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Social Systems Theory 2012 #1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Social Systems Theory#1 Introduction Takashi Iba Associate Professor Faculty of Policy ManagementKeio University SFC Keio University
  • 2. http://www.mt-online.de/start/letzte_meldungen_aus_der_region/4219080_Bielefeld_Universitaet_Bielefeld_erwirbt_Nachlass_von_Luhmann.html Niklas Luhmann
  • 3. Social Systems Theory Studying a sociological theory, Social Systems Theory,proposed by Niklas Luhmann Understanding what’s happening in the information society Learning about the media for social change
  • 4. Social Systems Theory (2012 Spring) #1 [Apr 9] Introduction #2 [Apr 16] Emergence of Communication as an Event #3 [Apr 23] Media and Code for Communication #4 [May 1] Modern Society #5 [May 7] Autopoiesis and Structural Coupling #6 [May 14] Voice and Exit for Social Change #7 [May 21] Scenario Planning: Learning by Making Stories of Future #8 [May 28] Pattern Language, part I: Media for User Participation #9 [Jun 4] Pattern Language, part II: Way of Organizational Change #10 [Jun 11] Creative Collaboration:Value Creation through Communication #11 [Jun 18] Open Collaboration, part I: Collaborative Innovation Networks #12 [Jun 25] Open Collaboration, part II: Open-Source Software Development #13 [Jul 2] Open Collaboration, part III: Wiki and Wikipedia #14 [Jul 9] Exploring Philosophy of Social Change
  • 5. Textbook●『社会システム理論:不透明な社会を捉える知の技法【リアリティ・プラス】』(井庭崇 編著, 宮台真司, 熊坂賢次, 公文俊平, 慶應義塾大学出版会, 2011)●『Fearless Change: Patterns for Introducing New Ideas』(Mary Lynn Manns, LindaRising, Addison-Wesley, 2005)
  • 6. Books you’ll readin this course
  • 7. “Sociology is stuck in a theory crisis. Empiricalresearch, though it has, on the whole, beensuccessful in increasing knowledge, has not beenable to produce a unified theory for thediscipline.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996
  • 8. “Progress is possible in these respects ... only ifone strives for a new kind of theory design. ”“Sociology has hardly any models for this.Therefore we will have to borrow successfultheoretical developments from otherdisciplines, and for this we have chosenthe theory of self-referential,"autopoietic" systems.”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996
  • 9. “In contrast to the usual theoreticalrepresentations, which at best take some fewconcepts from the literature, define them incritical discussion with existing meanings, andthen work with them in the context of theseconcepts’ traditions, in the following we will tryto increase the number of the conceptsthat are used and to determine them inreference to one another. ”N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press,1996
  • 10. 「社会システム理論は、社会の全体性を捉えたいという志向性を もっているグランド・セオリーである。つまり、社会を、いわゆ る学問分野(ディシプリン) — 経済学や政治学など — の枠組み で切り刻んで捉えるのではなく、社会をまるごと理解したいとい う野心をもっている。」 “Social systems theory is a grand theory that has been studied for understanding the wholeness of the modern society. It tries to grasp everything of social phenomena without specific filters of the conventional discipline like economy and politics.”井庭崇 編著, 宮台真司, 熊坂賢次, 公文俊平,『社会システム理論:不透明な社会を捉える知の技法【リアリティ・プラス】』(慶應義塾大学出版会, 2011)T. Iba, et. al. Social Systems Theory, Keio University Press, 2011
  • 11. 「もちろん、社会全体を完全に捉えることなどできるわけはな い。しかしながら、断片化し多様化する現代社会において、全体 性の把握は喫緊の課題であることは確かである。「社会の全体性 を捉える」という不可能な目標に向かって、本気の探究を続け る、そのような決意が社会システム理論にはある。」 “It is, in reality, impossible to capture the entire society as a whole. However, deep understanding about common principles among the different social phenomena is required for the people living in the differentiated and diversified society. Thus, social systems theory attempts the impossible seriously and radically.井庭崇 編著, 宮台真司, 熊坂賢次, 公文俊平,『社会システム理論:不透明な社会を捉える知の技法【リアリティ・プラス】』(慶應義塾大学出版会, 2011)T. Iba, et. al. Social Systems Theory, Keio University Press, 2011
  • 12. 「この社会システム理論によって、現代社会のリアリティはどのよ うに捉えることができるのだろうか? そして、その知見を踏まえ、 私たちはどのような未来をつくることができるのだろうか?」 “What reality can be grasped, when observing our society with the social systems theory? Furthermore, what future will be made based on this understanding?”井庭崇 編著, 宮台真司, 熊坂賢次, 公文俊平,『社会システム理論:不透明な社会を捉える知の技法【リアリティ・プラス】』(慶應義塾大学出版会, 2011)T. Iba, et. al. Social Systems Theory, Keio University Press, 2011
  • 13. “The theory must change its direction from theunity of the social whole as a smaller unitywithin a larger one (the world) to the differenceof the system of society and environment, i.e.from unity to difference as the theoretical pointof departure.”N. Luhmann, Ecological Communication, University OfChicago Press, 1989
  • 14. “More exactly, the theme of sociological investigation is not the system of society, but instead the unity of the difference of the system of society and its environment.”N. Luhmann, Ecological Communication, University OfChicago Press, 1989
  • 15. “The idea of system elements must be changed from substances (individuals) to self-referential operations that can be produced only within the system and with the help of a network of the same operations (autopoiesis).”N. Luhmann, Ecological Communication, University OfChicago Press, 1989
  • 16. “Self-referentially autopoietic systems are endogenously restless and constantly reproductive. They develop structures of their own for the continuation of their autopoiesis.”N. Luhmann, Ecological Communication, University OfChicago Press, 1989
  • 17. “An autopoietic machine is a machine organized(defined as a unity) as a network of processes ofproduction (transformation and destruction) ofcomponents that produces the componentswhich: (i) through their interactions andtransformations continuously regenerate andrealize the network of processes (relations) thatproduced them; and (ii) constitute it (themachine) as a concrete unity in the spacein which they (the components) exist byspecifying the topological domain of itsrealization as such a network.”H. R. Maturana, F. J.Varela, Autopoiesis and Cognition:TheRealization of the Living, Springer, 1980
  • 18. “We had to accept that we could recognizeliving systems when we encountered them, butthat we could not yet say what they are.”“I realized that the difficulty was bothepistemological and linguistic ... one can only saywith a given language what the languagepermits. ”H. R. Maturana, F. J.Varela, Autopoiesis and Cognition:TheRealization of the Living, Springer, 1980
  • 19. “I had to stop looking at living systems as opensystems defined in an environment, and I neededa language that would permit me to describe anautonomous system in a manner that retainedautonomy as a feature of the system or entityspecified by the description.”H. R. Maturana, F. J.Varela, Autopoiesis and Cognition:TheRealization of the Living, Springer, 1980
  • 20. N. Luhmann, Social Systems, Stanford University Press, 1996
  • 21. “Collaboration drives creativity becauseinnovation always emerges from a series ofsparks --- never a single flash of insight.”Keith Sawyer, Group Genius:The Creative Power ofCollaboration, Basic Books, 2008
  • 22. “While hierarchies are not vanishing, profoundchanges in the nature of technology,demographics, and the global economy are givingrise to powerful new models of productionbased on community, collaboration, and self-organization rather than on hierarchy andcontrol.”Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams, Wikinomics: HowMass Collaboration Changes Everything, Expanded ed.,Portfolio Trade, 2010
  • 23. “The growing accessibility of informationtechnologies puts the tools required tocollaborate, create value, and compete ateverybody’s fingertips. This liberates people toparticipate in innovation and wealth creationwithin every sector of the economy Millions ofpeople already join forces in self-organizedcollaborations that produce dynamic newgoods and services that rival those of theworld’s largest and best-financedenterprises.”Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams, Wikinomics: HowMass Collaboration Changes Everything, Expanded ed.,Portfolio Trade, 2010
  • 24. “The new art and science of wikinomics is based on four powerful new idea: openness, peering, sharing, and acting globally.”Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams, Wikinomics: HowMass Collaboration Changes Everything, Expanded ed.,Portfolio Trade, 2010
  • 25. “There’s a protocol for numbering releases. It’spsychological. When you think a version is trulyready to be released, you number it version 1.0.But before that, you number the earlier versionsto indicate how much work you need toaccomplish before getting to 1.0. With that inmind, the operating system I posted to the ftpsite was numbered version 0.01. That tellseverybody it’s not ready for much.”Linus Torvalds, David Diamond, Just for Fun:The Storyof an Accidental Revolutionary, HarperBusiness, 2002
  • 26. “I did learn fairly early that the best and mosteffective way to lead is by letting people dothings because they want to them, not becauseyou want them to.”Linus Torvalds, David Diamond, Just for Fun:The Storyof an Accidental Revolutionary, HarperBusiness, 2002
  • 27. “This swarm-based innovation process happens infour steps:STEP 1 The creator comes up with the cool idea.STEP 2 The creator recruits additional members toform a Collaborative Innovation Network (COIN).STEP 3 The COIN grows into a CollaborativeLearning Network (CLN) by adding friends andfamily.STEP 4 Outsiders join, forming aCollaborative Interest Network (CIN).”Peter Gloor, Coolfarming:Turn Your Great Idea into theNext Big Thing, AMACOM, 2010
  • 28. COIN CLN CIN Creator Collaboratove Collaboratove Collaboratove Innovation Learning Interest Network どt Network NetworkPeter Gloor, Coolfarming:Turn Your Great Idea into theNext Big Thing, AMACOM, 2010
  • 29. “voice and exit”Albert O. Hirschman, Exit,Voice, and Loyalty: Responsesto Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States, HarvardUniversity Press, 1970
  • 30. “Scenarios are not predictions.”“Rather, scenarios are vehicles forhelping people learn.”“It can be used as a building block fordesigning strategic conversations ---conversations that, in themselves, lead tocontinuous organizational learning aboutkey decisions and priorities.”Peter Schwartz, The Art of the Long View: Planning forthe Future in an Uncertain World, Crown Business, 1996
  • 31. “Scenarios are not about predicting thefuture, rather they are about perceivingfutures in the present.”“Scenarios deal with two worlds. Theworld of facts and the world ofperceptions.” (Pierre Wack)“Scenarios are stories that givemeaning to events.”Peter Schwartz, The Art of the Long View: Planning forthe Future in an Uncertain World, Crown Business, 1996
  • 32. “Having spent the last ten years of myprofessional career in the field of organizationallearning, my most important insight has beenthat there are two different sources of learning:learning from the experiences of the past andlearning from the future as it emerges.”C. Otto Scharmer, Theory U: Leading from the Future asIt Emerges:The Social Technology of Presencing, Berrett-Koehler Pub, 2009
  • 33. “When I started realizing that the mostimpressive leaders and master practitionersseem to operate from a different core process,one that pulls them into future possibilities, Iasked myself: How can we learn to bettersense and connect with a future possibility thatis seeking to emerge?”C. Otto Scharmer, Theory U: Leading from the Future asIt Emerges:The Social Technology of Presencing, Berrett-Koehler Pub, 2009
  • 34. “The key to “seeing from the whole” isdeveloping the capacity not only to suspend ourassumptions but to “redirect” our awarenesstoward the generative processes that lies behindwhat we see.”Peter M. Senge, et. al., Presence: Human Purpose and theField of the Future, Reprint ed., Crown Business, 2008
  • 35. “Present systems of production areorganized in such away that mostdecisions are made very much “at arm’slength.” Decisions are made by peopleremote from the consequences of thedicisions.”C. Alexander, The Production of Houses, OxfordUniversity Press, 1985
  • 36. “We replace the idea of standardizedhousing units with the idea of houses (orapartments) designed by the familieswho are to live in them, each onedesigned entirely according to thefamily’s own unique needs and character,so that as a matter of feeling, each housebecomes a genuine life base, a place forthe heart, a place in which the family, as aunique being in society, may be anchoredand nourished.”C. Alexander, The Production of Houses, OxfordUniversity Press, 1985
  • 37. “Fundamental to the process of production --- perhaps most fundamental of all --- is the principle that families lay out their houses for themselves.” “In order to make this possible, there must be some system of rules, some pattern language or some other similar. flexible instrument which makes it possible for families to do this in a competent way.”C. Alexander, The Production of Houses, OxfordUniversity Press, 1985
  • 38. “The backbone of the process of productionwe envisage is a new kind of professionalwho takes responsibility for the functionswhich we now attribute to the architect, andalso, for the functions which we nowattribute to the contractor.” “The architect-builder”C. Alexander, The Production of Houses, OxfordUniversity Press, 1985
  • 39. Mary Lynn Manns, Linda Rising, Fearless Change: Patternsfor Introducing New Ideas, Addison-Wesley, 2005
  • 40. Contact Us ● Staff Mailing List (TA/SA and Iba) socsys2012-staff@sfc.keio.ac.jpCourse Video Archive ● SFC-GC (Global Campus) Course Page http://gc.sfc.keio.ac.jp/cgi/class/class_top.cgi?2012_25075