Webinar 1 speaking[1]

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Webinar 1 speaking[1]

  1. 1. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Can´t get them to stop talking! A Webinar by Gabriel Díaz Maggioli English Language Studies Department February 28th, 2011
  2. 2. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Aims of this webinar •  Understand the underlying reasons for students’ unwillingness to speak in class. •  Analyze patterns found in effective conversations. •  Introduce a framework for L2 conversation development. •  Help participants develop an action plan.
  3. 3. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Why don’t they speak?
  4. 4. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Does this look familiar?
  5. 5. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  What is your problem? •  Which of these reasons applies to your context? A.  1. Students are not interested in speaking in L2. B.  2. Students are afraid of speaking in L2. C.  3. Students make too many mistakes in L2. D.  4. Discussion topics in the materials are not appealing to students.
  6. 6. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  What if your could get this…?
  7. 7. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  What would it take?
  8. 8. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Why don’t they speak? •  Unfamiliarity with the program or task. •  Lack of awareness of what it takes to speak in L2. •  Fear of ridicule. •  Lack of adequate preparation. •  Purpose of tasks. •  Lack of proper scaffolding.
  9. 9. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  A recurring problem Are students Do students have Have I provided aware of what L1 a chance to apply enough realistic speakers do in the skills in a practice activities? conversation? realistic way?
  10. 10. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  So…having considered •  Why students do not participate actively in oral language development classes
  11. 11. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  A look at effective conversations
  12. 12. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Let’s consider •  Conversation is still assumed to be synonymous with putting into play the grammar, vocabulary and functions students have learnt. •  But, conversation should be defined as: –  “a time when two or more people have the right to talk and listen without having to follow a fixed schedule. In everyday life, we refer to conversation as ‘a chat.’” (Nolasco and Arthur, 1987:12) •  Chatting is what students LOVE doing.
  13. 13. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Purposes of conversation •  Why do we speak? –  To exchange information. –  To create and maintain social relationships. –  To negotiate status and social roles. –  To decide on and carry out joint actions.
  14. 14. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  What do L1 speakers do? •  Usually one speaker speaks at a time; •  e speakers change; •  e length of each contribution varies; •  ere are techniques for following the other parties; •  Neither the content nor the amount of what we say is specified in advance.
  15. 15. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Units of conversation Turn 3  Turn 4  Turn 1  Solicit: request  Acknowledge:  Solicit: call    thank    “Could I borrow    “Jane”  your bike?”  “Thanks!”  Turn 4  Turn 2  Give: comply  Give: available      “Sure! It’s in the  “Yes?”  garage.” 
  16. 16. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Adjacency •  Moves are related to each other through the use of adjacency pairs. ese are utterances produced by two successive speakers in which the second utterance can be identified as being related to the first. •  Let’s look at some examples
  17. 17. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Examples A= Hello! A= Hello. How are you? B= Oh, hi! B= Very well, thank you. A= How’ve you been? And you. B= Not bad. How about A= I’m fine, thanks. you? A= Great, actually!
  18. 18. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Turn taking •  In natural conversation, one has to be alert to signals that a speaker is about to finish his/her turn so as to be able to come in with a contribution which fits the direction in which conversation is going. •  How often do we find these signals in textbooks?
  19. 19. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Openings and Closings •  Openings are not generally a problem. However, closings are difficult for L2 speakers and they sometimes appear rude because they are unable to close the conversation properly. L1 speakers negotiate the end of the conversation: –  Ok, then… –  Right,… –  Erm, I’m afraid… –  Anyway, I’ve got to go now, but… –  I’ll let you get back to…
  20. 20. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Stress and Intonation Ok! / So… about to change subject Really interest Really irony Wrong intonation can lead to misunderstandings.
  21. 21. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  A look at some “conversation activities” •  Read short texts and discuss questions about them. •  Complete a survey and then discuss with a partner. •  Look at opinions about “x.” Add two more. en choose the most important ones with your group. •  Look at pictures and discuss why they are relevant to a certain theme. •  Choose items from a list and prioritize them for a certain activity.
  22. 22. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Now we know… •  What is involved in effective conversations and what we lack in the language classroom, so let’s explore a model to enhance oral language development in class.
  23. 23. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  e conversation framework
  24. 24. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  So, what do teachers need? •  Consider… –  Characteristics of L1 speaking performance. –  Which function of conversation is relevant for your students: •  Giving and receiving information. •  Collaborating with others. •  Sharing personal experiences and opinions with a view to building social relationships. •  Students will not be able to do this by being taught about conversation so the stress should be put on learning by doing
  25. 25. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Which purpose? •  It would be useful for us to know what main purpose your students have in learning to speak… A.  Giving and receiving information. B.  Collaborating with others. C.  Sharing personal experiences and opinions with a view to building social relationships.
  26. 26. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  A 3-step model •  Awareness •  Bridge activities •  Communication
  27. 27. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Awareness Activities
  28. 28. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Native speakers Nolasco and Arthur, 1987 
  29. 29. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Using video •  Sound only. •  Picture only. Use checklist to point out features. •  Freeze frame What’s next? •  Watch once and then questions. •  Watch and replicate.
  30. 30. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Bridge activities
  31. 31. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Jazz Chants •  A jazz chant is the rhythmic expression of standard English as it occurs in situational contexts. •  English stretches, shortens, blends and often drops sounds. ese subtle features of the language are extremely difficult for a student to comprehend unless his or her ear has been properly trained to comprehend the language of an educated native speaker in natural conversation. e sound of «Jeet yet?» is meaningless unless one has acquired the listening comprehension skills necessary to make the connection with «Did you eat yet?» •  Graham, 1986: vi – vii.
  32. 32. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Money talks How much does it cost? Why don’t you buy it? It costs a lot. I can’t afford it. How much does it cost? It’s too expensive. It costs a lot. I can’t afford it. I can’t believe how much it costs. It costs a lot, an awful lot. Why don’t you buy it? I don’t have the money. It costs a lot to live in the city. It’s not worth it. How much does it cost? I can’t afford it. It costs a lot. It costs a lot to eat out these days. How much does it cost? It costs a lot!
  33. 33. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Shadowed reading •  Prepare a suitable master track of a dialog. •  Ask your students to listen to it once or twice. •  Once they are ready the objective is to maintain the same rhythm, intonation, stress and pronunciation as the original by repeating with the master track. •  Make sure students work with the same track until they are ready to record their own version, or they can ask you to listen to them.
  34. 34. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Who said it? Provide a list of possible utterances. Students guess who said what. E.g. •  I told you not to wear a suit. •  …, and the doctor says I’m pregnant. •  Are you a friend of Jim’s? en get students to add more. Nolasco and Arthur, 1987
  35. 35. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  «Canned» language •  Asking for information •  Surprises –  I´d like to know… –  Prepare your aducience: •  Guess what! –  I´m interested in… •  I´ve got news for you! –  Could you tell me…? •  You’d better sit down. •  You won’t believe this, but… –  Do you know…? –  Give the news: –  Could you find out…? •  Do you realize that…? –  Could I ask…? •  You may not believe it, but… •  It may sound weird, but… –  Do you happen to –  End with: know…? •  Normally,… •  Usually,… •  On the whole…
  36. 36. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Consider canned language in… •  Sharing a confidence (e.g. «Just between you and me…») •  Showing interest («Yes?», «And then?», «Really?») •  Hidden truths (e.g. «Frankly, I doubt that…) •  Reasons (e.g. «e reason why…»»Because of that…»«For this reason») •  Counter arguing (e.g. «Yes, but…» «Even so…») •  Biding time («Well, let me see…», «Mm... at’s a difficult question. Let me see..») •  inking ahead («If I ever…», «Whenever…», «Unless….») •  Changing the subject («Talking of…»)
  37. 37. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Find your dialog partner •  Write the first few lines of a number of exchanges. –  E.g. •  A= Dr. Jones? •  B= No, I’m Dr. Smith. •  A= Sorry, I’m looking for Dr. Jones. •  Have enough exchanges so that there is one per pair of students in the class. •  Cut out the lines for A and the lines for B and distribute them randomly around the group. •  Students have to find their dialog partner and then complete the dialog.
  38. 38. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Outrageous CVs •  Go over the contents of a regular CV with students. •  Get students to write their CV not on their academic or work life, but on something unexpected (e.g. a student is skilled at fishing). ey should not write their names on the CV. •  Distribute CVs. Students go around the class interviewing their peers until they find the owner of the CV.
  39. 39. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Get real! •  Select a dialog from the textbook students are currently using. •  Go over the dialog with them and encourage the group to tell you what can be done to make the dialog more realistic. •  Students work in groups rewriting and rehearsing the dialog in groups. •  Groups perform their dialogs to the rest of the class.
  40. 40. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Communication activities
  41. 41. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Set up Task presentation Process •  Instructions •  Strategy •  Functionaries •  Discussion skills •  Rules and timing Feedback •  Content •  Process •  Language
  42. 42. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  e sky’s the limit •  Brainstorming activities –  Guessing games –  Finding connections –  Ideas from a central theme –  Implications and interpretations •  Organizing activities –  Comparing –  Detecting differences –  Putting in order –  Priorities –  Choosing candidates –  Layout problems –  Combining versions •  Compound activities –  Debates –  Publicity campaigns Ur, 1991 –  Surveys
  43. 43. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Action Planning Let’s brainstorm about how you could use the following activity with your students. Use the CHAT box to post some ideas.
  44. 44. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Modern marvels •  Modem •  1965 •  Personal computer •  1972 •  Laptop •  1981 •  MP3 player •  1985 •  Tablet •  1989
  45. 45. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Answers •  1965 – Robert Lucky invented the automatic adaptive equalizer (modem)at Bell laboratories. •  1972 – Xerox PARC developed the ALTO, the first truly personal computer. •  1981 – Adam Osborne invents the first portable computer (laptop). •  1985 – Pencept creates the first pen computer (tablet). •  1989 – Fraunhofer Lab obtains the patent for MPEG.
  46. 46. ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES  Bibliography •  Graham, C. (1986). Small talk: more jazz chants. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. •  Harmer, J. (2007). e practice of English Language Teaching (3rd. Ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman. •  Keller, E. and Warner, S. (1988). Conversation gambits: Real English conversation practices. Ottawa, Canada: Language Teaching Publications. •  Nolasco, R. and Arthur, L. (1987). Conversation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. •  Ur, P. and Wright, A. (1992). Five minute activities. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. •  Ur, P. (1991). Discussions that work. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Other resources •  Illustrations by: R. Kikuo Johnson © e New York Times. March 2010. •  Photo credits: Media and Communications Department, e New School, New York

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