Environment. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch11 enviromental protection


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From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

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Environment. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch11 enviromental protection

  1. 1. Formerly a salt farm area in Tainan, the Sicao Wetland within the Taijiang National Park now serves as an important shelter for endangered and protected bird species.11六校(indexed).indd 146 2011/10/18 12:44:25 AM
  2. 2. 11 Environmental Protection At a Glance • Commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions • Encouraging the pursuit of greener lifestyles • World-leading achievements in recycling I n line with the Copenhagen Accord of December 2009, negoti- ated under the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, the government of the Republic of China is implementing a broad range of measures aimed at conserving energy and re- ducing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. These range from development of renewable energy resources and encourage- ment of greener business practices to promotion of green architecture and higher-efficiency, low-carbon-emitting modes of transportation. As Taiwan is highly dependent on imports for its energy supplies, efforts dis- cussed in this chapter to develop renewable and low-carbon energy and to adopt energy-efficient lifestyles have the dual virtues of preserving the natu- ral environment while enhancing the nation’s energy security. At the same time, the central government’s Environmental Protection Administration and other government agencies, in league with numer- ous civic organizations, continue working to protect the nation’s natural heritage across the board from degradation. Among their efforts, pro- grams for restoring polluted environments such as river remediation are showing concrete results. 14711六校(indexed).indd 147 2011/10/18 12:44:27 AM
  3. 3. 11 Environmental Protection Public Policies Go Green •• Improve energy efficiency by more than 2 percent per annum over the period A unifying theme of public concern 2008-2015; with regard to environmental protection is •• Reduce GHG emissions to 2005 levels climate change. It is widely believed that by 2020 and to 2000 levels by 2025. global warming resulting from growing The Master Plan comprises 10 strate- levels of human-produced carbon dioxide gies, summarized in the table below. ROC (CO2) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) government policy aims to usher in a low- emissions is responsible for the increas- carbon economy and an environmentally ing severity of droughts, heat waves and friendly society dedicated to GHG emis- super storms worldwide. sions reduction. A Cabinet-level task force In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot has been established to coordinate and dumped up to two meters of rain on evaluate different government agencies’ Taiwan’s southern and central mountainous yearly action plans drafted in accordance regions within a couple of days, causing with the Master Plan. the most catastrophic flooding and land- slides in memory as well as hundreds of To integrate platforms created by gov- deaths. In October 2010, record-breaking ernment agencies for reporting GHG emis- torrential rains brought by Typhoon Megi sions, the Cabinet-level Environmental inundated large areas of northeastern Protection Administration (EPA) 行政院環境 Taiwan’s Yilan County 宜蘭縣. 保護署 in 2007 launched the Taiwan GHG Meanwhile, rising temperatures have Emissions Registry. The draft version of a accelerated the melting of polar ice caps proposed Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act 溫室氣體減量法 has been submitted to the and glaciers, causing sea levels to rise. Studies conducted by Taiwan’s research- Legislative Yuan (Legislature). It is antici- ers suggest that in the western Pacific pated that the bill will be enacted in the waters surrounding Taiwan, the sea level near future. has risen by 2.5 to 5.9 millimeters per On top of a marked effort to encour- year over the past several decades. At age GHG emissions reduction, the ROC that rate, by the year 2100 the coast- government is reorganizing the EPA to line of the island’s densely populated become the Ministry of Environment and western region will have receded 250- Natural Resources 環境資源部 to more 290 meters. effectively carry out the mission of con- Hence, though excluded from the serving the environment. United Nations and, therefore, not a par- GHG Emissions Reduction ty to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the ROC is committed to reducing GHG emissions. Renewable and Low-carbon In May 2010, the Executive Yuan Coun- cil (Cabinet) approved the Master Plan Power Generation of Energy Conservation and Carbon Mit- A key objective of the Master Plan igation 國家節能減碳總計畫, which calls is reduction of the volume of carbon for “nationally appropriate mitigation emissions resulting from electricity gen- actions” that are measurable, reportable eration. On the one hand, this involves and verifiable in line with the UNFCCC developing renewable energy resources, Copenhagen Accord. The Master Plan primarily solar, wind and biomass energy sets the following targets: and, secondarily, hydro and tidal energy. 14811六校(indexed).indd 148 2011/10/18 12:44:27 AM
  4. 4. Master Plan of Energy Conservation and Carbon Mitigation: Ten Strategy Plans and Principal Promotional Agencies •• Establish an effective regulatory framework. (EPA, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Economic Affairs) •• Build low-carbon electric power generation systems. (Ministry of Economic Affairs) •• Foster low-carbon model communities. (EPA) •• Adopt greener business and manufacturing practices. (Ministry of Economic Affairs) •• Develop green transportation networks. (Ministry of Transportation and Communications) •• Promote green environments and green architecture. (Ministry of the Interior, Council of Agriculture) •• Strengthen energy-saving technological capacities. (National Science Council) •• Reduce public construction projects’ energy consumption and carbon emissions. (Public Construction Commission) •• Supplement educational curricula. (Ministry of Education) •• Boost public awareness and encourage civic action. (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government Information Office) Source: Ministry of Economic Affairs On the other hand, it entails boosting In August 2009, the Executive Yuan thermal power plants’ efficiency. Council approved the National Science Such action is crucial for cutting GHG and Technology Program-Energy 能源國家 emissions in view of the nation’s depend- 型科技計畫, which is administered by the ence on GHG-emitting fossil fuels as its National Science Council (NSC) 行政院國 major energy sources. Taiwan’s energy 家科學委員會 (see Chapter 9, “Science and supply increased from 52.9 million kilo- Technology”). R&D projects under this liters of oil equivalent (KLOE) in 1989 to program focus on low-carbon and renew- 145.6 million KLOE in 2010. In that year, able energy resources. It is anticipated fossil fuels—oil, coal and natural gas— that over NT$30 billion (over US$1 bil- constituted 91.3 percent of all energy lion) in public funding will be allocated supplies, while nuclear power contributed to projects under the program during its 8.3 percent, and power from renewable first five years. energy accounted for only 0.4 percent. In fiscal year 2010, the central gov- ernment allocated US$230 million to the development of green energy. This Supporting Measures includes incentives for makers of photo- Prior to formulation of the Master voltaic (PV) products that are marketed Plan, the Legislative Yuan had passed the both domestically and internationally. Renewable Energy Development Act 再 Related measures adopted by the Min- 生能源發展條例 in June 2009, which calls istry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) in- for boosting renewable energy power- clude subsidies for the construction or generation capacity to between 6,500 and installation of renewable energy power- 10,000 megawatts within 20 years. generation facilities and adjustment of 14911六校(indexed).indd 149 2011/10/18 12:44:28 AM
  5. 5. 11 Environmental Protection state-run Taiwan Power Co.’s (Taipower) producer of solar cells and other PV equip- 臺灣電力公司 mandatory purchase prices ment after mainland China. for renewable energy. Thanks in part to government sub- Meanwhile, to spur energy conser- sidies dating back to as early as 1986, vation by the public at large, Taipower Taiwan also has one of the highest installa- provides discount rates for electricity tion rates for solar water heaters—ranking to households that keep their consump- fifth in the world in terms of the ratio of tion below certain levels. Between July heaters installed to land area. In Janu- 2008 and May 2011, some 7 million ary 2009, the MOEA Bureau of Energy households reduced their combined (BOE) 經濟部能源局 increased its subsidy electricity consumption by 11.5 billion for installed water-heating solar panels kilowatt-hours, thereby cutting power from NT$1,500 (US$45) to NT$2,250 plants’ CO2 emissions by 7 million tonnes. (US$68) per square meter. As of the end of December 2010, about 500,000 Solar Power households—over 6.5 percent of the na- According to the PV Status Report tion’s total—had installed some 2 mil- 2010 released by the European Commis- lion square meters of solar water heater sion, Taiwan was the world’s second-largest panels. This translates into annual energy 15011六校(indexed).indd 150 2011/10/18 12:44:29 AM
  6. 6. savings of 159,000 KLOE and reduction the capacity of installed wind turbines of CO2 emissions by 438,000 tonnes. will rise by 100 megawatts in 2011. As of the end of December 2010, Taiwan has an estimated onshore wind 1,108 solar power systems with a com- power potential of at least 1,150 mega- bined capacity of 21.5 megawatts had watts, while its offshore wind power, as been installed on buildings in Taiwan. yet untapped, is estimated over 2,000 Among these is the stadium that hosted megawatts. Total installed wind power the 2009 World Games in the southern is projected to reach 2,500 megawatts in metropolis of Kaohsiung 高雄. 2025, accounting for about 4.4 percent of In December 2009, Asia’s largest, total energy-generating capacity. Taipower and the world’s second-largest, high- aims to complete the country’s first off- concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) dem- shore wind farm with a 15-megawatt ca- onstration plant, with a power generation pacity in 2015. capacity of 1 megawatt, came into service March 2010 saw the first domestic in Luzhu District 路竹區, Kaohsiung City. production of a 2-megawatt wind turbine, The plant was designed and is operated as making the ROC the eighth country in the a pilot project by the Institute of Nuclear world capable of manufacturing commer- Energy Research 核能研究所 under the cially viable wind turbines. Cabinet-level Atomic Energy Council 行 政院原子能委員會 (see Chapter 9, “Science Green Business Practices and and Technology”), which is one among several organizations tasked with devel- Products oping renewable energy. A major objective of the Master Plan Another 4.6-megawatt solar power is to provide incentives and technical as- plant built by Taipower in Kaohsiung sistance to businesses to help them cut City—which enjoys 300 sunny days per energy consumption and boost energy year—came on-grid in May 2011. efficiency. Since May 2010, technical service teams under the BOE have pro- The MOEA aims to boost Taiwan’s vided guidance on energy conservation to installed solar power capacity to 70 private- and public-sector organizations. megawatts in 2011. In a bid to encourage A total of 3,141 organizations received society-wide participation, the ministry’s such guidance in 2010. Acting on the promotion of solar energy places impor- recommendations of a BOE-sponsored tance on installation of rooftop panels rat- advisory team, managers of Taiwan’s ed between 1 kilowatt and 10 kilowatts. landmark Taipei 101 skyscraper imple- mented measures that, in 2010, re- Wind Power duced the building’s electricity bill by As of the end of December 2010, a US$393,000 and prevented 3,500 tonnes total of 268 land-based wind turbines of CO2 emissions from being generated. along Taiwan’s northern and southwest- In addition, the EPA signed memoran- ern coasts provided an installed capacity dums of understanding with the Taiwan of 518.7 megawatts, enough to meet the TFT-LCD Association 台灣薄膜電晶體液晶顯 needs of more than 314,000 households. 示器產業協會 in 2004 and with the Taiwan This translated into savings of over Semiconductor Industry Association 台灣半 300,000 KLOE and a corresponding re- 導體產業協會 in 2005 to cooperate on reduc- duction of over 799,000 tonnes of CO2 ing emissions of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), emissions per year. It is anticipated that which have a greenhouse effect 7,400 to 15111六校(indexed).indd 151 2011/10/18 12:44:30 AM
  7. 7. 11 Environmental Protection Taiwan-based automaker, Yulon, unveiled its eco-friendly Luxgen electric multipurpose ve- hicles in 2010 that feature state-of- the-art information technology for locating nearest battery charge stations. 22,800 times more powerful than that of dehumidifiers have also been required to CO2. Since then, as of June 2010, the two have such certification and labeling. industries together have slashed some 47 The EPA launched the Green Mark million tonnes of GHG emissions. Program 環保標章計畫 in 1992 to encour- In September 2010, the EPA coordi- age manufacturers to produce, and people nated the signing of a cooperation memo- to purchase, products that are recyclable randum between Taipower and the Taiwan and have low environmental impact. As Magnesium Association 台灣鎂合金協會 on of May 2011, 6,253 products had been the reduction of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) certified as qualified to display the Green emissions. Similar cooperation between Mark logo. the EPA and automobile companies and In March 2010, Taiwan launched the auto importers resulted in the signing of Taiwan Carbon Label system. The carbon agreements in late 2010 on cutting CO2 footprint-plus-heart logo displays a num- emissions. Taiwanese carmakers pledged ber in the heart indicating the amount of that by 2015, they would reduce CO2 CO2 emissions generated throughout the emissions by 10 to 15 percent by intro- life cycle of a product, from manufacturing ducing low-carbon vehicles. and packaging to distribution and disposal. Starting in July 2010, hotels and retail As of May 2011, 77 products have been businesses became liable for leaks in air certified to use the carbon footprint label. conditioning coolant systems and use of incandescent light bulbs. From that same time, manufacturers of air condi- Green Transportation tioners, refrigerators and motor vehicles The year 2010 saw advances in have been required to display energy ef- energy-saving public transportation. ficiency rating labels after undergoing a More than 470 buses were replaced by certification process. Since March 2011, more energy-efficient ones. Measures to 15211六校(indexed).indd 152 2011/10/18 12:44:33 AM
  8. 8. connect railways, roads and bicycle paths additives to, conventional diesel (petro- were enhanced to promote green tourism diesel) fuel and gasoline. Since 2007, all and reduce carbon emissions. The Min- of Kaohsiung City’s public buses have istry of Transportation and Communica- been fueled by a domestically produced tions (MOTC) has targeted the creation B5 blend consisting of 5 percent biodiesel of a more efficient transportation system and 95 percent petrodiesel. Kaohsiung is in eastern Taiwan. Electrification of light- the second city in Asia to have introduced rail systems in Hualien 花蓮 and Taitung such a measure, after Kyoto. 臺東 counties is underway, with comple- In July 2008, the ROC became the tion scheduled for 2013. In the first nine first country in Asia to require all diesel months of 2010, zero-carbon modes of vehicles to use B1—a 1-percent bio- transportation and recreation were aug- diesel blend. According to the BOE, the mented by the construction of 68.5 kilo- use of this fuel has reduced petrodiesel meters of pedestrian walkways and 52.7 consumption by 3.85 million liters a year kilometers of bicycle lanes funded by the and CO2 emissions by 126,000 tonnes. In Ministry of the Interior (MOI). June 2010, the BOE doubled the required A number of measures are being taken percentage of biodiesel additive, mak- to reduce air pollution caused by motor ing B2 the standard fuel for all diesel- vehicles. These include routine exhaust powered vehicles. inspections and spot checks of motor ve- With respect to the development of hicles’ emissions. Government agencies bioethanol as an additive to or replacement also offer incentives for the purchase of for gasoline, E3, a 3-percent ethanol-blend vehicles with low-pollutant emissions. gasoline, has been available in 14 gas sta- Commodity taxes on hybrid electric ve- tions in Taipei 臺北 and Kaohsiung cities hicles were reduced by half in February since 2009. It is estimated that expanded 2009. The purchase and conversion of liq- use of this fuel will lower CO2 emissions uefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles are by 210,000 tonnes per year. subsidized, on top of a LPG fuel subsidy. As of the end of 2010, 46 LPG filling sta- tions had been set up around Taiwan, up Green Building from 20 in 2007. The energy-intensive construction The EPA also offers a subsidy of industry accounts for an estimated 29 NT$3,000 (US$102) per newly purchased percent of Taiwan’s CO2 emissions. To electric bicycle through the end of 2012. pursue sustainable and environmentally The central and local governments both friendly practices, in 1999 the MOI insti- provide subsidies to encourage citizens tuted the EEWH green building evalua- to purchase electric scooters. In consid- tion system to help developers, architects eration of the inconvenience of charging and others involved in construction of electric scooters and the limited mileage green buildings and encourage people to per charge, the EPA has announced regu- purchase and use such buildings. lations for subsidizing the establishment Since January 1, 2002, all new public of a battery exchange system. buildings owned by the central govern- ment or for whose construction the gov- Cleaner Biofuels ernment provides more than 50 percent In recent years, the ROC government of funds, and whose construction costs has been promoting the use of biodiesel exceed NT$50 million (US$1.45 million), and bioethanol fuels as substitutes for, or have been required to meet the standards 15311六校(indexed).indd 153 2011/10/18 12:44:33 AM
  9. 9. 11 Environmental Protection laid out in the Green Building Promotion Program 綠建築推動方案 enacted by the Among the buildings having earned a “diamond” rating is National Cheng Kung MOI in 2001. University’s 國立成功大學 Y. S. Sun Green The current EEWH rating sys- Building Research Center 孫運璿綠建築研 tem comprises nine indicators in four 究大樓 in Tainan City 臺南市. Dedicated on categories—ecology, energy savings, January 12, 2011, the center is equipped waste reduction and health, hence the with innovative ventilation systems, a roof name. The nine indicators are greenery, garden with drought-resistant plants and soil water content, energy savings, CO2 numerous other features that, depending emissions reduction, construction waste on the season, prevent or promote heat reduction, water resources, sewage/gar- absorption. Hence, the building’s 300- bage disposal improvements, biodiversity seat conference hall can operate without and indoor environments. Each indicator need of air conditioning or heating for is assigned a point value, with a maxi- up to four months of the year. These and mum total score of 100. A building must other energy-saving features enable it to score well on at least four of the nine in- operate on 65 percent less electricity than dicators to be certified as “green.” There conventional buildings. Moreover, the are five levels of certification: diamond, structure is equipped with solar panels gold, silver, bronze and qualified. The and wind turbines that provide 5 percent ROC is the fourth nation in the world to of its electrical power as well as a rainwa- have put in place a science-based, quanti- ter catchment system. fiable green building certification system after the United Kingdom, the United Green Consciousness, States and Canada. Moreover, the EEWH system is the only one in the world spe- Civic Involvement cifically developed for tropical and sub- The EPA carries out educational proj- tropical climates. As of the end of May ects in collaboration with schools at all 2011, a total of 2,961 buildings in Taiwan levels. It also works with the media to had received EEWH certification. promote environmental protection through The Pavilion of Future exhibited at 2010 Taipei International Flora Expo displays innovative green designs, including a meadow rooftop installed with solar panels. After the Expo ended, the Pavilion was reopened to the public in August 2011. 15411六校(indexed).indd 154 2011/10/18 12:44:37 AM
  10. 10. broadcasting programs and films, and and in coordination with the European publishes a range of informative printed Union’s IAGOS (In-Service Aircraft for materials. Websites focusing on environ- a Global Observing System) program, mental clean-up and low-carbon lifestyles whose GHG measuring activities have fo- have also been established to educate the cused mainly on Europe and the Atlantic. public and engage it in the mission of en- Since Evergreen Marine ship-based vironmental protection. measurements began in June 2009, instru- Additionally, the Council of Agri- ments onboard nine of the company’s culture (COA) 行政院農業委員會 sponsors container vessels have routinely taken international symposia and publicity cam- high-precision measurements of CO2 lev- paigns, while the Ministry of Education els throughout the course of their voyages trains teachers to educate children about in the North Pacific, the Indian Ocean and wildlife conservation. the Red Sea as well as in the North Atlan- On May 18, 2010, the Legislative tic and Mediterranean Sea. It is anticipated Yuan passed the Environmental Educa- that aircraft-based measurements under the tion Act 環境教育法. By this statute, those PGGM program will commence in early who work in the public sector, as well as 2012 once planes operated by China Air- faculty and students at primary and sec- lines have been fitted with instrumentation ondary schools, are required to receive at to measure concentrations of CO2 as well least four hours of instruction concern- as other types of GHGs. ing environmental protection each year. Participating scientists will analyze Courses can take the form of lectures, the ship-based and aircraft-based data in symposia, online classes, outdoor activi- combination with that collected by IAGOS ties, field studies or experiments. aircraft and the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Across the nation, environmental constellation of satellites, which monitor volunteers are among the most active conditions relating to weather, climate, social workers. About 365 teams organ- space weather and geodetic research (see ized by 9,248 local residents monitor Chapter 9 “Science and Technology”). rivers, patrol nature preserves, promote water and energy conservation, and clean up neighborhoods. Pollution Prevention Air Quality International Collaboration The Air Pollution Control Act 空氣污 In 2008, scientists at National Central 染防制法 empowers various levels of gov- University (NCU) 國立中央大學 initiated ernment to set air quality standards and the Pacific Greenhouse Gases Measure- establish monitoring stations. Currently, ment (PGGM) project 太平洋溫室效應氣體 the EPA monitors Taiwan’s air quality 觀測計畫 to chart GHG concentrations at with a network of 76 stationary and six both high and low altitudes in the Pacific mobile monitoring stations that measure and other regions where such measure- a number of pollutants. In addition, eight ment previously had not been systemati- photochemical monitoring stations as- cally performed. sess ozone precursors across the country, Funded by the NSC and the EPA, NCU playing an important role in atmospheric is conducting the project in cooperation research and health risk assessments. with Taiwan’s China Airlines 中華航空公司 These facilities are backed up by the and Evergreen Marine Corp. 長榮海運公司 EPA’s air-quality-assurance laboratory. 15511六校(indexed).indd 155 2011/10/18 12:44:38 AM
  11. 11. 11 Environmental Protection According to EPA data, in 2010 poor-air-quality days (when the pollutant important framework for government ef- forts to prevent marine pollution. standards index, or PSI, recorded by mon- Industrial effluent and wastewater itoring stations exceeds the 100 mark) from livestock farms account for a large accounted for 1.4 percent of all days (study part of the pollutants in Taiwan’s rivers. excludes effects of sandstorms originat- Household wastewater is also a major ing in mainland China)—the lowest figure contributor, particularly where proper since 1994. Improvements in motor ve- sewage collection and disposal systems hicle fuel efficiency are a major reason are lacking. One of the targets of the for this improvement. Current air quality i-Taiwan 12 Projects 愛臺十二建設 is to ex- and next-day forecasts are issued daily on pand such systems nationwide. the EPA’s website. Meanwhile, progress continues to The EPA’s Clean Air Zone 空氣品質淨 be made in river revitalization. Within a 化區 program works to green urban spaces few short years, for example, a program so as to improve air quality and sequester implemented by the Kaohsiung City carbon. Under the program, from 1996 to government transformed the once highly March 2010, trees were planted on nearly polluted Love River 愛河 into a clean 1,722 hectares of land, while 293 kilome- and attractive leisure area that features a ters of bicycle paths were laid down. It is plethora of activities, ranging from boat- estimated that over this period, the newly ing and biking to dining and shopping. planted trees have annually removed The EPA’s efforts to clean up rivers from the atmosphere an average of nearly has helped with wildlife conservation. 42,000 tonnes of CO2, 18,200 tonnes of A biodiversity survey of the Xindian ozone and over 900 tonnes of airborne River 新店溪 released in September 2010 particulates. The EPA plans to continue indicated the presence of 38 different expanding green urban spaces, planting fish species, up from 27 at the time of a 30 hectares of trees annually. survey conducted years earlier. Since its implementation in 1995, the Today, Taiwan’s rivers, reservoirs, Air Pollution Control (APC) fee 空氣污染 groundwater and surrounding seas are 防制費 system has resulted in marked im- monitored by a network of over 1,000 provements in Taiwan’s air quality. The sampling stations. In addition, the EPA EPA levies APC fees on both stationary has encouraged communities and schools sources of pollution, such as factories to organize volunteer river patrols to help and construction sites, as well as mo- uncover illegal effluent discharge. The tor vehicles. Under this scheme, a fee is effort to improve river water quality has levied for the release of a variety of pol- begun to pay off. By 2010, river segments lutants, including volatile organic com- considered seriously polluted had fallen pounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides to 5.5 percent from 15.8 percent in 2003. and particulate matter. Water Quality Recycling and Waste With maritime traffic especially heavy Management around Taiwan, the Marine Pollution Taiwan has made a great deal of Control Act 海洋污染防治法 and the Major progress in reducing waste and expand- Marine Oil Pollution Emergency Response ing recycling programs. While in 1997 Plan 重大海洋油污染緊急應變計畫 provide an the amount of garbage per capita per day 15611六校(indexed).indd 156 2011/10/18 12:44:38 AM
  12. 12. 15711六校(indexed).indd 157 2011/10/18 12:44:40 AM
  13. 13. 11 Environmental Protection reached a historic high of 1.14 kilograms, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). In by December 2010, that figure had been conformance with the convention, Taiwan slashed to 0.48 kilograms. has enacted the Environmental Agents Moreover, Taiwan’s overall recycling Control Act 環境用藥管理法 and the Toxic rate stood at 56 percent in 2010, higher Chemical Substances Control Act 毒性 than that of the United States, the United 化學物質管理法. The former prohibits the Kingdom, France and other industrial- use of POPs, while the latter limits the ized nations. Households are responsible production, sale, use, import and export for sorting recyclable materials into a of 271 toxic chemicals. Companies deal- few major categories. Later, trash col- ing with such chemicals are required to lectors further separate waste into more obtain permits from the EPA and to keep than 30 subcategories. records of the amounts they have handled Taiwan’s progress in recycling is fur- and disposed of. ther illustrated by the following facts: •• Its fluorescent lamp recycling rate is Ecological Conservation 80 percent in 2010. This is one of the highest in the world, outpacing most Forests and Forestation EU member states, whose rates were 30 The COA announced in May 2008 to 50 percent. that, over the next eight years, it would •• In 2010, an average of about 225 tonnes plant trees on 60,000 hectares of land. Un- of bulk waste was collected per day. der this program—one of the i-Taiwan 12 Salvageable items, such as furniture Projects—the COA will provide a subsidy and bicycles, are reconditioned and of US$3,850 per year for every hectare of auctioned or donated to low-income lowland that is afforested. In another initia- households. Where reconditioning is tive under the same plan, it will plant trees not possible, valuable materials are to create three forest parks in Chiayi 嘉義, recovered. Items made of wood, for ex- Hualien and Pingtung 屏東 counties. ample, are ground into mulch that can Over half of Taiwan—mostly moun- be used as ground cover or burned to tainous and hilly regions—is clothed generate electricity. in trees that are protected from com- •• Despite a sharp rise in the volume of mercial logging by law. Protected areas electronic waste in recent years, the include nine special forest reserves recycling rate of such products exceeds comprising over 21,171 hectares, es- the 50-percent mark, which is on a par tablished with the aim of protecting with most advanced countries. Much Taiwan’s unique heritage of indigenous of the cost of recycling is defrayed plant species. The COA’s Forestry Bu- through the recovery and sale of pre- r e a u 行政院農業委員會林務局 c o n d u c t s cious metals. regular surveys of the reserves to moni- To prevent illegal dumping of electron- tor ecosystems and the presence of rare ic and other hazardous wastes, the EPA has plant and animal species. initiated a GPS (global positioning system) tracking system to keep tabs on trucks li- censed to transport such wastes. Wildlife Protection Further, EPA officials regularly take Along with large forests, Taiwan’s part in technical conferences associ- wide variety of climatic zones, which ated with the Stockholm Convention on range from temperate to tropical, give 15811六校(indexed).indd 158 2011/10/18 12:44:41 AM
  14. 14. it an extraordinary profusion of flora been promoted by the Wildlife Conser- and fauna. In all, Taiwan is home to ap- vation Act 野生動物保育法. proximately 50,000 different species, of A three-year wildlife crossing program which around 30 percent are endemic (see initiated by the MOTC in 2008 enables Chapter 1, “Geography”). To help ensure wild animals to move over large ranges that its ecosystems remain intact, the cen- by provision of specially constructed pas- tral government has set aside about 20 sageways under eight of Taiwan’s national percent of the nation’s land for national highways. Other measures include closing parks, nature reserves, forest reserves, sections of Freeway No. 3 and reducing wildlife refuges and wildlife habitats. speed limits during the April migration of The protection of biodiversity has also purple crow butterflies. l Environmental Protection Administration: http://www.epa.gov.tw Related l Bureau of Energy: http://www.moeaboe.gov.tw Websites l Council of Agriculture: http://www.coa.gov.tw l Soil and Water Conservation Bureau: http://www.swcb.gov.tw l Forestry Bureau: http://www.forest.gov.tw l Forestry Bureau’s conservation site: http://conservation.forest.gov.tw 15911六校(indexed).indd 159 2011/10/18 12:44:41 AM