“Yet some men say in many parts of England that KingArthur is not dead, but had by the will of our Lord Jesu intoanother place; and men say that he shall come again…”― Thomas Malory, Le Morte dArthur
Theater: Film: A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court (1949 John Arden and Margaretta DArcy: Knights of the Round Table (1953), based on Le Morte dArthur by Thomas Malory The Island of the Mighty (1972) Sword of Lancelot a.k.a. Lancelot and Guinevere (1963), a Laurence Binyon: King Arthur (1923), film directed by Cornel Wilde and starring Mr. Wilde as Lancelot with music by Edward Elgar The Sword in the Stone, a 1963 Disney animated film about D. G. Bridson: King Arthur (1937), Arthurs childhood, loosely adapted from T.H. Whites take on the legend. with music by Benjamin Britten Camelot, a 1967 film adaptation of the successful 1960 Broadway musical of the same name, in turn heavily based J. Comyns Carr: King Arthur (1895), on the last three of T.H.Whites quartet of novels with music by Arthur Sullivan Monty Python and the Holy Grail, a comedic parody of the traditional King Arthur legend. Camelot (1960), by Alan Jay Lerner John Boormans 1981 film Excalibur, based largely on and Frederick Loewe. Malory and probably the highest rated serious Arthurian film Merlin was a Broadway musical in First Knight, a 1995 movie based on the abduction of 1983 featuring illusionist Doug Guinevere by the knight Malagant. It featured Sean Connery as Arthur, Richard Gere as Lancelot, and Julia Henning and music by Elmer Ormond as Guinevere. Bernstein. Quest for Camelot is a 1998 animated feature with King Arthur ruling over a besieged Camelot. Spamalot, adapted from the film King Arthur, a motion picture released on July 7, 2004, claiming (despite being heavily criticised for its historical Monty Python and the Holy Grail inaccuracies) to be more historically accurate about the legend of Arthur as a 5th century, British-born, Roman commander, with respect to new archaeological findings; similar in story line to Jack Whytes books. Merlin and the Book of Beasts 2009 Laura Harris plays the daughter of Guenevere and Arthur
Books: Merlins Godson by H. Warner Munn King Arthur and his Knights (1903) King of the Worlds Edge (1936) by Maude Radford The Ship from Atlantis (1967) Howard Pyle - In a four volume set Merlins Ring (1974) including: Taliessin through Logres (1938) and "The Story of King Arthur and His The Region of the Summer Stars Knights" (1903) (1944) by Charles W. S. Williams "The Story of the Champions of the (poem cycles) Round Table" (1905) The Once and Future King by T. H. "The Story of Sir Launcelot and His White including Companions" (1907) The Sword in the Stone (1938) "The Story of the Grail and the The Queen of Air and Darkness (or Passing of King Arthur" (1910) The Witch in the Wood) (1939) Kairo-kō (1905) by Natsume Sōseki The Ill-Made Knight (1940) War in Heaven (1930) by Charles W. The Candle in the Wind (1958) S. Williams, a "modern-day" (20th The Book of Merlyn (1958) century) quest for the Holy Grail That Hideous Strength (1945) by C. S. The Little Wench (1935) by Philip Lewis Lindsay Porius (1951) by John Cowper Powys
King Arthur and His Knights of the The Mists of Avalon (1983) by Marion Round Table (1953) by Roger Zimmer Bradley Lancelyn Green The Pendragon Cycle by Stephen The Great Captains (1956) by Henry Lawhead Treece Taliesin (1987) Sword at Sunset (1963) and The Merlin (1988) Sword and the Circle (1981, juvenile) Arthur (1989) by Rosemary Sutcliff Pendragon (1994) The Merlin series by Mary Stewart Grail (1997) The Crystal Cave (1970) Avalon (1999) The Hollow Hills (1973) The Guinevere trilogy by Persia The Last Enchantment (1979) Woolley The Wicked Day (1983) Child of the Northern Spring (1987) The Prince and the Pilgrim (1995) Queen of the Summer Stars (1991) The Acts of King Arthur and His Guinevere: The Legend in Autumn Noble Knights (1975) by John (1993) Steinbeck Knight Life (1987), One Knight Only Arthur Rex: A Legendary Novel by (2004) and Fall of Knight (2007) by Thomas Berger (1978) Peter David The Three Damosels (1978) and The The Road to Avalon (1988) by Joan Enchantresses (1998) by Vera Wolf Chapman (the latter with Mike
The Last Pendragon by Robert Rice The Guenevere novels by Rosalind (1991) Miles The Arthor series by A. A. Attanasio Guenevere, Queen of the Summer The Dragon and the Unicorn (1994) Country (1999) The Eagle and the Sword (1997) The Knight of the Sacred Lake (2000) The Wolf and the Crown (1998) Child of the Holy Grail (2000) The Serpent and the Grail (1999) The Warlord Chronicles by Bernard The Child Queen (1994), The High Cornwell Queen (1995), (collected in Queen of The Winter King Camelot(2002)), Prince of Dreams Enemy of God (2004), and Grail Prince (2003) by Excalibur Nancy McKenzie By Jane Yolen: Arthur, King (1995) by Dennis Lee Sword of the Rightful King Anderson The Young Merlin Trilogy I am Mordred (1998) and I am Morgan le Fay (2001) by Nancy By Gerald Morris: Springer The Squires Tale Hallowed Isle by Diana L. Paxson: The Squire, His Knight, and His Lady The Book of the Sword (1999), The The Savage Damsel and the Dwarf Book of the Spear (1999), The Book of Parsifals Page the Cauldron (1999), The Book of the The Ballad of Sir Dinadan Stone (2000).
The Princess, the Crone, and the By Anonymous Dung-Cart Knight King Arthur and His Knights of the The Lioness and her Knight Round Table (Illustrated Junior The Quest of the Fair Unknown Library, Deluxe edition, September 1, Squires Quest 1950) The Adventures of Sir Givret the To the Chapel Perilous Naomi Short Mitchison (1955) The Adventures of Sir Lancelot the Our Man in Camelot by Anthony Great Price (1975) (The sixth book in the Dr David Audley series uses the Arthur By Molly Cochran and Warren myth as a MacGuffin in a modern spy Murphy thriller.) The Forever King By Parke Godwin The Broken Sword Firelord (1980) The Third Magic Beloved Exile (1984) The Quest for Merlin by Nikolai The Last Rainbow (1985) Tolstoy Non-fiction (1985) The Tales of Arthur, books of The The Coming of the King: The First Keltiad, by Patricia Kennealy- Book of Merlin by Nikolai Tolstoy Morrison (1988) The Hawks Grey Feather (1991) Stones of Power by David Gemmell The Oak Above the Kings (1994) Ghost King (1988) The Hedge of Mist (1996)
A Dream of Eagles (Camulod Albion, a trilogy of historical novels Chronicles) by Jack Whyte by British author Patrick McCormack The Sky Stone (1992) (1997, 2000, 2007) The Singing Sword (1993) The King Awakes and The Empty The Eagles Brood (1994) Throne by Janice Elliott, set in a Medieval-style society several The Saxon Shore (1998) generations after a nuclear war. Both The Sorcerer Part 1: The Fort at novels deal with the return of King Rivers Bend (1997) Arthur and his friendship with a The Sorcerer Part 2: The Sorcerer: youth from the post-holocaust world Metamorphosis (1999) Merlins Bones by Fred Saberhagen Uther (2001) The Idylls of the Queen by Phyllis Clothar the Frank (titled The Lance Ann Karr Thrower outside of Canada) (2004) Eagle in the Snow by Wallace Breem; The Eagle (2006) the coming of Arthur is foreseen by The Lost Years of Merlin Epic, by the chief of Segontium in the last T.A. Barron page of the book The Lost Years of Merlin (1996) The Winter Prince by Elizabeth Wein The Seven Songs of Merlin (1997) The Dragon Lord by David Drake The Fires of Merlin (1998) Merlins Mirror (1975) by Andre The Mirror of Merlin (1999) Norton The Wings of Merlin (2000) The Return of Merlin (1995) by Deepak Chopra
Camelot 3000, a comic book series Merlin (1978) by Robert Nye that reincarnates Arthur and his In the series The Secrets of the Immortal knights in the far future Nicholas Flamel by Michael Scott there are many mentions of artifacts and people in the legends The Dark Is Rising, a series written of King Arthur. for older children and young adults, The Merlin Codex by Robert Holdstock by Susan Cooper Celtika (2001) The Fionavar Tapestry, a fantasy The Iron Grail (2002) trilogy by Canadian author Guy The Broken Kings (2007) Gavriel Kay Corbenic by Catherine Fisher (2002) The Merlin Mystery, A puzzlehunt I am Morgan le Fay: A Tale from Camelot by book which focused heavily on Nancy Springer (2002) Merlin and Nimue having a love after Sword of the Rightful King by Jane Yolen (2003) Arthur has been entombed; it offered The House of Pendragon by Debra A. Kemp a cash prize as well as a gold, silver, I: The Firebrand (2003) bronze and crystal wand. However, II: The Recruit (2007) the puzzle went unsolved and the The Extraordinary Adventures of Alfred Kropp prize unclaimed. by Rick Yancey (2005) The Down the Long Wind series by Fate/Zero by Gen Urobuchi (2006-2007) Gillian Bradshaw (1980–82) Dracula vs. King Arthur By Adam Beranek, Christian Beranek and Chris Moreno (2007) Hawk of May The Pendragons Banner Trilogy by Helen Kingdom of Summer Hollick (re-published UK 2007 & USA 2009) In Winters Shadow Book One: The Kingmaking The Little Wench by Philip Lindsay Book Two: Pendragons Banner
Book Three: Shadow of the King Sunrise of Avalon (2011) Song of the Sparrow by Lisa Ann Sandell (2007) Sarah Woodburys The Last Pendragon Saga: Camelot Lost by Jessica Bonito (Jessica McHugh) The Last Pendragon (2010) (2008) The Pendragaons Quest (2011) Avalon High by Meg Cabot Cold My Heart: A Novel of King Arthur by The Sangreal Trilogy by Amanda Hemingway Sarah Woodbury (2011) Sword of Darkness by Kinley MacGregor Knight of Darkness by Kinley MacGregor Here Lies Arthur by Philip Reeve The Book of Mordred by Vivian Vande Velde The Return of Arthur: The Call of Destiny (Book One) by Alan Fenton The Return of Arthur: The Hour of Camelot (Book Two) by Alan Fenton Sons of Avalon, Merlins Prophecy by Dee Marie (2008) Sarah Zettels four-part series about the brothers Gawain, Gareth, Agravain, and Geraint: In Camelots Shadow (2004) For Camelots Honor (2005) Under Camelots Banner (2006) Camelots Blood (2008) Anna Elliotts Twilight of Avalon Trilogy: Twilight of Avalon (2009)
What does King Arthur have to offer us? What makes his stories so compelling? So contemporary? So enduring?
“We shall now seek that which we shall not find”― Thomas Malory, Le Morte d’Arthur
Welsh Legend Geoffrey of Monmouth Historia Brittonum Historia Regum Britanniae ~828AD (History of the Kings of Trojan origin Britain) First source to portray King First full narrative account of Arthur Arthur as a king Read from source Set in post-Roman Britain Y Gododdin 6th-century poet Aneirin Features Arthur’s father Uther Pendragon Annales Cambriae 10th century AD Merlin Many other Welsh legends Arthur’s adulterous and stories – mostly conception featuring Arthur as a figure Conquests well-known to the listeners Betrayal by his nephew who marries his wife Among many other firsts
Much of the story was his own invention Major events taken from a variety of sources Historical Verbal legend Welsh myths Saxon traditions Etc.
French author Introduced aspects of the Arthurian legend as we know it, especially Lancelot as a character. Not much is known about the author Major influence on Thomas Malory
Wrote Le Morte d’Arthur in Little is known for sure of English Malory The definitive tale from Numerous knights named which the majority of later “Thomas Malory” or stories are derived “Thomas Malleorre” existed Described by himself in the during the 15th century piece as a “prisoner knight” Likely a casualty of the War Repeatedly asks the reader of Roses to pray for his deliverance Won by Henry VIII’s Appears to have been father, Queen Elizabeth’s imprisoned multiple times grandfather for robbery, extortion, rape, and attempted murder The chivalry of King Arthur’s court seems to not have applied to Malory himself
“For I have promised to do the battle to the uttermost, byfaith of my body, while me lasteth the life, and therefore Ihad liefer to die with honour than to live with shame…”― Thomas Malory, Le Morte d’Arthur
Possibly a war leader of the Little evidence Celtic people left behind in Not mentioned by the one Britain after the Romans surviving contemporary pulled out. account of the invasion of the Said to have led many battles Saxons against the Saxon invaders 6th-century monk Gildas’ Famous battle at Badon Hills “De Excidio et Conquestu Known to be a battle at Britanniae” (On the Ruin and which the invading Saxons Conquest of Britain) were defeated and their First mentioned by Nennius’ invasion halted for many Historia Brittonum years Attributed to 12 battles in Seen as a sort of last hope by so many different places the original Britons. and times, he could not His death may have been the possibly have been at them tragic end to a brief British all. revival.
Lucius Artorius Castus Few details beyond his Early mention of the command information name “Arthur” Not known to be British (Artorius) in history or to have done Late 100’s, early 200’s anything particularly AD amazing for the British. Powerful military commander in Britain in the late Roman period May have been remembered as a name in tales and turned into King Arthur later
Comparison of Lucius Artorius Castus and King Arthur Lucius Artorius Castus King ArthurFloruit Unknown; probably late 2nd-early 3rd century AD. Traditionally assigned to the late 5th-early 6th century AD.Name Artorius = LACs family name, his nomen gentile. Arthur is potentially derived from Latin Artorius, but a Celtic origin is also possible. Treated as a native Welsh first name in medieval Latin texts (where it is always rendered as Art[h]ur[i]us and never as Artorius).Ethnicity The Artorii family have roots in Italy, potentially of Messapic or Traditionally linked in Welsh literature and genealogies to the British nobility Etruscan origin; LAC might have been born to a branch of the of Cornwall. family that settled inDalmatia.Religion Unknown; dedications to the Di Manes, as found on LACs At the very least, nominally Christian - according to the Historia Brittonum he tomb, are found in both pagan and Christian inscriptions in the bore an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary in one of his battles; though later 3rd century AD. texts depict him as antagonistic towards clergymen.Military Status High-ranking, career officer in the Roman army, late in his In the medieval Latin of the Historia Brittonum, Arthur is called career (likely as an older man) he served as Camp Prefect in a miles, "knight, mounted warrior, armed horseman" (a shift in meaning Britain and finally as Dux Legionum("Leader of Legions") in a of miles from ancient Classical Latin, in which the word meant "professional single military campaign. soldier, common soldier, private, low-ranking foot soldier"). Also, in the Historia Brittonum, Arthur is called dux belli (alternately dux bellorum in some MSS), "leader of the battle(s)" (specifically, the 12 battles that he fought with the aid of the British kings against the Saxons), but this is a conventional Latin phrase and does not indicate that Arthur held the military title of Dux in a Post-Roman British army (in fact, non-Roman war leaders are sometimes called dux belli/bellorum in ancient Latin texts, including the biblical hero Joshua, in the Latin Vulgate Bible). In later medieval Welsh sources he is called both "emperor" and "king" (the latter title preferred in medieval Arthurian Romance).British Battles During battle, Camp Prefects normally remained at their units In the 9th century Historia Brittonum, Arthur, along with the British kings, base with the reserve troops, so it is unlikely that LAC fought fought 12 battles in Britain against the invading Saxons and Arthur allegedly while in Britain. LAC later oversaw an expedition of troops with slew many hundreds of Saxons by his own hand (the exact number differs in some sort of British connection, either to Gaul or Armenia. the various manuscripts). In later texts (such as the 11th century Life of St. Goeznovius and the 12th century Historia Regum Britanniae), Arthur is stated to have fought battles in Gaul as well as in Britannia.Death Unknown date and circumstances; probably died at an advanced In Welsh literature, traditionally stated to have died during the Battle of age, potentially during his procuratorship of Liburnia(where he Camlann (of unknown location in Britain); his burial site was unknown to was buried). medieval Welsh.
The Once and Future King Seen by others as a national Seen by some Welsh and hero and figurehead of Scots as a prophecy or “Britishness” legend heralding the return Ironic in many ways, of Celtic sovereignty considering that the Some more mystical Welsh descendents of the even believe that Arthur invading Saxons, Vikings, and French now use his himself will return some day image as well to bring Britain back to its original inhabitants Uncle Sam Daniel Boone Davy Crockett George Washington Etc