Religion. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch20 religion


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From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO). Uploaded to facilitate scientific research.

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Religion. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch20 religion

  1. 1. A devotee holds a basket containing her family’s statue of Ma Zu over an incense burner at Dajia Jenn Lann Temple 大甲鎮瀾宮 as part of a ritual.20-new-1014.indd 290 2011/10/18 2:11:50 AM
  2. 2. 20 Religion At a Glance • Syncretic practices widespread in diverse religious environment • Folk beliefs flourish through community development R eligious pluralism and tolerance are hallmarks of social life in Taiwan. Citizens enjoy complete freedom of religion, a right guaranteed by Articles 7 and 13 of the Republic of C ­ hina Constitution and a fact confirmed by numerous outside observers, including the U.S. Department of State in its 2010 Report on International Religious Freedom. Traditional beliefs, religious tradi- tions from other parts of the world and recently developed religions are all practiced freely in Taiwan. As part of the ROC’s centennial celebration, an international seminar on religious development in the ROC was held by the Taiwan Associa- tion for Religious Studies in May 2011. A series of exhibitions and fes- tivities organized by various religious groups have also been scheduled throughout the year. 29120-new-1014.indd 291 2011/10/18 2:11:52 AM
  3. 3. 20 Religion Spiritual Landscape northern shores when a Spanish expedi- tion founded settlements in the vicinity of Religious Pluralism today’s Keelung City 基隆市 and New Tai- Taiwan’s religious landscape is richly pei City’s 新北市 Danshui District 淡水區. variegated. According to the Ministry of Associated with Spanish holdings in the the Interior, in 2010, 1,816 religious and Philippines, these settlements flourished social associations were registered in until the Dutch drove the Spanish off the Taiwan. They belonged to 27 registered island in 1642. religions or religious groups (see table). Other religions, including Islam, were While religious groups are not required to introduced over the next three and a half register with the government, those that centuries. This was especially true fol- do and also meet relevant regulations en- lowing World War II, when a new wave joy tax-exempt status. of faiths arrived in Taiwan with mainland The religious traditions that claim immigrants who relocated to Taiwan the most adherents in Taiwan are folk with the Kuomintang (KMT) 中國國民黨 religion, Taoism and Buddhism. These account for most of the more than 15,000 places of worship registered in Taiwan. Registered Religious Groups Ancestor veneration consonant with Con- fucian values remains widely observed in Baha’i Faith Buddhism Taiwan. A sizeable minority of people in Chinese Heritage and Moral Sources 玄門真宗 Taiwan adhere to monotheistic religions, Chinese Holy Religion 中華聖教 particularly Christianity. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Church of Scientology Historical Overview Confucianism 中國儒教會 Until four centuries ago, Taiwan Hai Tze Tao 亥子道 Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of was inhabited mainly by Austronesian World Christianity (or Unification Church) peoples, whose beliefs consisted of a Huang Chung 黃中 combination of animism and ances­ I-Kuan Tao 一貫道 tor veneration. Buddhism and Taoism Islam were among the first non-indigenous Ism 太易教 religions to be introduced to Taiwan with Li-ism 理教 the immigration of Han peoples from the Maitreya Great Tao 彌勒大道 southeastern provinces of the Chinese Pre-cosmic Salvationism 先天救教 mainland (see Chapter 2, “People and Roman Catholicism Language”). The immigrants also brought Sekai Mahikari Bunmei Kyodan (World Divine Light Organization) 世界真光文明教 with them various other beliefs over the Taoism next few centuries. Tibetan Buddhism European traders brought new reli- Tiender 天德教 gions to Taiwan as well. Protestant mis- Tienti Teachings 天帝教 sionaries accompanying the Dutch East Tien Tao 天道 India Company—which established posts Tenrikyo in southwestern Taiwan beginning in Universe Mealler Faith 宇宙彌勒皇教 1624—proselytized to the Han and indig- Various Protestant Christian Denominations enous peoples they employed or encoun- Xuan Yuan Jiao 軒轅教 tered. Roman Catholic missionaries made their first appearance in 1626 on Taiwan’s Source: Ministry of the Interior 29220-new-1014.indd 292 2011/10/18 2:11:52 AM
  4. 4. Acolytes listen attentively to a lecture by Master Huimin 惠敏法師 at Dharma Drum Buddhist College. g ­ overnment. These included I-Kuan Tao r ­ efugees who relocated to Taiwan during and several others that are based on Con- the Chinese Civil War in the late 1940s. fucianism, Taoism and traditional Chinese During the period of martial law (1949- schools of thought. Following the lifting 1987), Buddhist temples were urged to of martial law in 1987, more religious join the Buddhist Association of the ROC groups have been established. 中國佛教會—the authorized national orga- nization for Buddhism in Taiwan. Tibetan Buddhism emphasizes Major Religions the practice of meditation and other Buddhism spiritual disciplines under the direc- Immigrants from what today are the tion of a master. The earliest masters Chinese coastal provinces of Fujian 福建 of this school to arrive in Taiwan and Guangdong 廣東 brought Buddhism were Zhangjia 章嘉 Khutughtu (the to Taiwan. One early version was zhaijiao Mongolian term ­ hutughtu signifies a k 齋教, a form of lay Buddhism compris- reincarnated bodhisattva; for more on ing several different sects dating back to bodhisattvas, see “Guan Yin” section) the Ming 明 dynasty (1368-1644). Each and Kanjurwa Khutughtu, who had fled included its own mixture of elements of the violence of the Chinese Civil War. Buddhism, Taoism, Neo-Confucianism Around 1960, Tibetan Buddhist masters and folk religion, but all observed a veg- Mingyur Rinpoche and Gelek Rinpoche etarian diet. In the latter half of the 17th (the Tibetan term rinpoche refers to a century, Buddhist monks first arrived highly revered teacher ­ elieved to be a b from Fujian. Temple construction began reincarnated monastery abbot) came to in Tainan 臺南 and progressed northward Taiwan. In 1997, they built the White after the Qing 清 dynasty (1644-1912) Horse Temple 白馬寺 in Yunlin County took control of western Taiwan in 1683. 雲林縣, the island’s first Tibetan Bud- Buddhism in Taiwan grew with the dhist house of worship. In 1997, the arrival of monks among the wave of Tibet Religious Foundation of His 29320-new-1014.indd 293 2011/10/18 2:11:56 AM
  5. 5. 20 H Religion ­ oliness the Dalai Lama 達賴喇嘛西藏宗教 •• Master Sheng Yen 聖嚴法師 (1931-2009) founded Dharma Drum Mountain 法 基金會 was established in Taipei 臺北. Since the advent of democracy, 鼓山 in New Taipei City in 1989. The Buddhist organizations have multiplied ­ o rganization has since established ­ rapidly and the scope of their activities ­ many chapters in Taiwan and around has grown. The following people have the world in addition to forming an been especially influential in Taiwan’s international meditation group. Its Buddhist community, and are known for Dharma Drum Buddhist College their emphasis on service to humanity: 法鼓佛教學院 i s t h e o n l y B u d d h i s t •• Master Cheng Yen 證嚴法師 (1937- ) institution that offers religious degree ­ founded the Buddhist Compassion programs accredited by the Ministry R ­ elief Tzu Chi Foundation 佛教慈濟慈 of Education (see “Religious Study” 善事業基金會 in Hualien 花蓮 in 1966. section). A founding member and the Her foundation focuses on humanitar- first chair of the World Council of ian, educational, medical and environ- Religious Leaders, Master Sheng Yen mental conservation causes. Popularly published over a hundred works on known as Tzu Chi, the organization Buddhist doctrine. has been internationally lauded for its •• Master Wei Chueh 惟覺法師 (1928- ) a ­ bility to mobilize volunteers and funds started out by teaching Zen (chan 禪) and for distributing relief ­ supplies Buddhism to a small group of people and aid to victims of natural disasters at his retreat not far from Taipei. As his ­ worldwide. Its missions are supported teachings drew more attention and fol- by a global volunteer network of lowers, Master Wei Chueh built his first around 7,200 medical professionals. missionary base, the Ling Quan Chan Among its ­ institutions in Taiwan are Monastery 靈泉寺, near his ­ retreat. Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital 佛 Later, he built a larger temple, the 教慈濟綜合醫院, the Buddhist Tzu Chi Chung Tai Chan Monastery 中台禪寺, in Stem Cells ­ enter 佛教慈濟骨髓幹細胞中 C Nantou County 南投縣 to ­ ccommodate a 心, Da Ai Television 大愛電視 and Tzu a growing number of believers and to Chi ­ niversity 慈濟大學. U serve as the mission’s headquarters. •• Master Hsing Yun 星雲法師 (1927- ­ ) Over 90 affiliated meditation centers established the Fo Guang Shan Monas- in Taiwan and about a dozen abroad tery 佛光山 in Kaohsiung 高雄 in 1967. have been established. Since then, the order has founded more •• Master Hsin Tao 心道法師 (1948- ) than 200 Buddhist centers across the founded the Ling Jiou Mountain Bud- globe. Its many educational institu- dhist Society 靈鷲山佛教教團, which has tions include Fo Guang University 佛 branches in countries across Asia. He 光大學 and Nanhua University 南華大 is most famous for establishing the 學 in Taiwan, and the University of the Museum of World Religions 世界宗教博 West in the United States. It reaches 物館 in New Taipei City in 2001. He is a wider public through Beautiful Life also the founder of the Global Family Television 人間衛視 and a newspaper, for Love and Peace 愛與和平地球家, an the Merit Times 人間福報. Through Bud- international nongovernmental organi- dha’s Light Publishing, it offers English zation that promotes inter-religious co- translations of Buddhist scriptures and operation and engages in humanitarian works by contemporary scholars. relief efforts. 29420-new-1014.indd 294 2011/10/18 2:11:57 AM
  6. 6. ROC rule in 1945, among whom was Zhang Enpu 張恩溥, the 63rd-generation leader of Tianshi Jiao 天師教 (also called Zhengyi Jiao 正一教). This has since become one of the most popular Taoist sects, and the number of Taoist temples has increased from 2,600 to more than 9,200 today. With the establishment by Zhang Enpu of a Taoist fellowship in 1951 and the founding of the Taoism Soci- ety of the ROC 中華民國道教會 in 1966, greater structure was brought to Tao- ism in Taiwan. Over the past several decades, Taoist groups have become increasingly involved in social service and dedicated to conveying a more so- phisticated understanding of Taoism’s philosophical underpinnings and of various disciplines aimed at promoting health and enlightenment. I-Kuan Tao I-Kuan Tao, which might be ­ ranslated t The Museum of World Religions in New as “the all-encompassing way,” evolved Taipei City features hundreds of artifacts from Xiantian Tao 先天道 founded by and models of prominent places of worship around the globe. Huang De-hui 黃德輝 in ­ 17th-century C hina. First brought to Taiwan by ­ adherents after World War II, I-Kuan Tao ­ attracted a substantial following. ­ I-Kuan Tao teaches that one Tao Taoism underlies every religion. Its followers ­ The term “Taoism” is used to describe revere a number of personages and deities, ­ the philosophical school of Taoism 道家 including Lao Tzu, Confucius, Buddha, and religious Taoism 道教. The former is a Jesus Christ and Mohammed—above all view of the cosmos and humanity’s place of whom is Ming Ming Shang Di 明明上帝 in it, based primarily on the teachings of (God of Clarity). Adherents also practice Lao Tzu 老子 as expressed in the Dao De various Confucian rituals and hold small Jing 道德經 and other texts. The latter is a group services at family shrines. polytheistic tradition with a vast corpus Like Buddhism, I-Kuan Tao advo- of scriptures that incorporates elements cates a vegetarian diet, and many vegetar- of philosophical Taoism and honors Lao ian restaurants in Taiwan are run by its Tzu and other sages as deities. followers. The faith is active across the In Taiwan, Taoism was invigorated globe, with I-Kuan Tao’s world headquar- by the arrival of priests from mainland ters having been established in 1996 in El China following the island’s return to Monte, California. 29520-new-1014.indd 295 2011/10/18 2:12:00 AM
  7. 7. 20 Religion The Taipei Holy Family Catholic Church offers services in Mandarin, Holo 河洛語, English, Indonesian and Japanese. Christianity Xiamen 廈門 in 1859 and founded the Seventeenth-century forays by Span- first church in Kaohsiung, the Holy Ro- ish and Dutch missionaries notwithstand- sary Church. Sainz went on to found the ing, a sustained native Christian presence Immaculate Conception Church 天主教萬 did not exist in Taiwan until the middle 金聖母聖殿 in Pingtung County 屏東縣, the of the 19th century. At this time, Qing oldest extant Roman Catholic church in treaties with Western powers opened up Taiwan. The apostolic nunciature of the ports, including those in Taiwan, to West- Holy See to the ROC is located in Taipei. ern trade and missionaries. Following In 1967, the Chinese Regional Bishops’ this, Christian evangelizers established Conference 天主教會台灣地區主教團 was missions in Taiwan. Among Protestant established in Taipei. The conference is denominations, the Presbyterian Church currently presided over by Archbishop has attained prominence in Taiwan in part John Hung 洪山川. due to the work of such missionaries as Christianity developed in new direc- Canadian physician-cum-pastor George L. tions after 1949, with an influx of clergy MacKay. Rev. MacKay arrived in Taiwan and believers, both Protestant and Catho- in 1871 and devoted the rest of his life to lic, arriving from mainland China. Be- serving the island’s inhabitants. In 1879, sides Christian groups originating abroad, he set up Taiwan’s first hospital of West- churches in Taiwan include “independent ern medicine in Danshui, where he also churches,” either founded in mainland founded Oxford College 牛津學堂 to train China before 1949 by Chinese Christians local missionaries. In 1884, Rev. MacKay (such as True Jesus Church 真耶穌教會) or established Taiwan’s first girls’ school, established in Taiwan after 1949 (such as the Danshui Girls’ School 淡水女學堂. Bread of Life Christian Church 靈糧堂). Roman Catholicism also has a strong presence on the island. Early Catholic missionaries include Dominicans Fer- Islam nando Sainz and Angel Bofurull, who Islam first came to Taiwan about 300 came to Taiwan from the Philippines via years ago with migrants from Quanzhou 29620-new-1014.indd 296 2011/10/18 2:12:02 AM
  8. 8. 泉州 in mainland China’s Fujian Province. peoples from southeastern China began Over the years, up to the period of Japa- to migrate to Taiwan during the 17th cen- nese colonial rule, this community gradu- tury, they brought with them such beliefs. ally shrank through intermarriage or the The vast array of deities in folk reli- adoption of other customs. World War II gion forms a system that resembles the and the colonial government’s strict con- political structure and government bu- trol over religious activities resulted in the reaucracy of imperial China. It consists severing of ties between Muslims across of hundreds of male and female deities the Taiwan Strait, leading to the shrinking from the Taoist and Buddhist pantheons, of the island’s Muslim population. as well as apotheosized historical figures. The second wave of Muslim immigra- Practices are a combination of Taoist, tion took place following the war. First Buddhist and Confucian ceremonies, as were those who came to Taiwan for busi- well as ancestor veneration. ness, followed by those who relocated The supreme deity is the Jade Em- with the KMT government. During the peror 玉皇大帝. There are many deities 1960s and 1970s, the government brought under him, who manage various affairs to Taiwan groups of soldiers, many of in the universe. At the central level, for them Muslim, who had continued fight- instance, Confucius and Wenchang Di 文 ing Chinese Communist forces after 1949 昌帝 (Emperor of Prospering Culture) are from bases in Myanmar. in charge of education, Baosheng Dadi 保 Muslims have founded several orga- 生大帝 (Life-preserving Emperor) ensures nizations, primary among which is the good health, Ma Zu 媽祖 looks after mari- Chinese Muslim Association (CMA) 中國 time affairs, Taizi Ye 太子爺 (Lord Prince) 回教協會, which oversees halal food certi- wards off evil and Wang Ye 王爺 keeps fication. The CMA has also played a sup- away pestilence. At the local level, Cheng porting role in the nation’s diplomacy with Huang 城隍 and the tutelary deity Tudi Muslim countries. Its headquarters are lo- Gong 土地公 administer justice. Certain cated at the Taipei Grand Mosque (TGM) communities also honor local patron dei- 臺北清真寺, which was built in 1960 and ties. For example, Lord Kaizhang 開漳聖王 has been designated a religious heritage is mostly worshiped by Holo immigrants site. Besides the TGM, Taiwan’s Muslim from Fujian’s Zhangzhou 漳州 area, while community is also served by the Taipei Hakkas honor the Lords of the Three Cultural Mosque 臺北文化清真寺 as well as Mountains 三山國王. by mosques in Taoyuan 桃園, Taichung 臺 中, Tainan, Kaohsiung and Zhongli 中壢. Popular Deities The following are some of the more Folk Religion popular deities in Taiwan: Folk religion, or popular religion, Jade Emperor plays a prominent role in religious life. It The supreme ruler of heaven in is polytheistic in nature, and practitioners Chinese tradition, popularly called the ­ honor various seasonal customs and festi- Jade Emperor, has the power to grant vals. As it does not demand exclusive ad- titles to the spirits of outstanding individ- herence to a single set of traditions, those uals and elevate them to the status of de- who practice folk religion might also ity. Under his direction, a legion of lesser believe in, for example, the tenets and fig- beings manages the affairs of heaven ures of Taoism or Buddhism. When Han and all realms of existence below it. 29720-new-1014.indd 297 2011/10/18 2:12:03 AM
  9. 9. 20 Religion His image and those of the deities un- der his direction can be found in many Cheng Huang Another being said to have multiple Taoist temples. avatars is Cheng Huang, the City Deity, who is mandated by the Jade Emperor to Ma Zu guard particular cities against attack and Ma Zu (Maternal Ancestor) is the protect their inhabitants from evil. Leg- deified spirit of Lin Mo-niang 林默娘, a end has it that the city deity avatars were woman reputed to have lived on Meizhou demigods who served the people during Island 湄州島 off the coast of Fujian their lifetimes, had compassion for those Province sometime during the Song 宋 in danger and protected people from be- dynasty (960-1279). She is believed ing dragged into the underworld by evil to have employed supernatural powers ghosts. It was for this demonstration of during and after her lifetime to cure the kindness that such righteous individu- ill and save people from imminent dan- als were ultimately deified. ger, especially sailors and fishermen at sea. Accordingly, she is also known as Guan Gong the Sea Goddess. Also popular is Guan Yu 關羽, a leg- The enormous popularity of Ma Zu endary general in the Three Kingdoms in Taiwan is evidenced by the more 三國 period (221-280), who is common- than 400 temples dedicated to her. ly known as Guan Gong 關公. Accord- Processions are held on Taiwan and ing to legend, he fought heroically to ­ enghu 澎湖 in which her icon is carried P defend the Eastern Han dynasty. When on a palanquin to spread her blessings. captured by the enemy, he refused to Of these, the largest is the Dajia Ma Zu defect and was beheaded. Guan Gong Pilgrimage 大甲媽祖遶境, which snakes is thus honored as a paragon of loyalty, through several counties in central and righteousness and courage. A red face southern Taiwan for eight or nine days and flowing sable beard make his im- in the third lunar month (usually falling age instantly recognizable. in March or April). Wang Ye Tudi Gong Wang Ye is a generic term denot- Ubiquitous in Taiwan—along path- ing some 360 individuals whose lives ways in the countryside and down side before obtaining immortality are re- streets in cities—are relatively small counted in hundreds of tales. The lords temples and shrines (some standing less are generally described as having been than half a meter high) that house icons people of great merit who, upon dying, depicting a smiling, bearded old man, were charged by the Jade Emperor with typically seated and holding a staff. protecting mankind from evil spirits This is the tutelary or earth deity known and epidemics. as Tudi Gong. Rituals surrounding this celestial A single deity in essence, he has legion of guardian spirits differ with myriad spirit avatars whose mission is locale and time of year. One of the best- ­ to look after local tracts of land and known rites for driving away ­ estilence, p the people residing on them. Though usually held in spring and autumn, occupying a low position in the divine is called Burning Wang Ye’s Boat 燒 bureaucracy, this guardian spirit is one of 王船. As an offering to the lords of the most popular divinities. pestilence, a life-size wood-and-­ aper ­ p 29820-new-1014.indd 298 2011/10/18 2:12:03 AM
  10. 10. boat is burned along with a cargo of of welcoming the deities, an inspection spirit money. tour by the divinities being honored, the chanting of sutras, street parades and Zhu Sheng Niang-niang outdoor stage performances of Taiwanese When souls are ready for reincarna- opera or glove puppet shows to entertain tion, it is up to Zhu Sheng Niang-niang 註 the deities. A parade usually comprises 生娘娘 (Birth Registry Matron) to decide artistically decorated vehicles carrying who their parents will be and register people dressed as legendary characters, the event. She is commonly depicted as music troupes, lion and dragon dances, a woman holding an open book in one stilt walking and displays by the Eight hand and a calligraphy brush in the other. Generals 八家將 (men playing the role Couples pray to her in the hope that they of deities dressed in fierce-looking face paint; they patrol in front of higher- will have gifted and healthy children. ranking deity figures to clear the road of Guan Yin wandering ghosts). Feasts are prepared in thanksgiving to deities for their blessing Guan Yin is worshiped as the Bo- and protection and, during Ghost Month dhisattva of Compassion. A bodhisattva 鬼月 (the seventh lunar month), to appease is an enlightened being that refrains from wandering ghosts (see also Chapter 18, entering nirvana and ending the painful “Tourism”). cycle of rebirth, choosing instead to con- Many religious events organized by tinue reincarnating in order to help others temples have become cultural and tourist on the path to enlightenment. Indeed, attractions for their host cities. Such festi- Guan Yin’s full name (Guan Shiyin 觀世 vals include the Dajia Ma Zu Pilgrimage 音) means “one who hears the cries of the in central and southern Taiwan, the Re- world,” and this deity is often portrayed lease of Water Lanterns 放水燈 in Keelung as having multiple eyes and a thousand during Ghost Month and the Burning of arms with which to reach out to help all Wang Ye’s Boat in Donggang 東港 and sentient beings. Guan Yin is often per- Xigang 西港. ceived of as being a spiritual conscious- ness that can manifest in the form of a Rather than attending regular religious human being, animal or object, rather services at a set location, most people in Taiwan visit a temple whenever they feel than being bound to one body. the need to seek divine assistance. They may choose a temple that honors a favor- Temple Practices ite deity, or stop by a shrine that is close Temples serve as both houses of wor- to home or on the way to work. Common ship as well as community centers, espe- rituals include the following: cially in rural areas. At most Taiwanese •• Casting divination blocks 擲筊 is a ritual temples, an assemblage of deities from followed when seeking divine answers the Buddhist, Taoist, Confucian and folk to questions. Kneeling in front of an traditions is honored. altar, the supplicant drops a pair of Special ceremonies are held on dei- crescent-shaped wooden blocks on the ties’ birthdays and apotheosis days, as temple floor. One side of each block is well as when prayers for a blessing are rounded, the other flat. An affirmative made on behalf of the community. Such answer is indicated when the blocks carnival-like events are generally referred land with one rounded and one flat side to as temple festivals, and often consist facing upward, while a negative answer 29920-new-1014.indd 299 2011/10/18 2:12:03 AM
  11. 11. 20 Religion is indicated when both rounded sides land face up. An “undecided” or “no an- glued to the center, is folded in half before being burned. It is believed that swer” response is received when both flat money thus offered to the intended sides land face up. According to common spirits will enhance spirits’ comfort in practice, an answer can only be consid- the afterlife and secure their help as ered definite when the same answer is guardians or, at least, enable them to indicated three times in a row. rest in peace so that they will not haunt •• Drawing divination sticks 求籤 is another the living. way to petition for divine ­ uidance. A g •• Burning incense and making food of- group (normally of 60 or 100) of num- ferings to deities or ancestral spirits is bered sticks are placed in a cylindrical another way of seeking their assistance. container and shaken. The stick that Devotees usually light joss sticks and jumps out first or protrudes the most is place offerings of fresh fruit and other selected. The supplicant then consults an foods on an altar. oracular verse and commentary printed •• Lamp-lighting 點光明燈 is an annual on a slip of paper bearing the same num- ritual performed by temples around the ber as the stick. In some traditions, divi- Lunar New Year on behalf of follow- nation blocks are cast to confirm that the ers praying for wisdom, a harmonious correct stick was selected. life and a bright future. In place of the •• Burning spirit money 燒金紙 is a rite candles and oil lamps used in the past, commonly performed when praying to electric lamps seated alongside the altar or for the spirits of ancestors or others are lit at the request of a believer. on special occasions, including funerals, Religious Study festival days and days recommended in lunar calendar almanacs. The square- shaped paper money, ­ sually with slips u Several private institutions of higher of thin gold- or silver-colored foil learning affiliated with Christian or Taipei City’s Lungshan Temple 龍山寺 houses icons of Guan Yin—the Bodhisattva of Compassion—and several other Buddhist, Taoist and folk deities. Built in 1740, it is a popular tourist destination. 30020-new-1014.indd 300 2011/10/18 2:12:07 AM
  12. 12. B ­ uddhist organizations offer religious which are Buddhist. National Chengchi studies programs. These include Aletheia ­ niversity 國立政治大學, a public institution, U University 真理大學, Tunghai University offers a graduate program in religious stud- 東海大學, Chung Yuan Christian Univer- ies and has a center for Islamic studies. sity 中原大學 and Chang Jung Christian Officially recognized academic ­ egrees d University 長榮大學, all of which are are also granted by Dharma Drum Bud- Protestant-linked institutions; Fu Jen dhist College and Taiwan Baptist Theo- Catholic University 輔仁大學; as well as logical Seminary 基督教台灣浸會神學院, Fo Guang University, Huafan University 華 which were established as single-faith 梵大學, Hsuan Chuang University 玄奘大學, educational institutions focusing on the Nanhua University and Tzu Chi ­ niversity, U study of their respective faith traditions. • Ministry of the Interior: Related • Ministry of Education: Websites • Museum of World Religions: • Buddhist Association of the ROC: • Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation: • Fo Guang Shan Monastery: • Dharma Drum Mountain: • Chung Tai Chan Monastery: • Ling Jiou Mountain Buddhist Society: • Taoism Society of the ROC: • Tibet Religious Foundation of His Holiness the Dalai Lama: • Chinese Regional Bishops’ Conference: • The Presbyterian Church in Taiwan: • Taipei Grand Mosque: 30120-new-1014.indd 301 2011/10/18 2:12:08 AM