Anaphylaxis shock

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Anaphylaxis shock

Anaphylaxis shock

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  • 1. Written by student dentist Tal Kaplan
  • 2.  Notion Anaphylaxis shock  Classification's  Types of hypersensitivity reaction's  Etiology  Pathophysiology  Singe’s & Symptom’s  Diagnosis  First aid  Treatment  Prevention
  • 3. The term derived from greek language ana – (without) , phylaxis – (protection). A sudden, severe allergic reaction characterized by a sharp drop in blood pressure, urticaria (skin rash), and breathing difficulties that is caused by exposure to a foreign substance, such as a drug or bee venom, after a preliminary or sensitizing exposure. The reaction may be fatal if emergency treatment is not achieved immediately, treatment including epinephrine injections. Also called anaphylactic shock.
  • 4. By the Type of shock: • Typical • Cardiac • Asthmatic • Cerebral • Abdominal By type of development: • Momentry • Easy • Medium • Grave
  • 5. Mast cell release histamine and other mediators Immediate hypersensitivity Antibodies directed against cell or tissue antigens Antibody- mediated Antibody- antigen complex deposit in blood vessels immune complex diseases Reactions of T lymphocytes T cell-mediated diseases
  • 6. Idiopathic 37% Food 34% Drugs 20% Exercise 7% Latex, hormons, insect bites 2%
  • 7. Pharmlogic agents •Antibiotics (penicillin) •Nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (Asprin) •intravenous (IV) contrast agents Stinging insects •Ants, bees, hornets, wasps, and yellow jackets. Food • Peanuts, seafood, and wheat Latex •Rare •No latex- associated deaths
  • 8.  First exposure  Activation of TH2 cell → Stimulate IgE switiching Allergen TH2 Cell B Cell
  • 9.  First exposure  IgE production IgE secreting B cell IgE
  • 10.  First exposure  IgE bind to mast cell
  • 11.  Second exposure  Recognition Allergen
  • 12.  Second exposure  Activation of mast cell to release histamine and other mediators Mediators Allergen
  • 13. • Typical type: Dizziness weakness fainting rapid, slow, or irregular heart rate low blood pressure Nausea vomitingcramps Itcing swlling around the eyesItching flushinghives swelling
  • 14. • Respiratory type: Difficulty breathing coughing chest tightness wheezing or other sounds increased mucus production throat swelling or itching change in voice or a sensation of choking
  • 15. • Cardiac type: Dizziness weakness fainting rapid, slow, or irregular heart rate low blood pressure
  • 16. • Abdominal type: Nausea vomiting cramps diarrhea
  • 17. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is based upon symptoms that occur suddenly after being exposed to a potential trigger. Usually in dental clinic it will be more hard to get conclusive diagnosis. Differential diagnosis: • severe asthma attack • heart attack • panic attack • food poisoning - Those differential diagnosis are very similar to anaphylaxis shock and a doctor could get a wrong diagnosis due to lack of tools in reach to doctor hand. - An increased amount of tryptase protein can be measured in a blood sample collected during the first three hours after anaphylaxis symptoms have begun. - Tryptase levels are seldom elevated in food-induced anaphylaxis
  • 18. Place patient in horizontal with legs up position. Establish and maintain airway. Give oxygen via nasal airway as needed. Place a tourniquet above the reaction site. Epinephrine at the site of antigen injection. Start IV to rise BP.
  • 19. • Adrenalina sol. – 0.1% 0.5 ml, if patient state doesn't improve in 10-15 min, we Introduce 1.0 ml more of sol. • Suprastine sol. – 2% 1ml. • Prednisolone sol. 30-60 mg (unique dose) or hydrocortisone 75-125 mg. • Caffeine sol. Or cordiamine, or corazoli – 20% 1-2 ml. • In case of bronchospasm: eupheline sol. – 2.4% 5-10 ml or galidore sol. – 2ml (i/m). • To maintain cardiac activity are given cardiac glycosides & diuretics: lazex sol. – 2-4 ml (i/v), Corglicon sol. – 0.06% 0.5-1 ml (i/v). • In case of cardiovascular insufficiency: strophantini sol. 0.05% 0.5-1 ml, mazatoni sol. 0.1% 1m • Ionic sol. of NaCl 0.9% 400 ml or glucose sol. 5-10% 400 ml, in perfusion introduced dopamin sol. 200 gr or noradrenaline 0.1% 1ml. • Injection place should be infiltrated with adrenalin sol. • Artificial respiration with extern massage of the heart.
  • 20. Avoid the responsible allergen (e.g. food, drug, latex, etc.). Keep an adrenaline kit (e.g. Epipen) and Benadryl on hand at all times. Wear medic Alert bracelets . Venom immunotherapy is highly effective in protecting insect-allergic individuals.