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Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
Social Systems Theory 2012 #3
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Social Systems Theory 2012 #3

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  • 1. Social Systems Theory#3 Media and Code for Communication Takashi Iba Associate Professor Faculty of Policy Management Keio University
  • 2. Social Systems Theory 2012 Reflection
  • 3. “How is social order possible?”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.3, p.116, l.22
  • 4. Psychic System the nexus of consciousness
  • 5. Each system is operationally closed (Consciousness cannot be imported / exported to another system). Psychic System Psychic System the nexus of consciousnessthe nexus ofconsciousness
  • 6. Social Systems Theory 2012Class #2 Keywords Double Contingency Communication Communication Perception of little movement of others help them Utterance to expect the other’ s decision. Expectation of Expectation of the decision the decision of Actor A of Actor B Information Understanding (contingent) (contingent) (contingent) Actor A Actor B
  • 7. Double Contingency Each Actor cannot make decision because it is depend on the alter’ s decision. Expectation ofExpectation of the decision ?the decision of Actor Aof Actor B ? ? ? Actor A Actor B
  • 8. Talcott Parsons thought ... Shared Norm / Culture Shared Norm or Culture helps them to expect the others decision. Expectation ofExpectation of the decisionthe decision of Actor Aof Actor B Actor A Actor B
  • 9. Niklas Luhmann thought ... Perception of little movement of others help them to expect the other’ s decision. Expectation ofExpectation of the decisionthe decision of Actor Aof Actor B Actor A Actor B
  • 10. Communicationas the synthesis of three selections:information, utterance, and understanding Communication Why it is uttered Utterance Information Understanding What is uttered (contingent) (contingent) (contingent) Communication-Centered Viewpoint (Not Human-Centered)
  • 11. Social Systems Theory 2012 Mission-Driven Dialogue Book Reading
  • 12. Today’s First Dialogue What do you think when reading these books?
  • 13. Social Systems Theory 2012 Mission-Driven Dialogue Book Reading
  • 14. Social Systems Theory 2012Class #3 Keywords Three Kinds of Three Kinds of Improbabilities Media Improbability of Understanding ? language Utterance communication language Information Understanding Improbability of Improbability of communication symbolically generalized Reaching Success Utterance communication communication media Improbability of Reaching Utterance Information Understanding Information Understanding media of dissemination
  • 15. Social Systems Theory 2012 Mission-Driven Dialogue Book Reading
  • 16. Communicationas the synthesis of three selections:information, utterance, and understanding Communication Why it is uttered Utterance Information Understanding What is uttered (contingent) (contingent) (contingent)
  • 17. Three Kind of Improbabilities
  • 18. Improbable
  • 19. Overcoming Improbabilities
  • 20. “Seen in the context of evolutionaryachievements, communicative success isexceedingly improbable. Communicationpresupposes beings that exist independently,with their own environments and their owninformation-processing apparatuses. Every beingsifts and processes what he perceives forhimself. Under such circumstances,how is communication, that is,coordinated selectivity, possible at all?”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.157, l.30
  • 21. Each system is operationally closed (Consciousness cannot be imported / exported to another system). Psychic System Psychic System the nexus of consciousnessthe nexus ofconsciousness
  • 22. Improbability of Understanding Improbability of Understanding ?
  • 23. “At the zero point of evolution, it is, first of all,improbable that ego understands what altermeans-given that their bodies and minds areseparate and individual. Only in context canmeaning be understood, and context is, initially,supplied by ones own perceptual field andmemory.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.158, l.12
  • 24. Improbability of Reaching Improbability of Reaching
  • 25. “The second improbability refers to reaching theaddressee. It is improbable for a communicationto reach more persons than are present in aconcrete situation... The problem lies in spatialand temporal extension.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.158, l.22
  • 26. Improbability of Success Improbability of Success
  • 27. “The third improbability is success. Even if acommunication is understood by the person itreaches, this does not guarantee that itis also accepted and followed.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.158, l.35
  • 28. “Communication is successful only if egoaccepts the content selected by thecommunication (the information) as a premiseof his own behavior. Acceptance can meanaction corresponding to the directivescommunicated, but also experience, thinking, orprocessing further information under theassumption that certain information iscorrect. Communicative success is thesuccessful coupling of selections.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.158, l.38
  • 29. Three Kind of Improbabilities Improbability of Understanding ? Improbability of Improbability of Success Reaching
  • 30. “These three improbabilities are not onlyobstructions to the reception of any givencommunication, not only difficulties in attaining agoal; they operate as thresholds ofdiscouragement. Anyone who believes thatcommunication is hopeless lets it pass. Thus onemust expect that communication as such doesnot occur, or if it does occur, that it willbe eliminated in the further course ofevolution.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.159, l.6
  • 31. “The immanent improbabilities of thecommunicative process and the way in whichthey are overcome and transformed intoprobabilities regulate the construction ofsocial systems.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.159, l.17
  • 32. Today’s Second Dialogue Improbability of Understanding ? What are three kinds of improbabilities on communication? Improbability of Reaching Improbability of Success
  • 33. “We would like to call media the evolutionaryachievements that enter at those possiblebreaks in communication and that serve in afunctionally adequate way to transform what isimprobable into what is probable.Corresponding to the three types ofcommunicative improbability, one can distinguishthree different media that mutually enableone another, limit one another, and burdenone another with consequent problems.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.160, l.14
  • 34. ways of transformingwhat is improbable into what is probable media
  • 35. Three Kinds of Media
  • 36. Three Kinds of Media1. Language2. Media of dissemination3. Symbolically generalized communication media
  • 37. Language language communication language Utterance Information Understanding
  • 38. “The medium that increases, the understandabilityof communication beyond the sphere ofperception is language. Language is a mediumdistinguished by the use of signs. It uses acousticor optical signs for meaning.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.160, l.20
  • 39. “this concerns a very special technique with thefunction of extending the repertoire ofunderstandable communication almostindefinitely in practice and thereby guaranteeingthat almost any random event can appear andbe processed as information.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.160, l.31
  • 40. Media of dissemination communication Utterance Improbability of Reaching Information Understanding media of dissemination
  • 41. “As a result of language, media of dissemination,namely, writing, printing, and electronicbroadcasting, have developed.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.1
  • 42. “These developments in language anddissemination techniques make it even moredoubtful which communication will succeed andbe able to motivate acceptance.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.14
  • 43. Symbolically generalized communication media symbolically generalized communication media communication Utterance Information Understanding
  • 44. “Success ... lay ... in the development ofsymbolically generalized communication media,which are functionally adequate to thisparticular problem.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.21
  • 45. “We would like to call "symbolically generalized"the media that use generalizations to symbolizethe nexus between selection and motivation,that is, represent it as a unity.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.25
  • 46. “Important examples are: truth, love, property /money, power / law; and also, in rudimentaryform, religious belief, art, and, today, standardized"basic values." ”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.27
  • 47. “In all these cases this in a very different wayand for very different interactive constellationsis a matter of conditioning the selection ofcommunication so that it also works as a meansof motivation, that is, so that it can adequatelysecure acceptance of the proposed selection.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.30
  • 48. “The most successful and most relevantcommunication in contemporary society isplayed out through these media ofcommunication, and accordingly, the chances offorming social systems are directed toward thecorresponding functions.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.161, l.34
  • 49. “One has to understand the process ofsociocultural evolution as the reshaping andwidening of the chances for foreseeablecommunication, as the consolidation ofexpectations out of which society can formits social systems.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.159, l.20
  • 50. “Language, media of dissemination, andsymbolically generalized communication mediaare thus evolutionary achievements thatinterdependently ground the processing ofinformation and increase what can be producedby social communication. This is how societyproduces and reproduces itself as a socialsystem.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.162, l.3
  • 51. Three Kinds of Media language communication language Utterance Information Understanding communication Utterance Improbability of Reaching symbolically generalized communication mediaInformation Understanding communication Utterance Information Understanding media of dissemination
  • 52. “Once communication is set into and kept inmotion, the formation of a bounded socialsystem cannot be avoided, nor can thedevelopment of further bounded social systemsproduced by the transformation of expectationsabout what is improbable into what issufficiently probable. On the level of socialsystems, this is an exclusively autopoieticprocess, which produces what enablesit itself.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996 Chap.4, p.162, l.7
  • 53. Overcoming ImprobabilitiesThree Kinds of Media1. Language2. Media of dissemination3. Symbolically generalized communication media
  • 54. Today’s Third Dialogue What are three kinds of media for overcoming improbabilities on communication?
  • 55. Social Systems Theory 2012Class #3 Keywords Three Kinds of Three Kinds of Improbabilities Media Improbability of Understanding ? language Utterance communication language Information Understanding Improbability of Improbability of communication symbolically generalized Reaching Success Utterance communication communication media Improbability of Reaching Utterance Information Understanding Information Understanding media of dissemination
  • 56. Social Systems Theory 2012 Preview
  • 57. Code and Program for function system Code A / Non-A ex. Mass Media: information / non-information Economy: payment / non-payment Law: legal / non-legal (illegal) Science: true / non-true (false) Program ex. Programs used by Mass Media - News - Entertainment - Advertising (code: information / non-information)
  • 58. Functional Differentiation of Modern Society Economy Law Academics Politics Society (Social System) Art Religion Education Mass Media

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