LIBRO DE GRAMÁTICA      Por Taloradora
9. Subjunctive in Adj Clause1. Pagina Titulada                              10. Commands2. Indice de Materiales       11. ...
EL PRESENTEPresent Tense is used to express habitual actions that will takeplace in the near future.   -AR               -...
EL PRESENTE: LOS VERBOS                  CON CAMBIOS DE RAÍZ                   (o-                              (e-i)     ...
EL PRESENTE: “YO” IRREGULARVerbs with –go in the yo form            Tener                                     Oir         ...
Time: Hour, day, and date.         Geographic or Physical¿Qué hora es?                      LocationPossesion             ...
SER Y ESTAR: CON ADJECTIVOSSer and estar both mean “to be”, but the context they areused in can mean two very different th...
LOS VERBOS COMO GUSTAR  “Gustar” is unique because it’s only conjugated two  ways: “Gusta” and “Gustan”. Which form of gus...
SUSTANTIVOS Y ARTICULOS  In Spanish, nouns normally come in either a “masculine” form or a “feminine”form. Words ending in...
ADJECTIVOSSpanish adjectives, or adjetivos, agree in gender and number with the nouns theymodify. Most adjectives ending i...
Preterite is used for actions that were        Imperfect is used for actions that were completed in the past. The endings ...
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVEPresent Subjunctive is different from normal Spanish conjugations because it is a mood instead of a ten...
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE        VERBS OF WILL &                                                  EXPRESSIONS OF DOUBT,         ...
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE: NOUN CLAUSE The subjunctive is used mainly in multiple clause sentences which expresswill, influence,...
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE: ADJECTIVE                CLAUSE      When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something (t...
COMMANDS             AFFIRMATIVE                                    NEGATIVETÚ                                            ...
OBJECT PRONOUNS: INDIRECT & DIRECTPronouns are words that take the place of nouns. Direct object pronouns directly receive...
OBJECT PRONOUNS: CONTINUED       Lo is also used to refer to an abstract thing or idea that has no gender.                ...
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES &                             PRONOUNS Adjectives in the possessive form are used to express ownersh...
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES &                 PRONOUNS CONTINUED  Stressed possessive adjectives follow the nouns they modify. T...
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES                 AND PRONOUNS   Demonstrative adjectives specify to which noun a speaker is referr...
PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNSPrepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions. Except for mi, ti,       and si, the...
PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNS #2The pronoun sí (himself, herself, itself) is the prepositional   pronoun used to refer back to th...
REFLEXIVESReflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se). In a reflexive    construction, the sub...
Portal                                      ParaposeExpressing movement along, through,         Expressing purpose.around,...
TO BECOME  Spanish has several verbs and phrases that mean to become. Many of these                    constructions make ...
EL FUTURO El futuro is used to explain what someone will do in the future. To conjugate, youjust keep it in the infinitive...
EL CONDICIONAL El Condicional is used to express probability, conjecture, possibility, orwonder. It’s what someone WOULD o...
EL PRESENTE PERFECTOPresent perfect is used to express past actions that continue into the present or  continue to affect ...
PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS      Pronombres relativos refer to an already-stated noun. There are six:                            ...
NEUTER LO“Lo” is a neuter article. It is used in front of an adjective to express something                            tha...
Asking for Directions                   Normally used before terms of ser when                                        not ...
EL SUBJUNCTIVO: ADVERB CLAUSES It is conjugated exactly the same as noun and adverbial clauses. It’s a dependentclause tha...
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Grammar Book 3

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Grammar Book 3

  1. 1. LIBRO DE GRAMÁTICA Por Taloradora
  2. 2. 9. Subjunctive in Adj Clause1. Pagina Titulada 10. Commands2. Indice de Materiales 11. Object Pronouns 12. Possessive Adj & Pronouns3. Presente (-AR; -ER; -IR) 13. Demonstrative Adj & Pronouns 14. Reflexives4. Ser y Estar 15. Por y Para5. Verbos Como Gustar 16.To Become 17.Future6. Nouns/ Articles/ Adjs 18.Conditional 19.Present perfect7. Preterite vs Imperfect 20.Relative pronouns8. Subj. in Noun Clause 21.Neuter lo 22.Que vs. cual 23.Subjunctive in Adv Clause
  3. 3. EL PRESENTEPresent Tense is used to express habitual actions that will takeplace in the near future. -AR -ER/IR -o -amos -o - emos/ Examples: -as imos Bailar -es Tú bailes bien. -a -an (You dance well.) -e -en ComerSUBJECT PRONOUNS Yo como muchos tacos. Yo (I) Nosotros/ (I eat many tacos.) as (We) Salir Nosotros salimos de la Tú escuela. (You- informal) (We leave the school.) El/Ella/Uste Ellos/Ella d s/ (He/She/Yo Ustedes
  4. 4. EL PRESENTE: LOS VERBOS CON CAMBIOS DE RAÍZ (o- (e-i) Puedo ue) Podemos Pido Pedimos Puedes PidesPoder Pedir Puede Pueden Pide Piden (e- Jugar has a u-ue stem Pienso ie) Pensamos change in all but the nosotros form; incluir andPensar Piensas destruir have an i-y stem Piensa Piensan change in all but the nosotros form. 4
  5. 5. EL PRESENTE: “YO” IRREGULARVerbs with –go in the yo form Tener Oir Hacer Tengo Tenemos Oigo Oimos Hago Hacemos Tienes Oyes Haces Tiene Tienen Oye Oyen Hace HacenOther verbs with an irregular yo form Proteger (e-ie) Conocer (c-zc) Protejo Protegemos Conozco Conocemos Proteges Conoces Proteje Protegen Conoce Conocen Ir Ser Estar Dar Voy Vamos Soy Somos Estoy Estamos Doy Damos Vas Eres Estas Das Va Van Es Son Está Están Da Dan
  6. 6. Time: Hour, day, and date. Geographic or Physical¿Qué hora es? LocationPossesion ¿Dónde estás? State or ConditionEs de Pepe ¿Cómo estás tú?Origin Many Idiomatic ExpressionsSoy de America. estar de acuerdo.Occupation Progressive TensesSoy maestra. Estoy comiendo galletas.NationalitySoy americana. Although both verbsPolitical/ Religious AffiliationSomos católicos. Mean “to be”,Where an event is taking place ESTAR is temporary.Es en la plaza.Essential Qualities SER is permanent. For conjugation, look at slide #5.Eres muy bonita, Sra. Linares. 6
  7. 7. SER Y ESTAR: CON ADJECTIVOSSer and estar both mean “to be”, but the context they areused in can mean two very different things. POR EJEMPLO As you can see, the sentenceSER using SER implies thatTaloradora es muy Taloradora generally alwayssimpatica has a nice personality. The(Taloradora is very nice.) sentence using ESTARESTAR implies that Taloradora isTaloradora esta muy only being nice today, which issimpatica hoy. temporary and not a general(Taloradora is very nice personality trait.today.)
  8. 8. LOS VERBOS COMO GUSTAR “Gustar” is unique because it’s only conjugated two ways: “Gusta” and “Gustan”. Which form of gustarused depends on whether the direct object is singular or plural. Gustar To like Molestar To be a bother Examples: Gustar Fascinar To be fascinating to Me gustan los flores. Aburrir To bore (I like the flowers.) Importar To be important to Encantar Te encanta comprar. Interesar To be interesting to (You love to shop.) Disgustar To hate something Doler Doler (e-ue) To be painful Nos duelen los pies. (We hurt our feet.) Encantar To “love” something Me duele la mano. Quedar To remain (I hurt my hand.) Verbs similar to gustar are conjugated the same way.
  9. 9. SUSTANTIVOS Y ARTICULOS In Spanish, nouns normally come in either a “masculine” form or a “feminine”form. Words ending in –o, -or-, -l, -s, and –ma are usually masculine. Words ending in –a, -ora, -ión, -d, and –z are usually feminine. Masculine nouns are preceded by the Por Ejemplo: definite article “el” or the indefinite article Masculine: El amigo, el escritor, el papel, el paraguas, el tema “un”. Feminine nouns are preceded by the Feminine: La amiga, la escritora, la ilusión, definite article “la” or the indefinite article la amistad, la paz “una”.Plural nouns are typically formed by adding –s to nouns ending in a vowel and –es to nouns ending in a consonant. Nouns that end in –z change to –c before adding –es. If a singular noun ends in a stressed vowel, the plural form ends in –es. If thelast syllable of a singular noum ending in –s is unstressed, the plural form does not change. Por Ejemplo: -s, -es, and –ces Por Ejemplo: stressed & unstressed El hombre – Los hombres El tabú – Los tabúes La novia – Las novias El israelí – Los israelíes La mujer – Las mujeres El lunes – Los lunes El lápiz – Los lápices La crisis – Las crisis
  10. 10. ADJECTIVOSSpanish adjectives, or adjetivos, agree in gender and number with the nouns theymodify. Most adjectives ending in –e or a consonant have the same masculine and feminine forms. Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular PluralMasculine Rojo Rojos Inteligente Inteligentes Difícil DificílesFeminine Roja Rojas Inteligente Inteligentes Difícil DificílesDescriptive adjectives typically follow their nouns. If one adjective modifies morethan one noun, the plural form is used. If one of the nouns is masculine, then the adjective is masculine. Some adjectives have shortened forms when they come before a masculine singular noun. Por Ejemplo: Un libro apasionante Las parejas contentas A great book The happy couples Un suegro y una suegra maravillosos La literatura y la culturas ecuatorianas A wonderful mother- and father- in law Ecuadorian literature and culture Some adjectives change their meaning depending on their position. When the adjective comes before, the meaning is more figurative whereas when the adjective comes after the noun the meaning is more literal.
  11. 11. Preterite is used for actions that were Imperfect is used for actions that were completed in the past. The endings for repeated habitually or to “set the stage”preterite are conjugated by being affixed for another action. Also, it is used for to the end of the infinitives. telling time and stating one’s age. -ar -er/ir -ar -er/ir -é -amos -í -imos -aba -abamos -ía -íamos -aste -iste -abas -ías -ó -aron -ío -ieron -aba -aban -ía -íanExamples: Ir Ser Ver Iba Ibamos Era Eramo Veía VeíamBailar Trigger Words: s os IbasTú bailaste bien. Ayer Eras Veías Iba iban(You danced well.) Anoche Era Eran Veía VeíanComer Anteayer Trigger Words:Yo comé muchos tacos. La semana Siempre(I ate many tacos.) pasado A VecesSalir A MenudoNosotros salimos de la escuela. Cadadia(We left the school.) Todos los dias 11
  12. 12. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVEPresent Subjunctive is different from normal Spanish conjugations because it is a mood instead of a tense. Rather than telling when an action took place, mood reveals how the speaker feels about the action. Subjunctive shows attitudes; it’s uncertain and hypothetical. -ER/IR IRREGULAR S Dar Dé -a -amos -as Estar Esté -a -an Ir Vaya -AR Saber Sepa -e -emos -es Haber Hava -e -en Ser Sea
  13. 13. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE VERBS OF WILL & EXPRESSIONS OF DOUBT, INFLUENCE EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION DISBELIEF, AND DENIALSugerir (e-ie) To suggest Alegrarse (de) To be happy Dudar To doubtAconsejar To advise Esperar To hope, to Negar To deny wishImportar To be Sentir (e-ie) To be sorry, to Es imposible It’s impossible important, to regret matterInsistir (en) To insisit (on) Sorprender To surprise Es improbable It’s improbableMandar To order Temer To be afraid, No es cierto It’s not true, to fear it’s not certainProhibir To prohibit Es triste It’s sad No es seguro It’s not certainRecomendar To Ojála que I hope that/ I No es verdad It’s not true recommend wish thatRogar (o-ue) To beg, to ----- ----- ----- ----- plead
  14. 14. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE: NOUN CLAUSE The subjunctive is used mainly in multiple clause sentences which expresswill, influence, emotion, doubt, or denial. The present subjunctive is formedby dropping the –o from the yo form of the present indicative and adding the subjunctive endings.Verbs with irregular yo from show the same irregularity throughout the forms of the present subjunctive. Verb Conjugation Verb Conjugation Conocer Conozca Tener Tenga Decir Diga Ver Vea Hacer Haga Traer Traiga Por Ejemplo Martina quiere que grabemos este anuncio para el viernes. Martina wants us to record this ad by Friday. Es necesario que lluegen al estreno antes de la una. It’s necessary that they arrive at the premiere before one o’clock. Prefiero que vayas en marzo. I prefer that you go in March. El agobiado recomienda que lea el contrato antes de firmar. The lawyer recommends that I read the contract before signing.
  15. 15. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE: ADJECTIVE CLAUSE When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something (the antecedent) that is known to exist, the indicative is used. When the antecedent is uncertain or indefinite, the subjunctive is used.Main Clause Connector Subordinate clauseBusco un trabajo Que Pague bien Antecedent certain: Indicative Antecedent uncertain: SubjunctiveNecesito el libro que tiene una foto Necesito un libro que tenga una de un chico Mexicano. foto de un chico Mexicano. When the antecedent of an adjective clause is a negative pronoun (como nadie o ninguno/a), the subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause. Antecedent certain: Indicative Antecedent uncertain: Subjunctive Elena tiene tres parientes que Elena no tiene ningún pariente que viven en Los Estados Unidos. viva el Limón.
  16. 16. COMMANDS AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVETÚ TÚDrop the s. Put in yo form and change to opp vowel,Irregulars: di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ten, add S. Irregulars: TVDISHESvenUSTED/ USTEDES USTED/ USTEDESPut in yo form and change to opposite Same as affirmative.vowel. Irregulars: TVDISHESIrregulars: TVDISHES DOP + IOP + ‘se’ can attach to DOP + IOP + ‘se’ must go before infinitive negative command. MONO VERBS Sentémosnos.  Sentémonos! Vayamos  Vamonos
  17. 17. OBJECT PRONOUNS: INDIRECT & DIRECTPronouns are words that take the place of nouns. Direct object pronouns directly receivethe action of the verb, while indirect object pronouns indirectly receive the action of the verb. They tell either to whom or for whom. Direct Indirect Me Nos Me Nos Te Te Lo/la Los/las Le Les Indirect and direct object pronouns precede the conjugated verb. Carla siempre me da boletos para el cine. Carla always gives me movie tickets. Ella los consigue gratis. She gets them for free.When the verb is an infinitive construction, object pronouns may either be attached to the infinitive or placed before the conjugated verb. Indirect: Debes pedirle el dinero de la apuesta/ le debes pedir el dinero de la apuesta Direct: Voy a hacerlo enseguida/ Lo voy a hacer enseguida
  18. 18. OBJECT PRONOUNS: CONTINUED Lo is also used to refer to an abstract thing or idea that has no gender. Lo pensé (I thought about it) When the verb is in the progressive, object pronouns may be either attached to the present participle or placed before the conjugated verb. Comelo or lo come (eat it) Double object pronounsThe indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence. Me los mandaron por correo. (Quack.) Le and les change to se when they are used with lo, la, los, or las Se lo da. (Give it to them.)When object pronouns are attached to infinitives, participles, or commands, a written accent is often required to maintain proper word stress.
  19. 19. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES & PRONOUNS Adjectives in the possessive form are used to express ownership. Spanish has twotypes of possessive adjectives: the stressed (short) forms and the unstresssed (long) forms. Both forms agree in gender and number with the object. Stressed Form Unstressed Form Mi (s) My Mío (s) My/ (of) Mine Tu (s) Your Tuyo/a (s) Your/ (of) Yours Su (s) His, Hers, Its Suyo/a (s) Your (of yours)/ His/ (Of) His.. etc Nuestro/a (s) Our Nuestro/a (s) Our/ (of) ours Su (s) Your/ Their Suyo/a (s) Your/ (of) yours Short possessive adjectives precede the nouns they modify. En mi opimiom. Esa telenovela es pesima. In my opinion, that soap opera is awful. Nuestras revistas favoritas son Money y Music. Our favorite magazines are Money and Music.
  20. 20. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES & PRONOUNS CONTINUED Stressed possessive adjectives follow the nouns they modify. They are used for emphasis or to express the phrases “of mine”, “of yours”, etc. The nouns are usually preceded by a definite or indefinite article. Tus amigas  Las amigas tuyas. Because sus and suyo/as have multiple meanings, the construction [article] + [noun] + [de] + [subject pronoun] can be used to clarify. Su casa/ la casa suya  La casa de el/ella/usted/ustedesPossessive pronouns have the same forms as stressed possessive adjectives and are preceded by a definite article. Possessive pronouns agree in gender and number with the nouns they replace. No encuentro mi libro. Si la amiga suya no llegada, la nuestra iría.
  21. 21. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS Demonstrative adjectives specify to which noun a speaker is referring. They precede the nouns they modify and agree in gender and number. Singular Plural Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Este Esta Estos Estas Ese Esa Esos Esas Aquel Aquella Aquellos AquellasDemonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, except that they contain an accent mark on the stressed vowel. They also agree in gender and number with the nouns they replace. No quiero esté. Quiero esé. No leí éstas, pero sí leí aquéllas. There are three neutral demonstrative pronouns: esto, eso, and aquello. These forms refer to unspecified things or ideas. They do not vary in gender or number nor do they carry an accent. Eso es interesante.
  22. 22. PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNSPrepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions. Except for mi, ti, and si, they are identical to their corresponding subject pronouns. Lo compramos para él. Mí Me, myself Tú You, yourself Usted You, yourself El Him, it Ella Her, it Sí Himself, Herself, Itself Nosotros/as Us, ourselves Ustedes You, yourselves Ellos/ Ellas Them Sí Themselves [ A + prepositional pronoun ] is often used for clarity or emphasis.
  23. 23. PREPOSITIONAL PRONOUNS #2The pronoun sí (himself, herself, itself) is the prepositional pronoun used to refer back to the same third-personsubject. When mi, ti, and si are used with con, they become conmigo, contigo, and consigo Quieres ir conmigo al museo? These prepositions are used with tú and yo instead of mi and ti: entre, incluso, excepto, menos, salvo, según.
  24. 24. REFLEXIVESReflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se). In a reflexive construction, the subject of the verb both performs and receives the action. Elena se lava la cara. Lavarse (to wash oneself) Yo Me lavo Tú Te lavas Ud./él/ella Se lava Nosotros/as Nos lavamos Uds./ellos/ellas Se lavan Many of the verbs used to describe daily routines and personal care are reflexive. Many verbs change meaning when they are used with a reflexive pronoun. Aburrir: To bore Aburrirse: To be bored
  25. 25. Portal ParaposeExpressing movement along, through, Expressing purpose.around, by, or about. ParamedicPorever A time limit.Duration of time Paraguay Destination/movement towards a place.PorposeReason/motive for an action. Para-cel Addressee/recipient of action.Import/Export Com-para-sonAn exchange. A comparison.PortugalMotion or general location.I’m por, pay for me!Doing something in place of someone else. 25
  26. 26. TO BECOME Spanish has several verbs and phrases that mean to become. Many of these constructions make use of reflexive verbs.The construction [ ponerse + adjective ] expresses a change in mental, emotional, or physical state that is generally not long-lasting. No te pongas cansada. The construction [ volverse + adjective } expresses a radical mental or psychological change. It often conveys a gradual or irreversible change in character. In English this is often expressed as to have become + adjective. Te has vuelto loca.Hacerse can be followed by a noun or an adjective. It often implies a change that results from the subject’s own efforts, such as changes in possession. Le yerno de Lidia se ha hecho agobiado.Llegar a ser can also be followed by a noun or an adjective. It indicates a change over time and does not imply the subject’s voluntary effort. La novela que escribio ha llegado a ser un superventas.
  27. 27. EL FUTURO El futuro is used to explain what someone will do in the future. To conjugate, youjust keep it in the infinitive and attach the ending to the end. All Spanish verbs use the same ending: IRREGULAR -e -emos S Decir Dir- -as -a -an Hacer Har- Salir- Saldr- Examples: Saber Sabr- Gustar Querer Querr- Me gustare los flores. (I will like the Tener Tendr- flowers.) Encantara Te encantaras comprar. (You will love to
  28. 28. EL CONDICIONAL El Condicional is used to express probability, conjecture, possibility, orwonder. It’s what someone WOULD or MIGHT do. It’s conjugated like thefuture tense by simply affixing an ending to the infinitive. Conditional and future share all the same irregulars. -ia -iamos -ias -ia -ian Examples: Gustar Me gustaria los flores. (I would like the flowers.) Encantara Te encantarias comprar. (You would love to
  29. 29. EL PRESENTE PERFECTOPresent perfect is used to express past actions that continue into the present or continue to affect the person in the present. It explains what someone has done. The object pronoun is placed before the auxiliary verb. IRREGULAR Auxiliary S Verbs -Hemos Decir Dicho -He -Has Hacer Hecho -Ha -Han Abrir Abierto Poner Puesto Romper Roto Ir Ido
  30. 30. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS Pronombres relativos refer to an already-stated noun. There are six: Que: “That” El Que Lo Que Cuyo Quien: “Who” El CualQue vs. Quien: Que means that and quien means who. Quien refers ONLY to people. It must also agree in number, so if it’s plural it will be written as “quienes”.El Que, El Cual y Lo Que: El Que means ”the one that/ who”. It must agree in gender and number. (los que, la que, las que). El Cual is the more formalform of el que. Lo que means “That which” and “that what” and refers to an abstract idea, rather than someone or something specific, like above. Cuyo: means “Whose” and must agree in gender and number (cuyos cuya, cuyas). It depends on what is being owned.
  31. 31. NEUTER LO“Lo” is a neuter article. It is used in front of an adjective to express something that is abstract or a quality. COMMON EXPRESSIONS Lo facil The easy part Lo bueno The good thing Lo bello What’s beautiful Lo justo What’s fair Lo mejor The best part
  32. 32. Asking for Directions Normally used before terms of ser when not asking for a definition.Normally used before nouns Suggesting a selection or choice from a groupUsed in idioms. Both mean “what” or “which” but have different uses.
  33. 33. EL SUBJUNCTIVO: ADVERB CLAUSES It is conjugated exactly the same as noun and adverbial clauses. It’s a dependentclause that modifies the verb in the independent clause- the verb is hypothetical or anticipated. Por Ejemplo Voy a esperar hasta que vuelvas. PAST/ IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVEIt follows the same rules as present subjunctive, but expresses in the past. The verb in the independent clause will be in either imperfect or preterite tense. -ra –ramos -ras –rais -ra –ran

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