A study was conducted on crop production in Indira Gandhi Cannal Command with special reference to water management at Khetawali distributory under the supervision of Dr. NR Kaswan, Head Department of Geography, Dr. BR Ambedkar Govt. Pg College , Shriganganagar by Anita Yadav. The Study period was from year 1994-5 to 2003-04.
We will discus following topics . First we will look into the reason s of this study, then its objectives, The methodology adopted in this study. The cropping patterns and yield trends study Discuss the relative water supply situation in the study area. Constraints faces by the farmers related to crop producation. We will discuss the results of the study. Last but not the least we will discuss suggestions for future course.
Introduction of canal irrigation in North West Plain Zone of Rajasthan has changed the socio-economic and environmental conditions. The vast arid desert has converted into a land of greenery and granary. However, this success story was not unblemished for long time. . After 15-20 years of introduction of canal irrigation, the problem of water logging and soil salinization has started in IGNP command. The twin problem of water logging and soil salinization not only adversely affected crop production in canal command but also created environmental problems. On the contrary, water scarcity due to adoption of high water requiring crops was noted in the command.
Following study objectives were identified.
Methodology adopted is discussed here
Primary as well as secondary data was collected for the study.
Area under cultivation during Kharif season for last 10 years show fluctuations. The area under cultivation was minimum 674 ha in year 2002 and maximum3316 ha in year 1998 Fluctuation is mainly related to rain fall in the region.
Area under cultivation during rabi season doesn't show much fluctuation. The maximum area was 2774 ha during 2003-04 and 2865 ha during 2000-01 Area doesn’t depend on rain fall.
Major Kharif crop s were American Cotton, Desi Cotton and Guar. Maximum area under American cotton was 2459 ha in year 1996 and minimum area was 503 ha in 2002. As discussed this has been attributed to low water availability of canal as well as as rain.
Major Area under cultivation for Rabi season was wheat. Mustard was another crop which show increasing trends. Maximum area under wheat was 2845 ha during 1999-2000 and minimum 2133 ha during 2002-03.
Total Compound Growth rate is negative. It is more declining in Kharif season as compared to Rabi season
Only Cluster Bean and Mustard show positive growth rate. Highest declining rate is of Desi Cotton in Kharif and Chickpea in Rabi Season.
Canal water availability was also fluctuating over the study period. In was maximum 268 days in 1998 and minimum in 98 days in 2002
Rain fall was also fluctuating It was maximum 419mm in 1997 and 117 mm in year 2002
Canal water availability during Kharif season was variable during the study period. It was maximum 239624 ha cm in 1998 and minimum 68966 ha cm during 2002
During rabi season also canal water was not constant over the years. It was maximum 249100 ha cmm in 94-95 and minimum 86293 ha cm in year 2000-01
American cotton required maximum water over the period during Kharif seaon. It was 34.84 % of total water required in 1999 and 82.75 % as maximum
In Rabi season wheat required 71.62% to 91.87 % of total water requirement. There is not much variation.
Total relative water supply is below 1 for almost throught out the study period. It is positive and above 1 in Amrapura minor as requirement of water is less in this system.
In Rabi season total water availability is below 1 throughout study period. Which denotes shortage of water. Again in amarpura minor the ratio is positive as less requirement has matched the less availability.
After the discussion the list of tentative constraints was drawn and it was verified with sample data with few farmers. After the sample survey the questions were redesigned for their suitability to answer by the farmers. Following broad constraints were discussed and then verified on the basis of the answer of all 240 farmers. Constraints related to resources Constraints related to technical inputs/awareness Constraints related to policy issues Constraints related to marketing