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LEARNING SCIENCE THROUGH ACTIVE LEARNING ...

LEARNING SCIENCE THROUGH ACTIVE LEARNING
The main idea of the project is that starting from active learning concepts to involve pupils, teachers and schools in developing a new approach in teaching and learning science.
Each teacher involved was welcome to bring in the project personal experiences and personal suggestion in building new lessons; each pupil involved in the project was stimulated to use his/her energy and creativity in developing interesting activities as logo competition, project poster competition, science day. By this project, teachers and pupils shared experience over active learning methods in science education such as informal activities etc. in science education. We developed several active based science activities and lesson plans which can be applied in every class condition. By project meetings we adjusted the calendar or the distribution of tasks, in order to rise the quality of the project. In all activities we were in good cooperation to improve the project implementation.Our students were improved(14-18 years old) knowledge, understanding and skills by fully integrating the project into each schools curriculum and by the extensive use of information technology to share both process and outcomes.
During the project everybody contributed in execution of different products.
This booklet is one of our products and the summary of all studies in our 3 years.

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takevbooklet Document Transcript

  • 1. 2013
  • 2. PROJECT PARTNER SCHOOLS Coordinator School: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Partner Schools: Liceul Teoretic Tudor Vianu,Gıurgıu-Romania Colegio San Agustín,Valdepenas-Spain Zespól Szkól we Wrzosowej, Wrzosowa- Poland
  • 3. Special thanks to Contact Teachers: Benito Piña Delgado, Spain Cristina Anghel, Romania Slywia Kaniewska, Poland for being an excellent partners on new way of learning science Physics, Chemistry and Physics Teachers: Nilgün Uran, Ayşe Embel, Zülfiye Çidam, Binur Akıneri Oral, Turkey Justyna Wilk, Magdalena Dróżdż- Korbyla,Poland Cristina Soare, Catalina Nan, Gherghina Bragaru, Laura Stanisteanu, Georgeta Nicula, Romania for to develop active learning based science education materials with us English Teachers: Anna Wisniewska-Wtoch, Poland Iuliana Dinu , Romania Our Principals: Gönül Ketenci ,Turkey Adelina Veronica Sirbu ,Romania Sor María Isabel Guerra Sánchez , Spain Krzysztof Ujma , Poland for their support during project meeting. Thank you to everyone who took part in this project and Congratulations On behalf of all partners Ayşe Ruhşah Erduygun, Turkey Coordinator Teacher
  • 4. INTRODUCTION Recently, a number of researches have reported the benefits of “active learning” as applied to the teaching of science. Briefly, active learning refers to the application of any teaching strategy in which students actively participate in academic exercises or projects rather than passively listen to an instructor's lecture. The purpose of this project is to provide practical examples of the learning material and exercises, which allow to improve critical and creative thinking skills in the education, to find out the weak and the strong points of the different science learning materials to develop active learning based science education materials , to apply for an active learning methods and to share our experiences.
  • 5. ACTIVE LEARNING
  • 6. ACTIVE LEARNING Why Use Active Learning?  We need effective teaching techniques.  When compared to traditional teaching methods (lecture), students learn more material and enjoy class more.  Seeing and Hearing is Not Enough  We are different!...
  • 7. What is the purpose of Active Learning?  Increase student participation  Increase student engagement  Increase student retention  More student ownership in course  Less lecturing by instructor  More exciting classroom experience  Higher level thinking Active Learning Methods Active Learnıng Techniques  Think-pair-share (pair-share)  Role playing, simulations  Generate lists  Cooperative learning  PBL and case studies  Concept maps  Classroom Assessment Techniques (CAT’s)  Brainstorming  Games  Debates In this project, we used active learning methos and techniques, shared our experiences over active learning based science education methods in our project. With the help of this cooperation, A new perspective towards the active learning based science education was built. You can find above all active lessons that used in our classroom.
  • 8. OUR ACTIVE LESSON PLANS
  • 9. PHYSICS Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Ayşe Ruhşah Erduygun Disciplines: Physics Target groups: 10 th grade Name of lesson and subject: Non Horizontally Launched Projectiles Objectives: At the end of lesson, students should be able to:  understand Nonhorizantally launched projectiles;  understand horizantal and vertical movement;  identify equations of motion;  solve problem by using principle of projectiles . Methods and Techniques: Learn by doing, Games, Project based learning, Problem solving Overwiev: The study of projectile motion brings together a lot of what you have learned in the past knowledge about motion and force. Student need to know about gravity, forces, velocity, acceleration, and vector components to be able to fully understand this subject. Firstly summarise this concepts with examples from daily life: Ball… Short description: Imagine for a moment that you are watching an object as it rises into the air after you kick it upwards at an angle. Look at Figure 1 below as you read through this description.
  • 10.  When it left your foot, it was going at the fastest that it can possibly move during its flight.  The instant it leaves your foot, gravity is pulling down on it, causing it to have less and less vertical velocity.  Remember that there will be no change in the horizontal component of its velocity.  When it reaches the highest point in its flight, it isn’t moving up, and it isn’t moving down, for an instant of time… its vertical velocity is ZERO!  By the time it reaches the ground again, it will still be moving with its original horizontal velocity and will have just as much vertical velocity as when it left your foot. It will have the exact same velocity as it left your foot with! GAME: “Who can throw away?” Play a game by using protractor, toy gun and meter in the school garden. Throw ball by gun with different angle. Observe the ball and answer the questions.
  • 11. Measure displacement with different angle.Decide for long displacement which angle can we use. Answer : Θ= 45° Observe vertical and horizontal movement. Students can use this information about its movement to make some calculations. Students know...  that there is gravity (-9.81m/s2 ) causing the acceleration on the object vertically.  the initial vertical velocity of the object.  the final vertical velocity of the object. Students can even use this two ways, since Students can say that the final vertical velocity happens at the halfway point (zero m/s), or when it gets back to the ground (same as it left the ground at). This gives them enough information to calculate the maximum height of the flight, and the time it spends in the air. After that, Students can calculate just about anything…
  • 12. Example 1: Student kick a soccer ball at an angle of 40° above the ground with a velocity of 20m/s. a. How high will it go? b. How much time does it spend in the air? c. How far away from you will it hit the ground (aka range)? d. What is the ball’s velocity when it hits the ground? Before Students can calculate anything else, they first need to break the original velocity into components. Students do this so we have a vertical component to do the first couple calculations with. The horizontal component will be used later. vy = sin 40° (20m/s) = 13m/s a) THINK VERTICAL! At its maximum height, halways through its flight, the object won't be going up or down, so Students will say that its final velocity at that point is zero. vf 2 = vi 2 + 2ah h = (vf 2 - vi 2 ) / 2a= (02 - 132 ) / 2(-9.81) h = 8.6 m The ball will reach a maximum height of 8.6 m. b) THINK VERTICAL! Same ideas as above...a = (vf - vi) / t t = (vf - vi) / a= (0 - 13) / -9.81 t = 1.3 s But this is only the time to the halfway point, so the final answer is 2.7s. c) THINK HORIZONTAL It is moving at a constant velocity horizontally during the whole time we just figured out, so let’s use Figure 2 that was drawn above to get the horizontal component of the velocity.
  • 13. vy = cos 40° (20m/s) v = d/t d = vt= 15m/s (2.7s) d = 41 m 41m is the horizontal distance (range) that it has traveled. d) The ball’s velocity when it hits the ground is exactly the same as when it was originally launched… 20 m/s at 40° up from the horizontal. The only difference is that now it's spiking into the ground. (http://www.studyphysics.ca) HOME WORK: 1. PROBLEM SOLVING: Calculate maximum height and horizontal distance of soccer ball at an angle of 45° and 60° above the ground with a velocity of 20m/s. 2. PROJECT: DO YOUR LAUNCH!... LAUNCH COMPETITION
  • 14. Results: You can enjoy and learn Physics at the same time.
  • 15. Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Ayse Ruhsah Erduygun Disciplines: Physics Target groups: 10 th grade Name of lesson and subject: Linear motion Objectives: At the end of lesson, students should be able to:  understand linear motion in daily life;  understand linear motion equations;  identify formula of motion;  solve problem by using principle of motion . Methods and Techniques: 5E instructional model ( engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate) ENGAGE Kinematics is the study of the motion of objects. Types of motion: Linear Circular Rotational
  • 16. Talk with students examples of linear motion on above pictures and videos.
  • 17. EXPLORE EXPERIMENT: LINEAR MOTION Analyzing the motion of objects in physics labs is to perform a ticker tape analysis.
  • 18. EXPLAIN VELOCITY &ACCELARATION Velocity is defined as the change in an object's position with respect to time. Acceleration is defined as the change in an object's velocity with respect to time. Acceleration is a vector that is defined as the rate at which an object changes its velocity. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity. video 1. Which car or cars (red, green, and/or blue) are undergoing an acceleration? Study each car individually in order to determine the answer. 2. Which car (red, green, or blue) experiences the greatest acceleration? MOTION WITH CONSTANT VELOCITY Consider a car moving with a constant, rightward (+) velocity - say of +10 m/s.
  • 19. MOTION WITH CHANGING VELOCITY Consider a car moving with a rightward (+), changing velocity - that is, a car that is moving rightward but speeding up or accelerating.
  • 20. ELABORATE By using video, compare types of linear motion. EVALUATION Write the types of motion for each time interval. Draw the acceleration- time and displacement- time graph. Results Students like learning by doing so doing experiment is the best way to learn physics. Using video is very impressive way to young people. At the end, students can understand grahics very well.
  • 21. Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Ayse Ruhsah Erduygun Disciplines: Physics Target groups: 12 th grade Name of lesson and subject: Refraction and Snell’s Law Objectives: At the end of lesson, students should be able to:  determine refraction on different materials;  understand refraction laws;  identify formula of refraction;  measure refraction angle applied in the formation of images by concave lenses;  calculate refraction index of liquid by using Snell’s law;  solve problem by using principle and law of refraction . Methods and Techniques: 5E instructional model ( engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate) Short description: ENGAGE Demonstration: A pencil is held halfway into a flat pan filled with water. Why does it shadow appear bent?
  • 22. EXPLORE Qualitive and quantitive investigation of refraction using different materials. By doing experiments, students measured incident and refraction angle according to different incident angle and different liquids. They noticed that there must be a relation between incident angle and refraction angle. Another fact that refraction angle changed due to types of liquid. Water: Incident angle (ɵ1) 10° 30° 40° Refraction angle (ɵ2) 7,6° 22° 29,3° Alcohol: Incident angle (ɵ1) 10° 30° 40° Refraction angle (ɵ2) 7,9° 24,2° 32,2°
  • 23. EXPLAIN Concepts: Refraction and Snell’s law. They calculated the refraction index of different liquid that used in the experiments by Snell’s law. n1 Sin ɵ1= n2 Sin ɵ2 n1= 1 (Air) n Water= 1,31 n Alcohol=1,36 ELABORATE Investigation: How is the principle of refraction applied in the formation of images by concave lens? Students showed changing of formation of images by using different liquids using above experiment with concave lens. For R= 20,5 cm Sample put in the center of lens at R, students measured image of sample in water and alcohol. By using Snell2s law they calculated index of refraction.
  • 24. Liquid H(cm) İndex of refraction Water 16 1,28 Alcohol 15,8 1,30 EVALUATE Problem solving: For following diagram A and B; measure incident angle , calculate refraction angle. Results: The students learn easily by 5E methods according to traditional methods. They explored their subject. All demonstrations and experiments supported them to learn well.
  • 25. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher : Cristina Anghel Disciplines: Physics Target groups – 11th grade Name of lesson and subject : Electromagnetic waves Themes: • Production and propagation of electromagnetic waves, • Classification of electromagnetic waves, • Properties of electromagnetic waves, • Applications. Objectives  To understand that there are different types of electromagnetic waves,  To understand that we experience natural electromagnetic radiation from the sun and from terrestrial sources, and human-made electromagnetic radiation from sources such as cell phones, microwave ovens, and power lines,  To understand that astronomical objects emit electromagnetic radiation at all frequencies and by observing objects at different frequencies their structure and phenomena can be understood more deeply. Methods and Techniques: Collaborative learning using e-learning tools like: wikispaces.com , slideshare.net, glogster.edu. Short description In this lesson, students explore various types of electromagnetic waves. They watch a video fragment and use an interactive activity that explains both the range of the spectrum and common sources of electromagnetic waves. Investigating the electromagnetic waves, sharing ideas and exchanging information by receiving and providing feedback . • Students are involved into a brainstorming type activity about electromagnetic waves and objects that emit radiations and are watching a podcast using a website recommended by the teacher, analyze different regions of the frequency spectrum and devices emitting radiation for each frequency / wavelengt. • Documentation activity in which students collect information about types of electromagnetic waves studied and completed a worksheet joint boxes using a
  • 26. wiki or mind mapping. The information collected is stored and labeled on a bookmarking site. • Using information gathered in documentation work, students will make a presentation of research results of various regions of the spectrum, common devices that emit electromagnetic radiation and effects on the environment or themselves. Each team discusses and analyzes the selected information of the documentation activity and prepare the final work (a PowerPoint presentation or a interactive poster using Glogster.edu). Results The students learn best when they are actively involved in the process. By means of collaboration students can learn from each other, support themselves, communicate and extend their knowledge. Besides the educational benefits, students develop their team spirit, tolerance and mutual respect. https://sites.google.com/site/lsalcomeniusproject/activitati/prezentari/prezentari- romania http://beluema.edu.glogster.com/unde-electromagnetice
  • 27. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher : Cristina Soare Disciplines: Physics Target groups – 10th grade Name of lesson and subject: The study of simple electrical circuits Objectives At the end of project students should be able to:  define the notion of electricity;  define countable properties characteristic to electricity;  specify the units of measurement in the International System;  measure the countable properties of electricity;  determinate experimentally the electrical resistance of a consumer;  formulate the Ohm's Law;  solve simple problems using Ohm's Law. Methods and Techniques:Project based learning Short description : Project’s activities  documentation concerning countable properties of electricity;  making a PowerPoint presentation;  presentation of the results and discussion (the teacher helps the students with new information if he/she must);  laboratory work : determination of the electrical resistance of a conductor;  making a flyer that describes the method and the results of the laboratory work;  solving problems of practical importance on day to day life using Ohm's Law Results  the students have been active in all stages of the project, they collaborated and helped each other;  using the computer in all stages of the project led to motivation of all students to review previously learned concepts and learn new ones;  coordination of the students 'activity was needed and also satisfied during the entire activity;
  • 28.  in the end the results of the evaluation test obtained by the students involved in the project were better than the results of those who studied the same theme using the classic methods. https://sites.google.com/site/lsalcomeniusproject/activitati/prezentari/prezentari- romania
  • 29. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher : Cristina Soare Disciplines: Physics Target groups – 9th grade Name of lesson and subject : Human eye Acquiring new knowledge and training intellectual skills lesson Title of the chapter: Geometrical Optics Objectives: During the lesson and at the end of it, students will be able to:  identify the role of the main components of the eye in forming visual sensations;  explain the visual accommodation as a process based on the property of the elasticity of the crystalline  compare the mode of forming the image in the case of the normal eye, myopic hypermetropic;  establish the type of the lenses which vision defects can be corrected with;  solve simple problems using the lens formula for correcting sight defects; Contents: - The structure of the human eye; - The description of the image formed on the retina; - Vision/sight defects and their correction; - solving simple problems related to correcting vision/sight defects; Methods and Techniques: - exposure - heuristic conversation - questioning Short description Students’ tasks: - to create a power-point presentation with title „The human eye” - a team of 3 students; - discussions about the presentations; - to complete the worksheets attached to the didactic project, students being organized into teams of 2 members; Evaluation: - checking how students completed the worksheets given by the teacher - grading the students who presented to their classmates the theme „Human Eye” and those who have correctly solved the problems proposed in the worksheets within the shortest time. Results - The notions studied during the biology lessons helped the students find information and understand the new notions
  • 30. - During the class, the students were the main actors, the teacher just helped them organise the activities - The students who shared their power point presentations were glad to play the teacher’s role and in the end their work was rewarded https://sites.google.com/site/lsalcomeniusproject/activitati/prezentari-reuniune-de- proiect---valdepenas-spania-2013
  • 31. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher : Cristina Anghel Disciplines: Physics Target groups : 10th grade Name of lesson and subject: Heat engine Objectives Students will be able to:  understand the meaning of the terms like heat engine, source, sink working substance , efficiency, coefficient of performance, reverse heat engine etc.  understand the working of a heat engine and explain the various thermodynamic processes involved. Methods and Techniques:5E instructional model ( engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate) Short description Engage:  Understand the meaning of the term ‘HEAT ENGINE’.  List the different types of heat engines  Recall the principle of a heat engine. Explore: The main characteristics of heat engines – the students are stimulated to identify the heat engines characteristics based on their daily life knowledge.  How does a heat engine work?  The components of the heat engine.  Visit the Technical Museum “Dimitrie Leonida” – Bucharest Explain: Strokes and processes in the running of heat engines List the different thermodynamic process in a heat engine, Recall the meaning of the term efficiency of heat engine, List the efficiencies of Otto engine and Diesel engine, Elaborate:  Strong points and weak points for each kind of engine  Similarities and differences between the Otto cycle and the Diesel cycle Evaluate : a quiz will be given ( multiple choices) to determine if the students understand heat engines. Results The students learn best when they are actively involved in the process. By means of collaboration students can learn from each other, support themselves, communicate and extend their knowledge.
  • 32. https://sites.google.com/site/lsalcomeniusproject/activitati/prezentari-reuniune-de- proiect---valdepenas-spania-2013 http://www.slideshare.net/cristinaiulia/motoare-termice-22302857
  • 33. Name of the institution: Colegio San Agustín,Valdepenas- Spain Teacher : Benito Piña Delgado Disciplines: Physics Target groups – 4th grade Name of lesson and subject: Hydrostatic Pressure and Atmospheric Pressure Objectives At the end of project students should be able to:  define pressure;  specify the units of pressure in the International System;  define Fundamental principles of fluid statics and Pascal's principle;  observe fluid compressibility;  define Communicating vessels and hydraulic systems;  observe Atmospheric pressure;  define Archimedes’ principle  solve simple problems using Pascal's Law and Applications of the Archimedes’ principle. Methods : Project based learning Short description : 1. We started asking students: What pressure is ?, What does it depend on?, Does water exert pressure?, And the air?, How can we measure it?, etc.. 2. We prepared some experiments and students deduced the theoretical concepts. 3. We choose the most suitable answers given by the students and explained them the theoretical concepts behind the experiments. 4. We prepared activities based on real situations. Project’s activities Students explain how water presses the air inside the latex glove and inflates it. Students explain if we have a large surface, the pressure is lower
  • 34. Although we can not see the air, we can feel the effect of atmospheric pressure Tantalo´s glass is a siphon. When water reaches the top of the tube, water falls down and the glass is emptied. When oxygen runs out atmospheric pressure is higher than internal pressure. Therefore, water is pushed into the glass.
  • 35. In the first picture atmospheric pressure prevents water from falling and in the second picture helps to empty the bottle. Another way to explain how a submarine works. Playing tricks with atmospheric pressure
  • 36. Results Students learned theoretical concepts through active learning. All Physic students passed the exam but most important was all of them did not forget this active lessons because they prepared their own experiments and showed the rest of students.
  • 37. Name of the institution: Zespól Szkól we Wrzosowej, Wrzosowa- Poland Teacher : Slywia Kaniewska Disciplines: Physics Target groups – 2 nd grade Name of lesson and subject: Building circuits, reading and creating ideological systems by assembly based on schematics. Methods:Project based learning Short description: We have organized the lesson for students, parents and the rest of teachers. The lesson was conducted by two teachers: English and Physics. It concerned an electrical current phenomena.The main aim of the lesson was to introduce students the issues of electricity. During the lesson we showed how to work with our new remote controls (iVotes). Parents have the opportunity to see their children in the classroom. The working language was English. During the lesson we showed also some interesting elements that can be used on the interactive whiteboard. 1. Introduction of Ohm’s Law and definitions of current, voltage, resistance. 2. Introduce Kirchhoff’s current. 3. Series Circuits. 4. Parallel Circuits. 5. Power. 6. Bulbs in series demonstration. 7. Bulbs in parallel demonstration. 8. Explanation of the non-linearity of light bulbs. 9. Conclusion of lessons 10. Tutorial on using a voltmeter. During 5 lessons we were working with students by developing their curiosity, stimulating their imagination, improving knowledge and skills about electricity. We had 2 main topics for one lesson. Next step of the lessons was the test of electricity. I used the website which is below for sharing tests in English. The prior knowlegde: The students had introductory lessons according to the steps we presented above.They also ecounter electricity on a daily basis. The goal of this lesson is to link together these prior experiences and konwledge in order to work with electrical elements and build new devices according to the instruction.
  • 38. Overview: In this lesson students will complete a pre- test and explore properties of electricity and build an electricical circuit. Objectives: The students will:  complete the pre- test related to electricity and electrical circuit,  biuld electrical circuit. Require materials and equipment:  three sets for the construction circuit elements,   additional batteries, lamps and wires.   worksheet with questions as the pre-test,  instruction. Materials Lesson outline: 1. Distribute the pre-test, allow students to complete the pre- test. 2. Dividing the students for four groups. 3. Distribute sets of electrical elements. 4. Distribute the additional elements e.g. wires, multimeters, lamps, bulbs. 5. Present information from the Electricity and Electrical Circuit in Power Point. 6. Distribute instruction for the Electric Activity. 7. Students follow the instruction in the Electric Circuit Activity Sheet.
  • 39. Products windmills Results: You can see students product above.Finally we collected photos from this lesson on school wall. We did some kind of movie from the lesson with sense of humor a bit:) If the students do not understand:Refer back to previous topics and learning more.They can go to the school Physics classroom and buid the devices again. If the students need to be further challenged: Have students look in reference materials ( e.g.more difficult instruction) and buid additional devices during extra courses.
  • 40. CHEMISTRY Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Zülfiye Cidam Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups: 10 th grade Name of lesson and subject: Periodic table, compounds, chemical reactions Objectives: At the end of lesson, students should be able to:  learn periodic table;  desing Periodic table;  learn elements, compound and their properties;  understand daily life chemistry;  understand chemical reaction and equations. Activity-1 Methods and Techniques: Visual and activity based method Short description: Students always worry to learn periodic table in chemistry class. We focus on this subject to make it easy with entertaining activity and we cook muffins and decorate them with elements in periodic table. Results They will remember and learn easily with this activity. After our lesson, we also give a feast with Period Table 
  • 41. Activity- 2: Methods: Visual and activity based method Short description: In our lab time, we create problems to based on chemical activities and we realize those activities in our laboratory class. Create problems:  Chemical Activities  Chemical Reactions Results By using this experiments, Students learn more easily and always remember those activities. Activity -3 Methods and Techniques: Cooperative learning Short description: We encourage our students to prepare a bingo game about elements and symbols. Afterwards it is easy to learn all of those elements and symbols and we have great time together. Create Bingo Game :Elements ,Symbols Easy Learning: Easy to remember , Entertaining Activity Cooperation: Increase team work,Use Knowledge
  • 42. Results This method is also increase cooperation and their relations . They learn to work as a team. Activity-4 Methods and Techniques: Game Short description Other entertaing activity to keep our students attention alive is memory game. We create teams and distribute elements and symbols among them. Results They created all materials as teams and we have great time to learn elements and symbols via memory game.
  • 43. Activity-5 Method and Techniques: Game,cooperative learning Short description Monopoly is commonly play among teenagers. We create a technique : Game for compounds and their properties. Students prepared a chemical monopoly about compounds and their properties. Result They created all compounds and their properties as teams and we have great time to learn. Activity 6: Method and Techniques: Learning by doing Short description: Chemisty and their materials could be seen in everywhere in our daily life and we are living with them all the time. Students want to increase the reputation and recognition of chemical materials.
  • 44. Results: Students made soaps, candles, detergents, eau de cologne. They learned daily life chemistry very well by doing these.
  • 45. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher : Georgeta Nicula Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups - 10th grade Name of lesson and subject : The chemical properties of acetylene Objectives :  To describe the reactions acetylene takes part in alkyne  To investigate in order to underline some caracteristics and properties  To formulate rules, definitions and generalizations  To learn the concept of metal acetylides  To study the concept of unsaturated character determinated by the existence of the relation bond π  To underline the importance of acetiylene  To use specific notions Method:  Heuristic conversation  Questioning  Experiment  Cube and puzzle method Short description Checking the existing knowledge  In order to check the existing knowledge, the teacher asks the students to solve the following an reaction scheme. The development of the lesson  Establish the formulas of the compounds A and B  Write the reaction equations needed to obtain acetylene from the given reaction scheme  Indicate the structure and the physical properties of acetylene Question : Knowing the chemical structure of acetylene, indicate the common reaction types of acetylene and alkenes? The chemical properties of acetylene A) ADDITION REACTIONS B) OXIDATION REACTION C) SUBSTITUTION REACTION EXPERIMENTS  The addition of bromine to acetylene  The oxidation of acetylene using potassium permanganate  Obtaining silver acetylides HOMEWORK Create cubes and puzzles to illustrate the chemical properties of acetylene
  • 46. Results The chemical experiment is an active method which allow the students create and practice on their own some operations to observe, study and to measure the results. https://sites.google.com/site/lsalcomeniusproject/activitati/prezentari-reuniune-de- proiect---valdepenas-spania-2013
  • 47. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teachers : Laura Stanisteanu, Georgeta Nicula Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups - 12th grade Name of lesson and subject: Thermochemistry Objectives:  Explain the relationship between energy and heat;  Construct equations that show the heat change for chemical and physical processes; Calculate heat changes in chemical and physical processes.  Classify, by type, the heat changes that occur during melting, freezing, boiling, and condensing; Calculate the heat changes that occur during melting, freezing,boiling, and condensing Method:  Problematisation  Learning by guided discovery  Algorithmic  Chemical experiment  Interdisciplinarity Short description We start from the first principle of thermodinamics We ask the students to give us some examples of biological reactions which occur with heat release and, respectively, with absorbation of heat The combustion of glucose - exothermic reaction where the heat emitted is as energy for our body. We ask the students to calculate which is the energy released when we eat 120 grams chocolate which contains 15% (procent) glucose? The students will experimentally establish the enthalpy of formation, in standard conditions, for MgO - ΔHo f Mg. Results the chemical experiment is an active method which allow the students create and practice on their own some operations to observe, study and to measure the results. https://sites.google.com/site/lsalcomeniusproject/activitati/prezentari/prezentari- romania
  • 48. Name of the institution: Colegio San Agustín,Valdepenas- Spain Teacher : Benito Piña Delgado Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups – 4th grade Name of lesson and subject: Chemical Reactions Objectives At the end of project students should be able to:  define Physical and chemical changes;  define chemical reaction and adjustment of chemical equations;  define Conservation of mass and energy aspects of the reactions;  observe chemical reaction in daily life;  solve elementary chemical calculations with masses and volumes. Method: Project based learning Short description  We started asking students: What a Chemical change is?,What a phisical change is? What could I see in a chemical reaction?, What´s happening in a chemical reaction? Have you ever seen a chemical reaction?  We prepared some practices and students deduced theoretical concepts.  We choose the most suitable answers given by the students and explained them the theoretical concepts behind the experiments.  We prepared activities based on real problems. Resources On Line We used other resources to remember previous concepts like Periodic Table and Chemical bonds. TRIVIAL CHEMICAL ,TETRIS PERIODIC TABLE ,METAL OR NO METAL ACTIVITIES CHEMICAL REACTIONS ,STOICHIOMETRY HIDROGEN PEROXIDE DESCOMPOSITION
  • 49. With this reaction, students could learn about Avogadro’s Hypothesis, the Ideal Gas Law and gas phase Stoichiometry. This is a key reaction of Hydrogen Peroxide. 2 H2O2(aq) 2 H2O(l) + O2(g) Hydrogen Peroxide solutions (3-30%) are used for bleaching (pulp, paper, straw, leather, hair, etc.) and to treat wounds. Its value as an antiseptic is low, but the evolution of Oxygen when it comes into contact with clotted blood helps to loosen dirt and assists in cleansing a wound. DEHYDRATION OF SUGAR BY SULFURIC ACID
  • 50. One of the most spectacular chemistry demonstrations is also one of the simplest. It's the dehydration of sucrose with sulfuric acid. Sugar is a carbohydrate, so when you remove the water from the molecule, you're basically left with elemental carbon. The dehydration reaction is a type of elimination reaction. C12H22O11 + H2SO4 → 12 C + 11 H2O + mixture water and acid Although the sugar is dehydrated, the water isn't 'lost' in the reaction. Some of it remains as a liquid in the acid. Since the reaction is exothermic, much of the water is boiled off as steam. Results Students learned theoretical concepts through active learning. All Chemistry students passed the exam but most important was all of them did not forget this active lessons because they prepared their own experiments and showed the rest of students.
  • 51. Name of the institution: Zespól Szkól we Wrzosowej, Wrzosowa- Poland Teacher : Justyna Wilk Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups: 2 nd grade Name of lesson and subject: Food Chemistry Objectives: At the end of project students should be able to:  Understand “How to detect the protein in food products?”;  determine organic and inorganic acids properties;  measure boiling time;  observe the effect of the dissolved substance on the speed of water boiling. Methods: Experimental methos Short description and Results: Experıment 1:  Add Nitric Acid V to protein products.  After adding Nitric Acid V, the protein products could be yellowish and the destruction of its structure appears.
  • 52. Results We can see some changes in the milk structure immediately Before: After: The changes on cheese appear later White cheese: Before After Yellow cheese Before After The final effect of all the products:
  • 53. Experıment 2  Sulfuric Acid VI The tube was inserted in an inorganic acid, inetolen where magnesium was added ealier, and hydrogen appeard then Mg+H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2 The reaction takes place very rapidly and magnesium dissolves. CH3COOH +2 Mg (CH3COO) 2 Mg + H2
  • 54. Experıment 3 Dıstılled Water: Distilled water is the water deprived of minerals and other substances by distillation Boiling time:29 seconds Mıneral Water: Mineral water is the natural healing water containing at least 1,000 mg / litre of dissolved solids in the form of ions Boiling time:13 seconds Tap Water Tap water is pure water that is suitable for consumption. It should contain the right amount of minerals. Boiling time:22 seconds
  • 55. Results:The more positive and negative ions, dirt, germs and bacteria there are in the water solution, the water boils faster. Conclusions of the lesson:The method students used is very encouraging and the experiments were carried out with great interest and pleasure. It helped students to understand better what happens while chemical reactions appear.
  • 56. BIOLOGY Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Nilgün Uran Disciplines: Biology Target groups: 10 th grade Name of lesson and subject: Root Structures and Types Objectives: At the end of lesson, students should be able to:  Understand root structures and types;  Aware with their environment; Methods and Techniques:5E instructional model ( engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate) Short description ENGAGING At the beginning of the lesson we start by showing slides and photos about the subject to determine if our students have any basic knowledge or misunderstanding. To do that, we ask simple questions about the subject using the photos and let them answer without interfering. After they finish talking , if the answer is wrong or party correct, we give clues and small reminders to make them understand their own mistakes.
  • 57. While showing the photos and pictures we start asking… Question Samples (Warm-up Questions)  What are the main functions of a root?  What are the main types of roots?  What are the main tissues of a mature root?  Why do you think roots have root hair?  In which plants do you see tap root and fibrous root?  How do roots grow? EXPLORİNG Study groups with equal number of students starts studying and experimenting on the root samples . While they are studying, we ask more questions to let them explore more about the sample they are experimenting.
  • 58. Activity I The root samples collected from our surrounding observed morfologicly and seperated as tap and fibrous roots by our students. Later they start drawing and taking notes about the samples to explore the specific differences of tap and fibrous roots. Activity II They take longitudinal and crosss sections samples of a suitable root they’ve just studied and observe it under a microscope. With this activity they explore the root tissues and seperate them as monocot and dicot. Activity III A school trip to Ege University Botanical Garden with a guide let the students discover new examples about the subject. Activity IV They start germinating a bean seed in the lab and measure the root length in different periods of time to explore which part of the root grows.
  • 59. EXPLAIN After the activities in lab and botanical garden, the students receive a fascicule containing pictures and schematics with lecture notes. Using these fascicules, mutual questions from each side is answered. A common thing we use is showing them the pictures and photos we showed before in the beginning of the class and let them name the parts and samples. • Identify the numbered regions on the plant root longitudinal section below. 1. Root Hairs 2. Zone of cell differentiation 3. Zone of cell elongation 4. Zone of cell division 5. Root Cap •
  • 60. ELABORATION After all the studies and explaining, we want them to make a concept map based on the knowledge they collected in the lesson. EVALUATION After the lecture is completed we ask different types of questions (such as grid ) to evaluate the level of their understanding. 1.ROOT HAIR 2.ENDODERMIS 3.ROOT CAP 4.PERICYCLE 5.TAP ROOT 6. GROUND TISSUE 7.VASCULER CYLINDER 8.FIBROUS ROOT 9.ZONE OF CELL DIVISION 10.ZONE OF CELL DIFFERENTIATION 11.XYLEM 12.FLOEM 13.MONOCOT 14.ZONE OF ELONGATION 15.DICOT 16.EPIDERMIS Based on this Grid the students answer the questions below. 1.In which type of root, the primary root grows long and thick while the secondary roots remain small? - 5 2.What type of root do onion,corn and grass roots have? - 8
  • 61. 3.With which structure does the root increases its surface area to absorb water and minerals? - 1 4.Between which tissues is the ground tissue located? - 2, 16 5.Vascular bundle consists of what? - 11, 12 6.The water absorbed by root hairs go throught which tissue cells to reach xylem? (In which order?) - 16 6 2 4 7.In what part of root does apical meristem located? - 9 8. Which type of plants have tap roots? - 15 At the same time we give our students worksheets containing multiple choice, fill in the blank and maching questions.
  • 62. Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Nilgün Uran Disciplines: Biology Target groups: 10 th grade Name of lesson and subject: CELL DIVISION: Meiosis Objectives: At the end of lesson, students should be able to:  Understand root structures and types;  Aware with their environment; Methods and Techniques:5E instructional model ( engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate) Short description ENGAGING At the beginning of the lesson we start of by showing pictures and schematics about the concepts of DNA molecule, chromatin fiber, chromatit, chromosome, homologous chromosome, diploid and haploid cells, crossing over, tetrat formations and etc... While showing pictures and photos about the subject, we ask questions about these terms. Chromatin fiber is made of what? Is it related to condensed chromosome form?
  • 63. What is the difference between chromatin and chrosome? Why does chromatin gets shorter and thicker? How does this process works? In this schematics , do you see the difference between diploid and haploid terms? What are the number of chromosome in diploid and haploid cells? How do diploid and haploid cells get produced? What do the term gamete means? Why do they get produced?
  • 64. From these pictures, you can see human homologous chromosomes which are grouped together in pairs. A picture of chromosome arranged in this way is known as a KARYOTYPE. Can you identify the person’s sex using karyotypes? From these pictures, can you see the difference between meiosis and mitosis cell division? What is the purpose of meiosis? In which kind of reproduction we see meiosis? What are the differences between metaphase and anaphase of mitosis from metaphase and anaphase of meiosis? What happens during metaphase I and anaphase I?
  • 65. After showing some general knowledge on mitosis and meiosis, I let my students discuss the subject with each other. EXPLORE
  • 66. ELABORATION After these studies, we give our students some meiosis models and games to reinforce their knowledge on the subject. After all the studies and explaining, we want them to make a concept map based on the knowledge they collected in the lesson.
  • 67. EVALUATION Test Questions 1. A diploid cell contains two pairs of homologous chromosomes. Each pair is heterozygous for a pair of alleles, Aa and Bb respect. After meiosis, how many different combinations of these alleles could be produced in the haploid daughter cells? a. 2 b. 4 c. 8 d. 16 e. 64 2. 2. Which of the following is a major difference between mitosis and meiosis? a. Interphase is present only in mitosis. b. Homologous chromosomes associate only in meiosis.
  • 68. c. DNA replication occurs only in mitosis. d. Daughter chromatids separate only in meiosis. e. Chromosomes line up on the cell equator only in meiosis. Result At the end of the lesson, students will individually explained Meisos by using our model to help them to retain and systematize the concepts learned and the correlation.
  • 69. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher : Gherghina Bragaru Disciplines: Biology Target groups -10th grade Name of lesson and subject : The Human Excretory System Objectives • Identify and describe the structure of the excretory system organs to explain the relationship between structure and function • Explain the nephron’s structural features as a morphofunctional unit of the kidney • Graphical representation of the excretory system components • The proper usage of terms specific to biology • Underline the importance of excretion for people’s health Teaching methods: Conversation, experiment, observation, demonstration, shaping Short description The lesson starts with the students being asked questions which lead them to a better understanding of the excretory function. Previously learnt knowledge will be used in order to study of the following functions: digestion and absorption, circulation and respiration. The following questions can be used to start the conversation:  Which are the vital substances for a proper functioning of the organism?  How does the human body secure such substances? Which functions are used?  How do the nutrients get to the body cells? Answering the questions above will make the students use the previously studied knowledge in a new context. Mentioning these problems will implicitly lead to debating the possibility of removing the toxic products resulted from burnings and cell activity
  • 70. Results At the end of the lesson, students will individually solve a puzzle to help them to retain and systematize the concepts learned and the correlation between kidney structure and its functions. This will be used as an evaluation method. https://sites.google.com/site/lsalcomeniusproject/activitati/prezentari-reuniune-de- proiect---valdepenas-spania-2013
  • 71. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teachers : Gherghina Bragaru, Catalina Nan Disciplines: Biology Target groups – 11th grade Name of lesson and subject : Genetic mutations Objectives The students will be able to understand the role of genotype in the development of phenotypic characteristics. Methods: experiment, problem-solving, learning by discovery. Short description To capture attention we present images with mutations in plants and animals. The students analyze, compare and identify the differences in organisms of the same species, above. We present a cause as the primary source of variability organisms: definition, important mutation, classification mutations, mutagenic factors. Problem: ,, Taking into account genetic recombination, explain the occurrence of the different phenotypes and their importance. The experiment:The teacher organizes students in groups,  each group is given Petri plates with biological material – Drosophila Melanogaster  students analyze, compare and identify the various characters of the organisms: they use the magnifying glass and microscope. Results Students achieve awareness of the basics, the possibilities and the methods of grasping knowledge - in terms of their own perception in particular and of the outside world in general. https://sites.google.com/site/lsalcomeniusproject/activitati/prezentari/prezentari- romania
  • 72. Name of the institution: Colegio San Agustín,Valdepenas- Spain Teacher : Benito Piña Delgado Disciplines: Physics Target groups – 4th grade Name of lesson and subject: The cell Objectives At the end of project students should be able to:  define structure of eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells;  define cell nucleus, cellular functions and chromosomes and karyotype;  define Cell reproduction and Mendel's laws;  define the inheritance in humans and the inheritance of blood groups;  define mutations. Method: Project based learning Short description  We start asking students: How is a cell?, What can you see inside an animal cell?, Have you ever seen a cell?, What difference do you find between an animal and a vegetable cell, etc..  We prepare activities based on real problems using different resources  We choose the most suitable answers given by the students and explained them the theoretical concepts behind the experiments. Vegetable Cells Students made models of vegetable cells Animal Cells Students made models of animal cells
  • 73. Resources On Line We used other resources to remember previous concepts: Structure of eukaryotic cells, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS, MEIOSIS, CELLS FUNCTION CELL ANATOMY, TRIVIAL Biology Videos Because of we don’t have a Biology Laboratory we used videos -about the cell, the genes, about clones, mutations, Mendel’s Law, etc- in our school is very difficult to prepare experiments for this subject. HOW THE CELL WORK? ,STRUCTURE OF EUKARYOTIC AND PROKARYOTIC CELLS ,MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS ,CLONES AND CLONING ,MENDEL´S LAW We prepared a video about DNA replication where all students participated as actors https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FO3cvQky5Sg Results Students learned theoretical concepts through active learning. All Biology students passed the exam but most important was all of them did not forget this active lessons because they prepared their own cells models and showed the rest of students.
  • 74. Name of the institution: Zespól Szkól we Wrzosowej, Wrzosowa- Poland Teacher : Magdalena Dróżdż- Korbyla Disciplines: Biology Target groups: 2 nd grade Name of lesson and subject: Basic molecules of living organism Objectives: At the end of project students should be able to:  understanding the role of individual chemical groups in living organisms  determining the chemical structure of compounds  detection of various chemical substances in biological material The task of the "good start"  The stock of ideas  The mental map  A laboratory method  Models  Mutual teaching – expert groups  Mutual teaching - a learning game  The revision test  Self-evaluation Methods: Experimental method, concept map, games Short description & Results: Mental Map is placed on the board and completed during the task
  • 75. Experiment 1 The research question: What elements do a protein, carbohydrates and fats consist of? The experiment in progress: an egg protein, sucrose and butter are placed in sequence in three tubes, then every of them is heated over the burner. There have been observations of water vapor and charring. Experiment 2 The research question: What elements does a protein consist of? The experiment in progress: A protein was placed in the tube, the concentrated solution of NaOH was added and it was heated. Then the moistened test paper was placed close to the outlet of the tube. During the process of heating the gas was emitted with a characteristic odor, and the paper changed its colour into blue. It was found that the emitted gas is ammonia, and thus the protein consists of nitrogen. Students make models of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and DNA in groups using the literature. Selected students also make a model of glucose, starch and cellulose. The posters with models of chemical compound formulas are hung in the classroom.
  • 76. Detecting the presence of organic compounds in the biological material– carring out simple biological and chemical experiments by students. Experiment 1 The research problem: How to detect starch in potato tubers and bread? The experiment in progress:  The positive control test was made - iodine liquid was applied to pure starch  The negative control test was made - iodine liquid was dropped into tap water  Study samples were made- iodine liquid was applied to bread and a potato tuber. There has been a colour change from brown to purple in both tests. Evaluation: The highly diluted solution of iodine in a potassium iodide is used to detect starch in the solid and liquid phase. Iodine is absorbed from a solution of odine in a potassium iodide by the starch molecules, and therefore dark blue colour appears.
  • 77. Experiment 2 The research question: In what parts of the plant do we detect glucose? The experiment in progress:  Preparing solutions of selected fruit by its trituration and connection with water.  Using urine strips to identify the presence and concentration of glucose. Evaluation: The solution of Fehling is used for detecting simple sugars and disaccharides such as glucose and maltose which have a spare ketone group. Simple sugars and disaccharides reduce cupric hydroxide to cupric oxide after adding the solution of Fehling and they get oxidised. Experiment 3 The research question: How to detect glucose and maltose? The experiment in progress:  Dissole 50 g of sugar: grape,beet,sun membrane in 3 tubes, in afew distilled water. In 4 th test tube mix 2 solutions: Fehling I and II.  Then add a few drops of this mixture to every tube with sugar.  Heat the tubes carefully over the burner tube.
  • 78. Experiment 4 The research question: Where is the biggest amount of fats? The experiment in progress:  The materials needed: sunflower seeds, almonds, walmnuts, paper napkins  We grind a small amount of the materials on the napkins.  We decide if the product contain fat stains or not while holding it in the sun. Evaluation: Fats, as a substance deposited in the seeds, can be detected relatively easy by using the so-called test ‘fat stain’. While the stains left on the paper because of water or essential oils, they dry up quickly. Fat stains are permanent. Experiment 5 The research question: How can we "see" the lipids? The experiment in progress: Prepare thin sections of sunflower seeds and subject them to the action of hot Sudan III, heating gently over the blowpipe, make preparations to observe, perform a microscopic observation. Experiment 6 The research problem: Is there the protein in cottage cheese, an egg and an apple? The experiment in progress: Put some cottage cheese, a white part of an egg and some apple into the tubes, add a little nitric acid by a pipette (caution!) Heat over the blowpipe softly.
  • 79. Evaluation: Cheese and a white part of an egg changed the colour to a yellow one under the influence of concentrated nitric acid. It indicates the presence of protein in this product (the xantoprotein reaction) Learning the functions of compound groups – ‘expertgroups’ – the element of mutual learning Expert groups – the class divided into four groups work with the Internet and the coursebook. Every group deals with one kind of compound – proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and fats. After some time one representative of the group joins another group and teaches them about the function as an expert. Biochemical ‘Peter’ : ‘Memory’ A didactic game - the element of mutual learning – one group prepares a card game for the other group in which the cards must be matched in pairs. Example pairs: starch – the spare material of plants , glucose – C6H12O6, cellulose – the building, ingredient of the plant cell wall, the revision test – the teacher asks students to write the answer on the piece of paper. The teacher writes the correct answer on the blackboard during this time. Students verify their answers. After
  • 80. several quwstions students carry out self-evaluation. Self-evaluation – students check validity of the tasks done by specifying in which stage they acquired knowledge the most.
  • 81. SCIENCE DAY ACTIVITIES
  • 82. PHYSICS Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Ayse Ruhsah Erduygun Disciplines: Physics Target groups: 10th grade Experiment: Design a bridge by using only cardboard for carrying two person Purpose: To learn equlibrium Materials: Thick cardboard, glue Procedure:  Create 4 group from students  Give 5 hard cardboard (each 50*50 cm) to each group.  Design a bridge by using only cardboard for carrying two person  Select best one. Conclusion: We can learn equilibrium. If the bridge is in equilibrium, it’s net force will be zero. 4 students design their own bridge. We tested it in our laboratuary. It carried approximately maximum 210 kilograms.
  • 83. Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Ayse Ruhsah Erduygun Disciplines: Physics Target groups: 11 th grade Experiment: A New Method for Finding Curie Tempreture Purpose: to determine Curie temperature of ferromagnetic materials in the harmonic motion with increasing temperature by using new optical method. Materials: Ferromagnetic materials (10 g of iron, magnetite, unknown sample in the form of rectangular block), NdFeB permanent magnet, wire, polarized laser source (600nm, 200 mW), polarizer, fotodiode, digital oscilloscope, candle. Figure 1. Experimental set-up Figure 2. Heating process  Figure 1 shows the experimental setup to measure Curie temperature of materials. When the sample heated by candle, it shows ferromagnetic behaviour up to Curie temperature.  When the sample reached A, temperature of sample decreased Curie temperature. It went to B again because of ferromagnetic properties. If this motion is continous, periodic motion was obseved. (a) ( b ) Figure 5. Experimental set-up (a)Magnetite (b) Optical measuremet  When all samples were used in the set-up, the periode of iron, magnetite and unknown samples between A and B points were observed different.  The differencies between samples were detected by using polarized laser source (600nm, 200 mW), polarizer, photodiode. A new set-up added to system.Polarizer attached to wire that carried ferromagnetic sample. Laser and photodiode were placed shown at Figure 5(b). Magnetite Ferromagnetic material Heat
  • 84.  When samples were heated to Curie temperature, periodic motion began. The measurements were taken by using photodiodes. Wave shape of an electrical signal were observed by using oscilloscopes. Figure 6. Oscilloscope Results : For all measurements, period of sample was found proportional to Curie temperature. Sample İron Magnetite Unknown Period(ms) 525 425 310 Curie temperature (K) 1043 858 ? Table 1. Period-Curie temperature In this study, the change of period values were important for finding Curie temperature.. According to table 1, Curie temperature of ıron is highest, its cooling time is very long. Period of samples are related to this duration. This equation give us T= 645 K. This value is approximately Nickel’s Curie temperature. According to measurement, unkown material was estimates as nickel or nickel alloy. Conclusıon: Curie temperatures of sample were obtained by new technique. The results of period change was investigated by opto-electrical measurement. This experimental results and calculations show that Curie temperature can find by using new method.
  • 85. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher: Cristina Anghel Disciplines: Physics Target groups – 10th grade Experiments: The electric motor Purpose The working of the electric motor can be understood by watching the actions of a bobbin placed in a magnetic field when it is crossed by electric current. Materials Copper wire with a diameter of 0.2 to 0.5 mm Iron nails A Tin Procedures Electromagnets are made of iron nails that wraps 2-3 lines of turns (about 200 to 300 turns) The coil is made of two iron nails head assembled tail, which is wound the same number of turns. Direction of winding copper wire is the same as the coil and the electromagnets. The shaft is made of a bike spoke, or knitting needle. Collector lamellae are cut from the lid of a tin and stick to collector. What happens to the bobbin when it is crossed by electric current? A bobbin, whose sides are parallel with the lines of the magnetic field in which it is placed, rotates with 90 degrees, when the bobbin is crossed by electric current. How can we maintain the turning round of the bobbin? If we want the bobbin to rotate continuously we must change the direction of the electric current through the whirls. For this reason it was created a device built from two plates, assembled on the bobbin’s axis. These plates, isolated one from another, are connected with the heads of the wire of the bobbin and they rotate at the same time with the bobbin. Each plate of the collector has a fix conductor named collector brush.
  • 86. Changing the direction of the electric current through the whirls of the bobbin, after each turn around of 180 degrees, the bobbin rotates in the same direction continuously.
  • 87. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher: Cristina Anghel Disciplines: Physics Target groups – 11th grade Experiments: Coupled oscillators Purpose Highlighting the energy transfer between two coupled oscillators. Many important physics systems involved coupled oscillators. Coupled oscillators are oscillators connected in such a way that energy can be transferred between them. The motion of coupled oscillators can be complex, and does not have to be periodic. Materials Fixed stand, yarns, balls ( or any objects that can be suspended) Procedures If we imprint a movement to an oscillator that it's in an equilibrium position, the energy of the movement will be transmitted to the other oscillator after some time. The first oscillator will lose it's energy while the other oscillator will retrieve the energy transferred from the first. The students will have the opportunity to prove their creativity by making their own models.
  • 88. Name of the institution: Colegio San Agustín,Valdepenas- Spain Teacher : Benito Piña Delgado Disciplines: Physics Target groups – 4th grade Experiments : Water rocket Purpose: To make water rocket Materials:  Two 1250 ml pop bottles  An inflater  Four card boards  Tape/ Glue gun Procedure:  Prepare two 1250 ml PET bottles.  Cut one of the bottles into three parts. Please keep the bottles top and middle section.  Stick the bottles top into the other PET bottle’s bottom part.  Stick the first bottle’s middle section into the second bottle’s top part. (Please use the insulating tape.)  Cut four acrylic boards as the four empennages of the rocket.  Pour about 200 ml Water into the bottle.  Cap the rocket into the inflater ready to launch.  Put the rocket into the launch pad.  Pump the air into the bottle.  Make sure the atmospheric pressure in the bottle is about 70~75 percent. 
  • 89. Results: We prepared a rocket, using water as fuel. It reached around 60m
  • 90. CHEMISTRY Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Zülfiye Çidam Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups: 11 th grade Experiment: Precipitation Purpose: To observe the chemical reaction between two aqueous solution. Materials:  Potassium Iodide (KI)  Lead (II) Nitrate(Pb(NO3)2)  Distilled water  250 mL erlenmayer  Funnel  Spaula Procedure:  Prepare 3 mL 2M potassium iodide (KI) solution in erlenmayer  Prepare 3 mL 2M Lead (II) Nitrate in another erlenmayer.  Mix them properly by using funnel.  Then filter the precipitation from the mixture.
  • 91. Results: A precipitation reaction is a reaction in which soluble ions in separate solutions are mixed together to form an insoluble compound that settles out of solution as a solid. That insoluble compound is called a precipitate. Potasium Iodide and Lead (II) Nitrate are salts of colorless solutions. When we mix them Potassium Iodide are formed and this compound has yellow color and unsoluble.The other compound is Potassium Nitrate which is soluble. 2KI(çöz) + Pb(NO3)2(çöz) -----> 2KNO3(çöz) + PbI2(k)
  • 92. Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Zülfiye Çidam Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups: 11 th grade Experiment: Forming Soap Bubbles Purpose: To observe the exothermic Materials:  Liquid Soap  Hidrogen Peroxite (H2o2)  Potassium Iodide  Gratuated Cyclinder Procedure:  Pour 30 ml liquid soap in gratuated cyclinder.  Add food coloring and 40 ml hidrogen peroxite (h2o2).  Mix and shake the mixture properly.  Add potassium ıodide slowly.
  • 93. Results: Hidrogen peroxite (h2o2) and iodide to form oxygen gas. Ki used as a catalyst. And liquid soap used to make bubbles while oxgen released.
  • 94. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher: Georgeta Nicula Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups – age of students/ grade - 16 - 17 Experiments : Iron Corrosion Purpose The corrosion is a process in which metals are converted into oxides or other compounds. This process causes a gradual damage of the metals. In this experiment they investigate some of the factors involved in the corrosion process Materials:  4 new nails  copper wire  a Zn band  agar ( gelatin)  water  K3[Fe(CN)6] 0,1M  phenolphthalein 0,1%  2 Petri boxes Procedures  Prepare about 100 ml agar solution as it follows:  Heat about 100 ml distilled water to a gentle boil. Add 1 g of agar powder. Continue heating and stir until agar is dispersed. In the agar solution about 5 drops of 0,1 M potasium ferricyanide and 3 drops of 0,1% phenolphthalein solution are added. Shake it.  The four new nails are prepared as it follows:  One right – angled bend  One surrounded with a copper wire  Another will be surrounded by a zinc band  The fourth remains unchanged  In a Petri box put a normal nail and the right-angled bent one and in another Petri box put two nails surrounded by copper wire and zinc band, without touching each other.  Add carefully the warm and still fluid solution in Petri boxes until the nails and the pieces attached are covered with about 0,5 cm of liquid.  Students notice what happens to the boxes. The boxes are kept till the next day when new observations are made. Results  Corrosion occurs rapidly when the subject suffers mechanical stress.  Some metals such as magnesium and zinc delay rusting and metals less active than iron accelerates corrosion.
  • 95.  Magnesium and zinc in contact with iron anode and force iron to act as a cathode and it doesn’t corrode.
  • 96. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher: Georgeta Nicula Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups – 10th grade Experiments : The manufacture of soap Purpose Since the beginning of the humankind, people have been interested in keeping their bodies clean. Many recipes for soap have been used in history. The Egyptians discovered a mixture of vegetable and animal oils and alkaline salts, which created a certain type of soap used both for treating skin disease and for cleaning, as mentioned in The Jews Papyrus (a medical document). Alkaline hydrolysis (the saponification of fats) was made by French chemist Nicholas Leblanc in 1791. Twenty years later it began the manufacturing of the modern soap, thanks to Michel Eugene Chevreul, another French chemist. The main raw materials/substances for obtaining soap are animal and vegetable fats. C3H5 – (OCOR)3 + 3NaOH  3R-COONa + C3H5 (OH)3 Triglycerides (fat) Na salt of a fatty acid glycerin Materials: different fats, 30-40% NaOH sol, sodium chloride, (Ethyl) alcohol Procedures: place in a capsule 3 g fat, 3 ml alcohol and 3ml NaOH, while stirring with a rod and heat on a water bath until it begins to boil. After several minutes, the mixture quickly becomes homogenous and fat saponification is completely finished. To the obtained solution, you may add a warm saturated solution of sodium chloride, stirring with a rod. The mixture is disturbed/ unsettled and at the surface of the liquid a layer of soap that floats separates. After the mixture was submitted by maintaining capsule in the water bath, you sink the capsule into a pot/recipient with cold water a few minutes and you will observe the formation of a layer of soap which solidifies.
  • 97. Name of the institution: Colegio San Agustín,Valdepenas- Spain Teacher : Benito Piña Delgado Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups – 4th grade Experiments : Acetic Acid and Calcium Carbonate Purpose: To observe acid and base reaction Materials and Procedure: Results It creates carbon dioxide and calcium acetate and water. The carbon dioxide bubbles off and leaves a solution of calcium acetate. It can then be boiled and it will turn into calcium acetate crystals as the water boils off as steam. CaCO3 + 2CH3COOH ------> CO2 + H2O + Ca(CH3COO)2 We encouraged them to start experimenting with chemical reactions within a controlled enviroment:
  • 98. Name of the institution: Colegio San Agustín,Valdepenas- Spain Teacher : Benito Piña Delgado Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups – 4th grade Experiments : A Cake In Three Minutes Purpose: To learn mixtures, emulsions, solutions, etc Materials and Procedure: 8 spoonfuls flour 8 spoonfuls sugar 4 spoonfuls cocoa powder 6 spoonfuls milk 6 spoonfuls sunflower oil 2 eggs 3 minutes in the microwave Our students had to make a machine and they had to put a egg in. When the machine fell from 7 meters, the egg does not break
  • 99. Result: We finished our lesson preparing a delicious and sweet chemical reaction in 3 minutes.We prepared a CREATIVITY CONTEST.
  • 100. Name of the institution: Zespól Szkól we Wrzosowej, Wrzosowa- Poland Teacher : Justyna Wilk Disciplines: Chemistry Target groups: 2 nd grade Experiment: How to detect starch in potato tubers and bread? Purpose: To detect the presence of organic compounds in the biological material – carring out simple biological and chemical experiments by students. Materials and Procedure:  The positive control test was made - iodine liquid was applied to pure starch  The negative control test was made - iodine liquid was dropped into tap water  Study samples were made- iodine liquid was applied to bread and a potato tuber. There has been a colour change from brown to purple in both tests. Result &Conclusion: The highly diluted solution of iodine in a potassium iodide is used to detect starch in the solid and liquid phase. Iodine is absorbed from a solution of iodine in a potassium iodide by the starch molecules, and therefore dark blue colour appears.
  • 101. BIOLOGY Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Nilgün Uran Disciplines: Biology Target groups: 9 th grade Experiment: Determinatıon of Glucose in Different Foods Purpose: to determinate of glucose in different foods by using indicators Materials: Various food stuff - Tangerine - Orange - Lemon - Apple - Grape - Honey - Tomato Procedure: 1. Placed a piece of nutrients in test tubes. 2. Drop fehling or benedict solution İn test tube . 3. Keep the tube in hot water bath for a period. 4. Observe color change. Equipments: - 7 test tube - Beaker (500 mL) - Water, - Bunsen burner Benedict solution or Fehling solution
  • 102. Results: Benedict or fehling solution is indicators for glucose. When these indicators is dropped on nutrient which contains glucose, brick red color is observed. The greater the ratio of glucose in food that becomes darker red color. According to the amount of glucose in foods, foods are sequenced from highest to lowest as follow: Honey>Apple>Tomatos>Grape>Tangarine>Lemon
  • 103. Name of the institution: TAKEV Fen Lisesi, İzmir-Turkey Teacher : Nilgün Uran Disciplines: Biology Target groups: 9 th grade Experiment: Transportatıon from Semı-Permeable Membrane wıth Dıffusıon Purpose: to show the diffusion of small molecules by using a semi-permeable membrane of intestine Materials: • 20% glucose solution • Starch solution • Iodine solution • Benedict solution (Fehling's solution) • İntestine membrane • 6 beakers • Graduated cylinder • Pipette Dropper • Rope • Hot water bath • Test tube • Absorbent paper • Sensitive balance Procedure: -A- -Fill the membrane sac with starch solution from open end. -Connect firmly and thoroughly the open ends of membrane sac. -Wash and dry the membrane sac to avoid starch infection. -Put the membrane sac in the beaker which is filled with water and iodine solution(add 5 ml of iodine solution for 50 ml water). -Wait 1 hour. -Observe color change of outside and inside of the membrane sac. -Remove the membrane sac from beaker and then transfer the liquid of sac to beaker. -Observe color change.
  • 104. -B- -Fill the membrane sac with glucose solution from open end. -Connect firmly and thoroughly the open ends of membrane sac. -Wash and dry the membrane sac to avoid glucose infection. -Put the membrane sac in the beaker which is filled with water and benedict solution (add 5 ml of benedict solution for 50 ml water) and then put it in hot water bath. -Observe color change of outside and inside of the membrane sac. -Remove the membrane sac from beaker and then transfer he liquid of sac to beaker. -Observe color change. Results: Pure water in beaker and lugol's solution , "selectively permeable," the small intestine in the starch solution is to leave for 1 day, then control when to small molecules that have lugol in the small intestine through starch solution, mixed and starch of the solution to the color of the darkblue color it is. In this order of pure water - lugol's solution of iodine, the amount of variation in the solution also the color will appear. Also in the bowel and water - iodine solutions, a total of iodine are of equal value. In this experiment, the starch molecule, and because of this the solution of pure water - iodine solution and the transition could not.
  • 105. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher: Gherghina Bragaru Disciplines: Biology Target groups – age of students/ grade - 16 - 17 Experiments : THE PLANT CELL – STRUCTURE Materials  Red or white onion bulb  Microscope  Glass slides and lamellae  Petri bowl with water  Dropper  Lance like needle  Bistoury  Tweezers  Scissors  Filter strip or blotting paper  Dyestuff - methyl blue, iodine in potassium iodide Procedures  Section the bulb onion  Detach the epidermis on the internal leaf’s surface( the concave side) using a pair of tweezers  Put the epidermis in a Petri bowl which contains water or dyestuff  Wash the colored preparation with water  Cut the epidermis in chips, put it on a glass slide in one drop of water  Cover the preparation with a lamella  The water excess is absorbed with blotting paper Results, conclusion You will notice:  a single-layered tissue  prozenchimatic cells, without intercellular spaces, closely connected  cell wall dotted from place to place  cellulosic membrane  one bright, ball-shaped nucleus in each cell, centrally located for the young cells or partially for the grown-up ones  abundant cytoplasm around the nucleus  one or a few vacuoles with cell sap: - the young cells have a greater number of vacuoles - the grown-up cells have less vacuoles; only one large vacuole sometimes
  • 106. Name of the institution: Tudor Vianu High School – Giurgiu, Romania Teacher: Gherghina Bragaru Disciplines: Biology Target groups – age of students/ grade - 16 - 17 Experiments : PLASMOLYSIS AND CYTOLYSIS (OSMOTIC LYSIS Purpose: Plasmolysis is the process in which the volume of the protoplast in a living cell is reduced, after reducing the quantity of water inside it, especially cell sap, using an external hypotonic solution. Cytolysis/ osmotic lysis occurs by the introduction of water in the cell, which makes the volume of the protoplast become as it was. REQUIRED MATERIALS:  bulbs onion (Allium cepa)  hypertonic KNO3- 1M (NaCl or 5-7% sucrose)  glass slides and lamellae  filter paper or blotting paper  microscope MODE OF ACTION:  Section the onion bulb  Remove a part of the superior epidermis  Place the material on the glass slide  Apply the lamella  Put 1-2 drops of sodium chloride solution or a solution which contains 5-7% sucrose  Analyze it under a microscope  Notice how the saline solution or the sucrose come in between the glass slide and the lamella form a hypertonic environment around the biological material RESULT: The cell’s membrane and the vacuole’s membrane have selective permeability Due to the hypertonic exterior solution:  the vacuoles constrict, diminishing  the water in the vacuoles goes outside  the cells lose water  the protoplasm detach from the cellulosic wall PLASMOLYSIS: 1. Incipient plasmolysis  The detachment is only at the cell’s corner 2. Concave plasmolysis  During the first 3 minutes – the detachment is made in another areas as well 3. Convex plasmolysis (final)  During the next 10-15 minutes, when the detachment is on large sections, getting a convex shape
  • 107. Name of the institution: Zespól Szkól we Wrzosowej, Wrzosowa- Poland Teacher : Magdalena Dróżdż- Korbyla Disciplines: Biology Target groups: 2 nd grade Experiment: How to see DNA? Purpose: To observe DNA Materials and Procedure: Mix 170 ml of water with a half teaspoon of salt and stir it well, pour thesolution into a beaker with two teaspoons of dish washing fluid, add somechopped onion. ‘Heat onion soup for about 10 minutes. Then cool themixture gradually and mix it for about 3 seconds. Filter everything and pour it into the beakers. Pour frozen alcohol (the same amount as the substances in the beakers), pour it carefully on the beaker walls. Result: DNA is created after a while on the breaking of two substances.
  • 108. SCIENCE DAY IN ROMANIA On the second of April, Tudor Vianu Highschool organized „Science Day”,an event which has as main purpose to valuate the results of the Comenius Project „Learning science through active learning” project meant to stimulate students’ interest in studying sciences. The activity was a partnership which involved „Academician Marin Voiculescu” School, „Saint Gheorghe” School and School Nr. 7 from Giurgiu.The activity was planned in two sections and included experiments in the highschool laboratories (Physics, Chemistry and Biology) and a section of scientific presentations.Highschool students showed their younger guests scale models and experimental SLIDES which underline the way some physical or chemical phenomena happen and some demonstrations which were first presented in project meetings such as the electric motor, photovoltaic cell, continuous current circuits, the creation of a galvanic element, the way soap is produced, the way we get a nitric dye, obtaining fresh microscopic preparations, highlighting plasmolisys.The event was interactive, each participant could experiment and get the information he needed. At the end of the activities, the presented materials were appreciated as being instructive, useful, funny.100 pupils and 50 highschool students attended the activity, which was coordinated by the Physics, Chemistry and Biology teachers: Cristina Anghel, Cristina Soare, Georgeta Nicula and Gherghina Bragaru.
  • 109. SCIENCE DAY IN SPAIN 4th SCIENCE WEEK From: 26th March To: 30th March
  • 110. SCIENCE DAY IN POLAND We organised Family Picnik. There we prepared the box with Comenius project. There were exhibitions of our trips,works, activities of our project. Parents, students and local community were able to see the work and photos of your children in the program. In addition, we showed experiments. The students were dressed in T-shirts of Comenius. All experiments were very impressive and focused a lot of viewers especially young children. We made presentations of experiments. We wanted to show that we can be fun with learning and it does not have to be boring. It has to be a motivation for further work. We also have composed such a dynamic background music.
  • 111. SCIENCE DAY IN TURKEY
  • 112. POSTERS Student Theodor Pita – Tudor Vianu High School
  • 113. Realized to artistically present the collaboration of all countries that were partners during the project, but also to emphasize the fact that science can be funny if we deal with it in a proper way, the poster was enthusiastically perceived by the audience in the posters contest in Poland . Biology – the circulatory system Students Madalin Macaneata and Lavinia Soava, Tudor Vianu High School Created by studens, this poster is used in classes because it facilitates the understanding of certain concepts and it offers a great overview of the circulatory system. While being used during classes, it stimulates knowledge, curiosity and the competition spirit for future similar materials to be realized. It underlines the way each student illustrates knowldge gained durin the Biology classes.
  • 114. Chemistry – Polymers Students Roxana Buzea and Ionela Sirbu, Tudor Vianu High School The Chemistry lessons in the curriculum can be realised in a way that is more attractive for students. Using an interactive application, the poster was created in collaboration and it presents the way of understanding the contents. The main parts of the lesson are organised in such a manner as to become more accessible for all the students. The use of pictures arouses a greater interest in the information contained in the mentioned chapter.
  • 115. Physics- Electromagnetic waves Student Madalin Macaneata, Tudor Vianu High School The poster was created as a result of collaborative learning activities and as a means of active learning. The purpose of the activity was to integrate tasks based on investigation and research, to extend the communication to the students outside the school area and to create a learning space where the use of digital instruments/tools is possible. The topic was discussed in classes during the last school year and the poster was used as an auxiliary element. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xpS9LzrOo4A
  • 116. Student Deniz Cantimur, TAKEV Fen Lisesi
  • 117. Student Selin Aktaş, TAKEV Fen Lisesi
  • 118. Student Yonca Yunatçı, TAKEV Fen Lisesi
  • 119. Students:Ivan Jimenez, Sandra Cruz, Maria Bellon, Colegio San Agustín
  • 120. Student: Karolina Kamińska ,Zespól Szkól we Wrzosowej
  • 121. Student: Monika Skrzypczak, Zespól Szkól we Wrzosowej
  • 122. Student: Paweł Parafiniuk, Zespól Szkól we Wrzosowej
  • 123. PROJECT MEETINGS
  • 124. COMENIUS MEETING IN TURKEY 17-19 NOVEMBER, 2011 November 17h :Welcome to Turkey and our school  School guided tour, visiting General Manager and School Principal  Introduction of Izmir and our school -Partners school and country introduction  Presentation about Turkish Education System and active learning in Science education  Presentation of partner countries’ education system  Making plan of the 1st year of project (Creating new methods for Physics,Chemisty and Biology subjects)  Discussion of partners’ tasks
  • 125. November 18th : Old İzmir (Smyrna) guided tour November 19th :Visiting Virgin Mary’s house and Ephesus
  • 126. COMENIUS MEETING IN ROMANIA 3-5 MAY 2012 The second project meeting took place in 2-6 May 2012 at Tudor Vianu Highschool, in Giurgiu, Romania. According to the purpose of the project, this meeting result was the practice exchange and sharing experience by presenting the outcome of the work of each institution, partner in the project. During the first workday, each teacher, member of the project team, presented his/her lesson plans, debate the lesson plans, and planning the next project activities. Students involved in practising the didactic projects (both Romanian students and guest foreign students) took part in the presentation and they had the opportunity to explain or present certain parts of the lessons. Also, they answered the questions of the teachers who realised the lesson plans. The students who took part in the presentation were divided into mixed teams and they had to answer a 14 question Science Quiz. Each institution partner in the project contributed in the making of the quiz.
  • 127. During the Romanian meeting project, there were organised 2 thematic visits. The first one was at the Technical Museum “Dimitrie Leonida”, in Bucharest, where the students and the teachers took part in an interactive electricity lesson. The second thematic trip was at Comana Natural Reservation. The trips offered the participants the opportunity to discuss about the role of the non-formal education in increasing the students’ interest in science. At Comana, the students and the teachers participated to a workshop at the Paper Mill, where they created their own handmade paper. The activity had a positive impact on students as they expressed their will to experience together, discovering the universality of the practiced crafts.
  • 128. COMENIUS MEETING IN POLAND 4-6 OCTOBER 2012 October 4th : The partners'visit at zespół szkół in wrzosowa  The guided tour at our school accompanied by the head teacher alicja janowska  Our guests' participation in lessons prepared by our teachers
  • 129.  The presentation of experiments and posters in the school gym for all our students  Experiments made by the students participating in the project
  • 130.  The evening meeting at school with the presence of the local folk dance group wrzosowianie October 5th : Visiting cracov  Sightseeing kazimierz - the jew district in cracov  Students in the science garden - making experiments  Guided tour of the wawel castle and the old town in cracov
  • 131. October 6th :  Visiting the black madonna monastery - a religious centre of oland  Sightseeing częstochowa  The official farewell dinner
  • 132. COMENIUS MEETING IN SPAIN 6-8 JUNE 2013 June 6th : • Welcome to San Agustín School. • Guided Tour. • Teachers and students introduce their countries, cities and schools. • Teachers introduce their active lessons. • Teachers prepare final report. • Welcome dinner at school
  • 133. June 7th :  Guided Tour in TOLEDO, visiting: Cathedral Alcazar Old Jewish Quarter Transito Synagogue Monasterio San Juan de los Reyes
  • 134. June 8th : Guided Tour in VALDEPEÑAS, visiting: Wine Museum Aruspides Wineries Gregorio Prieto Windmill
  • 135. CONCLUSION The main idea of the project is that starting from active learning concepts to involve pupils, teachers and schools in developing a new approach in teaching and learning science. Each teacher involved was welcome to bring in the project personal experiences and personal suggestion in building new lessons; each pupil involved in the project was stimulated to use his/her energy and creativity in developing interesting activities as logo competition, project poster competition, science day. By this project, between 51 teachers and 429 pupils shared experience over active learning methods in science education such as informal activities etc. in science education. We developed several active based science activities and lesson plans which can be applied in every class condition. By project meetings we adjusted the calendar or the distribution of tasks, in order to rise the quality of the project. In all activities we were in good cooperation to improve the project implementation.Our students were improved(14-18 years old) knowledge, understanding and skills by fully integrating the project into each schools curriculum and by the extensive use of information technology to share both process and outcomes. During the project everybody contributed in execution of different products. This booklet is one of our products and the summary of all studies in our 3 years.