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Integrating a Domain Ontology Development Environment and an Ontology Search Engine

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In order to reduce the cost of building domain ontologies manually, in this paper, we propose a method and a tool named DODDLE-OWL for domain ontology construction reusing texts and existing …

In order to reduce the cost of building domain ontologies manually, in this paper, we propose a method and a tool named DODDLE-OWL for domain ontology construction reusing texts and existing ontologies extracted by an ontology search engine: Swoogle. In the experimental evaluation, we applied the method to a particular field of law and evaluated the acquired ontologies.

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  • 1. Integrating a Domain Ontology Development Environment and an Ontology Search Engine Takeshi MORITA a,b , Noriaki IZUMI c , and Takahira YAMAGUCHI a a Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Japan b Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science c National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan 8th Joint Conference on Knowledge - Based Software Engineering 2008 ( JCKBSE 08 ) , August 25-28, 2008, Piraeus, Greece
  • 2. Table of Contents • Motivation –Backgrounds, Issues, Goal • System Overview • Implementation • Case Studies • Conclusions
  • 3. Backgrounds: Semantic Web and Domain Ontology Web Resources Metadata Domain Ontologies People Software Agents understanding and inference common understanding Large Cost with building up manually ! Ontologies on the web have increased (over 10,000 as of 2007) Ontology Search Engines search ontologies, classes, properties texts Ontology Construction Tools (semi-) automatic construction General Ontologies
  • 4. (semi-) automatic construction Issues texts Ontology Construction Tools (Text2Onto, OntoLT, DODDLE-OWL, etc) General Ontologies Initial Domain Ontology Domain Ontology Refinement Knowledge Engineering Techniques Natural Language Processing Data-mining Method Existing Ontologies Large Cost with refining initial domain ontology Ontology Search Engines http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person http://xmlns.com/wordnet/1.6/Person http://swrc.ontoware.org/ontology#Person http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#Person http://www.aktors.org/ontology/portal#Person http://ebiquity.umbc.edu/ontology/person.owl#Person http://www.w3.org/2002/03owlt/imports/support003-A#Person http://inferenceweb.stanford.edu/2004/03/iw.owl#Person ・・・・・ Ranking ontologies by their popularity Ontologies on the web Not all popular ontologies are reusable
  • 5. Goal Texts DODDLE-OWL: A Domain Ontlogy rapiD DeveLopment Environment Web Ontology Language extension DODDLE-OWL: A Domain Ontlogy rapiD DeveLopment Environment Web Ontology Language extension Taxonomic Relationships Other Relationships Domain OntologyDomain Ontology Previous Work WordNet EDR Refer General OntologiesGeneral Ontologies Proposal Ontology Alignment Existing Ontologies Acquiring Ontologies Ranking Ontologies Extracting Elements
  • 6. System Overview Ontology Alignment Ontology Refinement Domain Ontology Input Term Selection Ranking Ontologies Reference Ontologies Input Concept Selection Extracting Elements Acquiring Ontologies Ontology Construction Texts
  • 7. Acquiring and Ranking Ontologies Input Terms Existing Ontologies Step5: Removing the unnecessary properties Step6: Extracting Elements Step7: Ranking Ontologies URIs of Classes Step2: Acquiring the properties rdfs:domain rdfs:range Property Class Class URIs of Properties Step3: Acquiring the classes rdfs:domain rdfs:range Property Class Class rdfs:label Step1: Acquiring the classes and properties Property “Input Term” Class “Input Term” rdfs:label Step4: Acquiring the ontologies URIs of Classes
  • 8. Step6: Extracting Elements A existing ontology described in OWL Concepts (classes and properties) Labels of Concepts Descriptions of Concepts Super-subrelations Other relations Ontological Elements Finding concepts related to input terms Word sense disambiguation Constructing Taxonomic relationships Constructing Other relationships Essential for ontologies
  • 9. Step7: Ranking Ontologies • Ranking measure –The ratio of input concept in the ontology (Main) • Proposed –OntoRank (Complementary) • used by Swoogle • Ranking by popularity
  • 10. Implementation • Java Language • Using Library – Jena: a Java framework for building Semantic Web applications • Exporting ontology in OWL format • Extracting elements with SPARQL – JWNL: Java WordNet Library – SS-Tagger: English Tagger – GoSen: morphological analysis library for Japanese • Extended Modules – Acquiring Ontologies Module – Extracting Elements Module
  • 11. Acquiring Ontologies Module Type Swoogle Web Service Input Output (1) Search ontology search keyword List of SWO which relates to the input search keyword (3) Search terms search keyword List of SWT which relates to the input search keyword (4) Digest semantic web document SWD Swoogle Metadata for the input SWD (13) List documents using term SWT List of SWD defining/referencing/ populating the input SWT (16) List domain classes of a property property List of classes which are used as the rdfs:domain of the input property (17) List properties of a domain class class List of properties which use the input class as their rdfs:domain (18) List range classes of a property property List of classes which are used as the rdfs:range of the input property (19) List properties of a range class class List of properties which use the input class as their rdfs:range The selected Swoogle web services and their inputs and outputs [1] Search ontology [2] Search documents [3] Search terms [4] Digest semantic web document [5] Digest semantic web term [6] Digest semantic web namespace [7] list document out-links [8] list document in-links [9] list terms in document [10] list namespaces used by document [11] list terms using namespace [12] list documents using namespace [13] list documents using term [14] list term definition [15] list definition dependency [16] list domain classes of a property [17] list properties of a domain class [18] list range classes of a property [19] list properties of a range class Swoogle provides 19 types of search services using REST interface Selecting 8 types of REST web-service interfaces, which can be used for acquiring existing ontologies
  • 12. An Example of Swoogle Web Service http://logos.cs.umbc.edu:8080/swoogle31/q? & queryType=search_swt & searchString=(label:person) (type:owl.class OR type.rdfs.class) &key=demo A REST query for searching person classes service URI parameters <rdf:RDF> <swoogle:QueryResponse>... <swoogle:hasResult> <rdf:Seq> <rdf:li> <wob:SemanticWebTerm rdf:about="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person"> <swoogle:hasTermRank>16848.3765738951</swoogle:hasTermRank> <swoogle:usesNamespace> <wob:SemanticWebNamespace rdf:about="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"/> </swoogle:usesNamespace> <swoogle:hasLocalname>Person</swoogle:hasLocalname> </wob:SemanticWebTerm> </rdf:li> <rdf:li><wob:SemanticWebTerm rdf:about="http://xmlns.com/wordnet/1.6/Person"> ..... </rdf:li> <rdf:li><wob:SemanticWebTerm rdf:about="http://swrc.ontoware.org/ontology#Person"> .....</rdf:li> </rdf:Seq> </swoogle:hasResult> </swoogle:QueryResponse> </rdf:RDF> Output: person classes and their attributes http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person http://xmlns.com/wordnet/1.6/Person http://swrc.ontoware.org/ontology#Person http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#Person http://www.aktors.org/ontology/portal#Person http://ebiquity.umbc.edu/ontology/person.owl#Person http://www.w3.org/2002/03owlt/imports/support003-A#Person http://inferenceweb.stanford.edu/2004/03/iw.owl#Person ・・・・・ Extracting classes using Jena
  • 13. Acquiring Ontologies Module Input Terms URIs of Classes URIs of Properties Existing Ontologies Step2: Acquiring the properties rdfs:domain rdfs:range Property Step3: Acquiring the classes rdfs:domain rdfs:range Property Step4: Acquiring the ontologies Step5: Removing the unnecessary properties Step6: Extracting Elements Step7: Ranking Ontologies rdfs:label Step1: Acquiring the classes and properties Property “Input Term” Class “Input Term” rdfs:label Class Class Class Class URIs of Classes (3) Search terms (17) List properties of a domain class (19) List properties of a range class (16) List domain classes of a property (18) List range classes of a property (1) Search ontology (4) Digest semantic web document (13) List documents using term Step1 Step2 Step3 Step4
  • 14. Extracting Elements Module PREFIX rdfs: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# SELECT ?label ?description WHERE { { rdfs:label ?label} UNION { rdfs:comment ?description} } An extracting labels and descriptions template for RDFS and OWL The five types of templates described in SPARQL: classes, properties, labels and descriptions, super-subrelations, and other relations URI1 rdfs:label goods URI2 rdfs:label payment URI3 rdfs:label price URI4 rdfs:label party URI5 rdfs:label person Ontology goods, payment, price, party, person URI1 rdfs:label goods URI2 rdfs:label payment URI3 rdfs:label price URI4 rdfs:label party URI5 rdfs:label person Ontology price ?concept ?conceptURI3 URI3
  • 15. Case Studies Target Domain A particular field of law Input Document CISG (Contract for the International Sale of Goods) Part-II Language English # of Input Terms 46 Specification We evaluated our proposed method especially for the acquiring and ranking of existing ontologies.
  • 16. Results Rank # of Input Concepts (OntoRank) URL of Ontology 1 15 (0.881) http://www.loa-cnr.it/ontologies/OWN/OWN.owl 2 15 (0.881) http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/BestPractices/WNET/wnNounsyn_v7.owl 3 12 (642.815) http://morpheus.cs.umbc.edu/aks1/ontosem.owl 4 12 (0.860) http://www.cs.umbc.edu/~aks1/ontosem.owl 5 11 (0.735) http://rhizomik.net/ontologies/2005/07/FrameNet_1.1_inferred.owl 6 11 (0.726) http://rhizomik.upf.edu/ontologies/2005/07/FrameNet_1.1.owl 7 11 (0.726) http://rhizomik.net/ontologies/2005/07/FrameNet_1.1.owl 8 10 (0.875) http://athena.ics.forth.gr:9090/RDF/VRP/Examples/DCD100.rdf 9 10 (0.875) http://139.91.183.30:9090/RDF/VRP/Examples/DCD100.rdf 10 9 (1.701) http://www.cyc.com/2004/06/04/cyc Coverage Rate of Input Terms 0.717(33/46) # Acquired Ontologies 120 # Acquired Classes 331 # Acquired Properties 558 The top 10 existing ontologies acquired using Swoogle Sorted by ratio of input concept General Ontologies (WordNet, FrameNet, Cyc) E-Commerce Ontologies
  • 17. 46 Input Terms acceptance act addition address assent circumstance communication system conduct contract counteroffer day delay delivery discrepancy dispatch effect envelope goods holiday indication intention invitation letter modification offer offeror offeree party payment person place of business price proposal quality quantity rejection reply residence revocation silence speech act telephone telex time transmission withdrawal Red colored input terms were included in the E-commerce ontology.
  • 18. Conclusions • Integrating DODDLE-OWL and Swoogle • Reusing existing ontologies for domain ontology construction • Acquiring Ontologies • Ranking Ontologies • Extracting Elements • Case Studies • Acquiring and ranking of existing ontologies for a particular field of law • Acquired E-commerce ontologies which included several legal concepts
  • 19. Future Works • Putting similar ontologies together – Different versions of the same ontology – Same ontologies, but with a different URL • Constructing Domain Ontology using ontology alignment from several existing ontologies
  • 20. Thank you for your attention DODDLE-OWL has been released. Please visit this web site, if you like it. http://doddle-owl.sourceforge.net

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