adjs 14. Reflexives7. Preterite vs Imperfect 15. Por y Para8. Subj. in Noun Clause 16. To Become
  3. 3. EL PRESENTEPresent Tense is used to express habitual actions that will takeplace in the near future. -AR -ER/IR -o -amos -o -emos/ imos Examples: -as Bailar -es Tú bailes bien. -a -an -e -en (You dance well.) Comer SUBJECT PRONOUNS Yo como muchos tacos. Yo (I) Nosotros/as (I eat many tacos.) (We) Salir Tú Nosotros salimos de la (You- informal) escuela. El/Ella/Usted Ellos/Ellas/ (We leave the school.) (He/She/You- Ustedes formal) (They, You all)
  4. 4. EL PRESENTE: LOS VERBOS CON CAMBIOS DE RAÍZ (o-ue) (e-i) Puedo Podemos Pido Pedimos Puedes PidesPoder Pedir Puede Pueden Pide Piden (e-ie) Jugar has a u-ue stem Pienso Pensamos change in all but the nosotros form; incluir and PiensasPensar destruir have an i-y stem Piensa Piensan change in all but the 4 nosotros form.
  5. 5. EL PRESENTE : “YO” IRREGULARVerbs with –go in the yo form Tener Oir Hacer Tengo Tenemos Oigo Oimos Hago Hacemos Tienes Oyes Haces Tiene Tienen Oye Oyen Hace HacenOther verbs with an irregular yo form Proteger (e-ie) Conocer (c-zc) Protejo Protegemos Conozco Conocemos Proteges Conoces Proteje Protegen Conoce Conocen Ir Ser Estar Dar Voy Vamos Soy Somos Estoy Estamos Doy Damos Vas Eres Estas Das Va Van Es Son Está Están Da Dan
  6. 6. Time: Hour, day, and date. Geographic or Physical Location¿Qué hora es? ¿Dónde estás?Possesion State or ConditionEs de Pepe ¿Cómo estás tú?Origin Many Idiomatic ExpressionsSoy de America. estar de acuerdo.Occupation Progressive TensesSoy maestra. Estoy comiendo galletas.NationalitySoy americana. Although both verbsPolitical/ Religious AffiliationSomos católicos. Mean “to be”,Where an event is taking place ESTAR is temporary.Es en la plaza. SER is permanent.Essential Qualities For conjugation, look at slide #5.Eres muy bonita, Sra. Linares. 6
  7. 7. SER Y ESTAR: CON ADJECTIVOSSer and estar both mean “to be”, but the context theyare used in can mean two very different things. POR EJEMPLO As you can see, the sentenceSERTaloradora es muy using SER implies thatsimpatica Taloradora generally always(Taloradora is very has a nice personality. Thenice.) sentence using ESTARESTAR implies that Taloradora isTaloradora esta muy only being nice today, whichsimpatica hoy. is temporary and not a general personality trait.(Taloradora is very
  8. 8. L O S V E R B O S C O M O G U S TA R “Gustar” is unique because it’s only conjugated two ways:“Gusta” and “Gustan”. Which form of gustar used depends on whether the direct object is singular or plural. Gustar To like Molestar To be a bother Examples: Gustar Fascinar To be fascinating to Me gustan los flores. Aburrir To bore (I like the flowers.) Importar To be important to Encantar Te encanta comprar. Interesar To be interesting to (You love to shop.) Disgustar To hate something Doler Doler (e-ue) To be painful Nos duelen los pies. (We hurt our feet.) Encantar To “love” something Me duele la mano. Quedar To remain (I hurt my hand.) Verbs similar to gustar are conjugated the same way.
  9. 9. SUSTANTIVOS Y ARTICULOS In Spanish, nouns normally come in either a “masculine” form or a “feminine” form. Words ending in –o, -or-, -l, -s, and –ma are usually masculine. Words ending in –a, -ora, -ión, -d, and –z are usually feminine. Masculine nouns are preceded by the Por Ejemplo: definite article “el” or the indefinite article Masculine: El amigo, el escritor, el papel, el paraguas, el tema “un”. Feminine nouns are preceded by the Feminine: La amiga, la escritora, la ilusión, definite article “la” or the indefinite article la amistad, la paz “una”. Plural nouns are typically formed by adding –s to nouns ending in a vowel and –es to nouns ending in a consonant. Nouns that end in –z change to –c before adding –es. If a singular noun ends in a stressed vowel, the plural form ends in –es. If thelast syllable of a singular noum ending in –s is unstressed, the plural form does not change. Por Ejemplo: -s, -es, and –ces Por Ejemplo: stressed & unstressed El hombre – Los hombres El tabú – Los tabúes La novia – Las novias El israelí – Los israelíes La mujer – Las mujeres El lunes – Los lunes El lápiz – Los lápices La crisis – Las crisis
  10. 10. ADJECTIVOSSpanish adjectives, or adjetivos, agree in gender and number with the nouns theymodify. Most adjectives ending in –e or a consonant have the same masculine and feminine forms. Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular PluralMasculine Rojo Rojos Inteligente Inteligentes Difícil DificílesFeminine Roja Rojas Inteligente Inteligentes Difícil DificílesDescriptive adjectives typically follow their nouns. If one adjective modifies morethan one noun, the plural form is used. If one of the nouns is masculine, then the adjective is masculine. Some adjectives have shortened forms when they come before a masculine singular noun. Por Ejemplo: Un libro apasionante Las parejas contentas A great book The happy couples Un suegro y una suegra maravillosos La literatura y la culturas ecuatorianas A wonderful mother- and father- in law Ecuadorian literature and culture Some adjectives change their meaning depending on their position. When the adjective comes before, the meaning is more figurative whereas when the adjective comes after the noun the meaning is more literal.
  11. 11. Preterite is used for actions that were Imperfect is used for actions that were completed in the past. The endings for repeated habitually or to “set the stage”preterite are conjugated by being affixed for another action. Also, it is used for to the end of the infinitives. telling time and stating one‟s age. -ar -er/ir -ar -er/ir -é -amos -í -imos -aba -abamos -ía -íamos -aste -iste -abas -ías -ó -aron -ío -ieron -aba -aban -ía -íanExamples: Ir Ser VerBailar Trigger Words: Iba Ibamos Era Eramos Veía VeíamosTú bailaste bien. Ayer Ibas Eras Veías(You danced well.) Anoche Iba iban Era Eran Veía VeíanComer Anteayer Trigger Words:Yo comé muchos tacos. La semana Siempre(I ate many tacos.) pasado A VecesSalir A MenudoNosotros salimos de la escuela. Cadadia(We left the school.) Todos los dias 11
  12. 12. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVEPresent Subjunctive is different from normal Spanish conjugations because itis a mood instead of a tense. Rather than telling when an action took place, mood reveals how the speaker feels about the action. Subjunctive shows attitudes; it‟s uncertain and hypothetical. -ER/IR IRREGULARS Dar Dé ishing/wanting -a -amos motions -as Estar Esté oubt -a -an Ir Vaya isbelief -AR Saber Sepa mpersonal Expressions -e -emos -es Haber Hava egation -e -en Ser Sea od/grief
  13. 13. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE EXPRESSIONS OF VERBS OF WILL & EXPRESSIONS OF D O U B T, D I S B E L I E F, A N D INFLUENCE EMOTION DENIALSugerir (e-ie) To suggest Alegrarse (de) To be happy Dudar To doubtAconsejar To advise Esperar To hope, to Negar To deny wishImportar To be Sentir (e-ie) To be sorry, to Es imposible It‟s impossible important, to regret matterInsistir (en) To insisit (on) Sorprender To surprise Es improbable It‟s improbableMandar To order Temer To be afraid, No es cierto It‟s not true, to fear it‟s not certainProhibir To prohibit Es triste It‟s sad No es seguro It‟s not certainRecomendar To Ojála que I hope that/ I No es verdad It‟s not true recommend wish thatRogar (o-ue) To beg, to ----- ----- ----- ----- plead
  14. 14. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE: NOUN CLAUSE The subjunctive is used mainly in multiple clause sentences which express will, influence, emotion, doubt, or denial. The present subjunctive is formed by dropping the –o from the yo form of the present indicative and adding the subjunctive endings. Verbs with irregular yo from show the same irregularity throughout the forms of the present subjunctive. Verb Conjugation Verb Conjugation Conocer Conozca Tener Tenga Decir Diga Ver Vea Hacer Haga Traer Traiga Por Ejemplo Martina quiere que grabemos este anuncio para el viernes. Martina wants us to record this ad by Friday. Es necesario que lluegen al estreno antes de la una. It’s necessary that they arrive at the premiere before one o’clock. Prefiero que vayas en marzo. I prefer that you go in March. El agobiado recomienda que lea el contrato antes de firmar. The lawyer recommends that I read the contract before signing.
  15. 15. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE: ADJECTIVE CLAUSE When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something (theantecedent) that is known to exist, the indicative is used. When the antecedent is uncertain or indefinite, the subjunctive is used.Main Clause Connector Subordinate clauseBusco un trabajo Que Pague bien Antecedent certain: Indicative Antecedent uncertain: SubjunctiveNecesito el libro que tiene una foto Necesito un libro que tenga una de un chico Mexicano. foto de un chico Mexicano.When the antecedent of an adjective clause is a negative pronoun (como nadie o ninguno/a), the subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause. Antecedent certain: Indicative Antecedent uncertain: Subjunctive Elena tiene tres parientes que Elena no tiene ningún pariente viven en Los Estados Unidos. que viva el Limón.
  16. 16. COMMANDS AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVETÚ TÚDrop the s. Put in yo form and change to opp vowel,Irregulars: di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ten, add S. Irregulars: TVDISHESvenUSTED/ USTEDES USTED/ USTEDESPut in yo form and change to opposite Same as affirmative.vowel. Irregulars: TVDISHESIrregulars: TVDISHES DOP + IOP + „se‟ can attach to DOP + IOP + „se‟ must go before infinitive negative command. MONO VERBS Sentémosnos.  Sentémonos! Vayamos  Vamonos
  17. 17. O B J E C T P RO N O U N S : I N D I R E C T & D I R E C T Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. Direct object pronouns directly receive the action of the verb, while indirect object pronouns indirectly receive the action of the verb. They tell either to whom or for whom. Direct Indirect Me Nos Me Nos Te Te Lo/la Los/las Le Les Indirect and direct object pronouns precede the conjugated verb. Carla siempre me da boletos para el cine. Carla always gives me movie tickets. Ella los consigue gratis. She gets them for free. When the verb is an infinitive construction, object pronouns may either be attached to the infinitive or placed before the conjugated verb. Indirect: Debes pedirle el dinero de la apuesta/ le debes pedir el dinero de la apuesta Direct: Voy a hacerlo enseguida/ Lo voy a hacer enseguida
  18. 18. O B J E C T P RO N O U N S : C O N T I N U E D Lo is also used to refer to an abstract thing or idea that has no gender. Lo pensé (I thought about it) When the verb is in the progressive, object pronouns may be either attached to the present participle or placed before the conjugated verb. Comelo or lo come (eat it) Double object pronounsThe indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence. Me los mandaron por correo. (Quack.) Le and les change to se when they are used with lo, la, los, or las Se lo da. (Give it to them.)When object pronouns are attached to infinitives, participles, or commands, a written accent is often required to maintain proper word stress.
  19. 19. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES & PRONOUNS Adjectives in the possessive form are used to express ownership. Spanish has twotypes of possessive adjectives: the stressed (short) forms and the unstresssed (long) forms. Both forms agree in gender and number with the object. Stressed Form Unstressed Form Mi (s) My Mío (s) My/ (of) Mine Tu (s) Your Tuyo/a (s) Your/ (of) Yours Su (s) His, Hers, Its Suyo/a (s) Your (of yours)/ His/ (Of) His.. etc Nuestro/a (s) Our Nuestro/a (s) Our/ (of) ours Su (s) Your/ Their Suyo/a (s) Your/ (of) yours Short possessive adjectives precede the nouns they modify. En mi opimiom. Esa telenovela es pesima. In my opinion, that soap opera is awful. Nuestras revistas favoritas son Money y Music. Our favorite magazines are Money and Music.
  20. 20. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES & PRONOUNS CONTINUED Stressed possessive adjectives follow the nouns they modify. They are used for emphasis or to express the phrases “of mine”, “of yours”, etc. The nouns are usually preceded by a definite or indefinite article. Tus amigas  Las amigas tuyas. Because sus and suyo/as have multiple meanings, the construction [article] + [noun] + [de] + [subject pronoun] can be used to clarify. Su casa/ la casa suya  La casa de el/ella/usted/ustedesPossessive pronouns have the same forms as stressed possessive adjectives and are preceded by a definite article. Possessive pronouns agree in gender and number with the nouns they replace. No encuentro mi libro. Si la amiga suya no llegada, la nuestra iría.
  21. 21. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS Demonstrative adjectives specify to which noun a speaker is referring. They precede the nouns they modify and agree in gender and number. Singular Plural Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Este Esta Estos Estas Ese Esa Esos Esas Aquel Aquella Aquellos AquellasDemonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, except that they contain an accent mark on the stressed vowel. They also agree in gender and number with the nouns they replace. No quiero esté. Quiero esé. No leí éstas, pero sí leí aquéllas. There are three neutral demonstrative pronouns: esto, eso, and aquello. These forms refer to unspecified things or ideas. They do not vary in gender or number nor do they carry an accent. Eso es interesante.
  22. 22. PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNSPrepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions. Except for mi, ti, and si, they are identical to their corresponding subject pronouns. Lo compramos para él. Mí Me, myself Tú You, yourself Usted You, yourself El Him, it Ella Her, it Sí Himself, Herself, Itself Nosotros/as Us, ourselves Ustedes You, yourselves Ellos/ Ellas Them Sí Themselves [ A + prepositional pronoun ] is often used for clarity or emphasis.
  23. 23. PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNS #2The pronoun sí (himself, herself, itself) is the prepositional pronoun used to refer back to the same third-personsubject. When mi, ti, and si are used with con, they become conmigo, contigo, and consigo Quieres ir conmigo al museo? These prepositions are used with tú and yo instead of mi and ti: entre, incluso, excepto, menos, salvo, según.
  24. 24. REFLEXIVESReflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se). In a reflexive construction, the subject of the verb both performs and receives the action. Elena se lava la cara. Lavarse (to wash oneself) Yo Me lavo Tú Te lavas Ud./él/ella Se lava Nosotros/as Nos lavamos Uds./ellos/ellas Se lavan Many of the verbs used to describe daily routines and personal care are reflexive. Many verbs change meaning when they are used with a reflexive pronoun. Aburrir: To bore Aburrirse: To be bored
  25. 25. Portal ParaposeExpressing movement along, through, Expressing purpose.around, by, or about. ParamedicPorever A time limit.Duration of time Paraguay Destination/movement towards a place.PorposeReason/motive for an action. Para-cel Addressee/recipient of action.Import/Export Com-para-sonAn exchange. A comparison.PortugalMotion or general location.I‟m por, pay for me!Doing something in place of someone else. 25
  26. 26. TO BECOME Spanish has several verbs and phrases that mean to become. Many of these constructions make use of reflexive verbs.The construction [ ponerse + adjective ] expresses a change in mental, emotional, or physical state that is generally not long-lasting. No te pongas cansada. The construction [ volverse + adjective } expresses a radical mental or psychological change. It often conveys a gradual or irreversible change in character. In English this is often expressed as to have become + adjective. Te has vuelto loca.Hacerse can be followed by a noun or an adjective. It often implies a change that results from the subject‟s own efforts, such as changes in possession. Le yerno de Lidia se ha hecho agobiado.Llegar a ser can also be followed by a noun or an adjective. It indicates a change over time and does not imply the subject‟s voluntary effort. La novela que escribio ha llegado a ser un superventas.

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