National Defense. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch07 national defense
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National Defense. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch07 national defense

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From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

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    National Defense. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch07 national defense National Defense. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch07 national defense Document Transcript

    • Keelung-class destroyers field the ROC Navy’s most advanced surface-to-air missiles, which have a range of up to 167 km. (Courtesy of the Military News Agency)07 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 90 2011/10/18 12:32:38 AM
    • 7 National Defense At a Glance • Procuring and developing modern weaponry • Building an all-volunteer force • Bolstering disaster response measures F or the past six decades, the Republic of China has faced a se- rious military threat from mainland China. Although tensions have eased and cross-strait relations have improved since President Ma Ying-jeou came into office in May 2008, the mainland has deployed over 1,300 missiles against Taiwan and regular- ly carries out exercises simulating an attack on the island. The ROC Armed Forces, therefore, maintain the level of preparedness necessary to defend against any would-be invader. The military is undergoing a transformation into an all-volunteer force, a process that will be completed by 2014. Moreover, it has been seeking to upgrade its fighting capabilities through procurement of advanced weaponry. 9107 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 91 2011/10/18 12:32:39 AM
    • 7 National Defense Strategic Location The PLA has established a cyber and electronic warfare command which Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Taiwan develops computer viruses to attack com- is situated between Japan and the Philip- puter systems and networks. The PLA Air pines and separated from the coast of Force has deployed roughly 700 fight- mainland China by the Taiwan Strait (see ers within 600 nautical miles of Taiwan. maps in the opening pages of the Year- Some are capable of aerial refueling, book). Peace across the strait is critical to and can support combat operations in stability in East Asia. The strait is one of the South China Sea and against Taiwan. the world’s busiest transportation arteries, Ships of the PLA Navy have modern air with hundreds of commercial vessels ply- defense capabilities, can carry out strikes ing its waters every day, while hundreds against surface and subsurface targets, of civilian aircraft fly through Taiwan’s partially block Taiwan’s sea lines of com- airspace. Meanwhile, it is believed that munication, and deter foreign navies. in its vicinity lie commercially significant subsea oil and gas deposits. Defense Posture Military Threat The ROC maintains Armed Forces strictly as a credible deterrent, to defend As discussed in Chapters 3 and 6 its free and democratic society from ex- (“History” and “Cross-strait Relations”), ternal aggression and to promote peace sovereignty disputes between the two and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific. sides of the Taiwan Strait have persisted At the same time, the ROC is working since 1949, when the government of the to build a sound foundation for peace by Republic of China relocated from Nan- promoting dialogue and normalization jing in mainland China to Taipei 臺北 in of economic and cultural relations with Taiwan and the Chinese Communist Party the mainland as well as free movement established its government in Beijing. of people across the Taiwan Strait. It has Despite a recent easing of tensions between Taiwan and mainland China thanks to cross-strait talks on economic and other types of cooperation since the current administration took office in May 2008, Beijing continues to pose a major military threat to national security. In just the last decade, the mainland has greatly enhanced its warfighting ca- pabilities. With 40 satellites in orbit, it can conduct visual and electronic recon- naissance, communications, navigation, meteorological monitoring and technical experiments. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Second Artillery Corps over- sees an arsenal of short-, medium- and long-range ballistic and cruise missiles. At present, roughly 1,300 short-range mis- siles have been deployed against Taiwan. 9207 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 92 2011/10/18 12:32:40 AM
    • also voiced support for regional security cooperation and the establishment of con- fidence-building measures between Taipei and Beijing. The ROC government is committed to upgrading the nation’s defense capabili- ties in a timely manner by making essen- tial purchases of military hardware such as aircraft, naval craft, missile systems and C4ISR (command, control, commu- nications, computer, intelligence, surveil- lance and reconnaissance) equipment. At the same time, it strives to enhance the nation’s self-reliance by boosting defense-related R&D and manufacturing. International security cooperation is also an important aspect of ROC defense policy. Forms of collaboration include technical exchanges, sharing of intel- ligence, training of foreign personnel in Taiwan and training of ROC military and defense-related civilian personnel in other Armed Forces buildup program 中華民國五 countries. Further, ROC financial authori- 年兵力整建 and an administrative report 施 ties cooperate with organizations that 政計畫報告 which it submits, together with combat money-laundering to deny terror- its budget plan, to the Legislative Yuan ist groups access to funding. for review. The MND also publishes the Employing technological advances National Defense Report 國防報告書 bien- and new strategies for maximizing defense nially to inform the public of the govern- capabilities, the ROC Armed Forces are ment’s defense policies. In accordance becoming an all-volunteer organization. In with the Act, the MND also submits a order to attract and retain the highly com- Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) 四年 petent, highly motivated people needed, 期國防總檢討 to the Legislature within 10 pay raises and enhanced benefits for ca- months of the start of each presidential reer soldiers are being instituted. term. The latest biennial report and quad­ In fiscal year 2010, the defense budget rennial review were published, respec- was over US$9.40 billion, or 17.34 per- tively, in August 2011 and March 2009. cent of the general budget and, taking into account exchange-rate fluctuations, in- creased to about US$9.98 billion in 2011. Command Structure As stipulated by the ROC Constitution Defense Reports and the National Defense Act, the presi- dent is commander-in-chief of the Armed As stipulated in the National Defense Forces, empowered to give direct orders Act 國防法, the Ministry of National De- to the minister of national defense. The fense (MND) annually publishes a report defense minister, in turn, transmits orders on mainland China’s military forces 中共 to the Chief of the General Staff 參謀總長 軍力報告書, a report on the five-year ROC for execution. 9307 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 93 2011/10/18 12:32:41 AM
    • 7 National Defense The president also serves as chairman of the National Security Council (NSC) Additional units of the Armed Forces that play combat roles include the Missile 國家安全會議. The NSC is mandated to Command 飛彈指揮部 and the Information make recommendations for the presi- and Electronic Warfare Command 資電作 dent’s reference in decision-making on 戰指揮部 of the General Staff Headquar- matters critical to the national interest. ters 國防部參謀本部. The former monitors NSC members include the vice president, Taiwan’s territorial waters and airspace the premier, the heads of key ministries, in times of peace and coordinates missile the chief of the General Staff, the NSC defense in times of war. The latter pre- secretary-general, and the director-general vents cyber attacks on military computer of the National Security Bureau 國家安全 systems and safeguards the security and 局 under the NSC. effectiveness of military command and With respect to most peacetime ad- control systems. ministrative matters, the MND makes Other military organizations play es- recommendations to the Executive Yuan sential support roles: Council (Cabinet) headed by the premier, •• The Combined Logistics Command 聯 which finalizes decisions and supervises 合後勤司令部 provides supply, equipment their implementation. The Legislature is maintenance and transport ser­ ices to v empowered to ask MND officials to ap- all branches of the Armed Forces. pear before its committees and plenary •• The Reserve Command 後備司令部 con- sessions. Defense policy may be influ- ducts basic training of new recruits and enced by the Legislature through exer- emergency mobilization exercises. Af- cise of its power to modify the Cabinet’s ter being discharged from active duty, budget proposals. all conscripts become reservists and are required to periodically report to their Armed Forces local reserve units. At present, reserv- ists total around 2.84 million. With bases at locations around Taiwan •• The Military Police Command 憲兵司 and on smaller islands, the Army safe- 令部 enforces military rules and regula- guards areas of strategic importance. It tions; provides security for the president, also works to enhance the effectiveness of vice president and candidates for the special and joint operations and to create two offices during election campaigns; a more agile land-based defense force. provides support for military operations; The Navy conducts maritime patrols to conducts special security and anti-terror maintain security in the ROC’s territorial operations; and, when necessary, coop- waters. It coordinates with the Army and erates with civilian police. the Air Force to deter maritime blockades As reported in the 2009 QDR, the or attacks and secure Taiwan’s primary foregoing three commands and their func- sea lanes. Rapid deployment and standoff tions will be integrated into the Army, the strike capabilities are among its focuses Air Force and the Navy by 2014. of development. The Air Force’s prime And, while the Armed Forces’ primary mission is to safeguard the nation’s air- mission is to protect the nation from ex- space. It continues to strengthen its capa- ternal aggression, another role given them bilities to provide early warning, prevent in recent amendments to the Disaster Pre- enemy attacks and, should attacks occur, vention and Protection Act 災害防救法 is to execute counterstrikes. perform rapid-response rescue and relief 9407 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 94 2011/10/18 12:32:41 AM
    • operations in times of natural disaster (see and institutions have a high degree of box “Rescue and Relief Work”). technological sophistication in the areas of aviation, missilery, electronics and materials technologies. Weapon System Upgrades The MND’s Chung-shan Institute The Armed Forces’ arms procurement of Science and Technology 中山科學研 programs focus mainly on boosting their 究院, Taiwan’s leading institution for anti-blockade capabilities and deploy- defense R&D, engages in the develop- ment flexibility. In October 2008, the U.S. ment, management and integration of government approved US$6.43 billion advanced weapon systems. Among those worth of weapons sales to Taiwan. The that have been deployed are Sky Bow I package includes AH-64D Apache Long- and II surface-to-air missiles, Sky Sword bow attack helicopters, Patriot Advanced I and II air-to-air missiles, Hsiung Feng Capability (PAC-3) missiles, Harpoon 雄風 I, II and III anti-ship missiles, the Block II submarine-launched anti-ship Thunderbolt-2000 multiple rocket launch- missiles, Javelin anti-tank missiles and er, and the Worker Bees VI multiple rock- system upgrades for E-2 Hawkeye early et launcher. Its unmanned aerial vehicles warning aircraft. saw their first service in 2011. In January 2010, the United States ap- Meanwhile, the MND Arsenal Readi- proved an additional arms package valued ness Development Center 兵工整備發展中心 at approximately US$6.4 billion, includ- has developed the agile, 8-wheel “Clouded ing UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters, Leopard” 雲豹裝甲車 armored vehicle. The AN/MPQ-65 radar sets, Osprey-class center has also produced three models of mine hunting ships, Harpoon Block II the CM-11 “Brave Tiger” tank 勇虎戰車, a telemetry missiles, and multifunctional modified version of the U.S. M48 “Patton” information distribution systems. tank, and the CM-21 armored personnel In August 2010, three commercial carrier based on the U.S. M113. All of arms sales related to Taiwan’s air defense these vehicles are currently in service. radar system and upgrades of existing The state-run Aerospace Industrial radars on Taiwan’s Ching-kuo Indigenous Development Corp. (AIDC) 漢翔航空工 Defense Fighter (IDF) 經國號戰機 were 業股份有限公司 is internationally recog- approved by the U.S. government. Taiwan nized as a top-quality manufacturer and continues to urge the United States to ex- highly regarded for its R&D in the field pedite the sale of F-16 C/D fighter jets to of aviation. It designed and produced, for bolster the island’s defense. example, the Ching-kuo IDF, which has been a mainstay of the ROC Air Force Defense Industry since the late 1990s. Twin-seat, upgraded models entered service in the 2000s. Defense procurement is conducted Other aircraft produced include the XA-3 with the development of the domestic de- attack fighter jet, AT-3 Advanced Jet fense industry in mind. The National De- Trainer and T-CH-1 Basic Trainer. Aside fense Act mandates that priority be given from cooperating with Boeing and Airbus to acquisition of domestically manufac- to produce commercial planes, the AIDC tured equipment. It further requires that, has worked with Northrop Grumman insofar as possible, procurements from Corp. to produce F-5E/F Tiger II fighters abroad be tied to technology transfers. and with Bell Helicopter Textron Co. on Domestic defense-related enterprises UH-1H helicopters. 9507 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 95 2011/10/21 1:46:14 AM
    • 7 National Defense Personnel and complete a term of military service at the earliest available opportunity between Conditions of Service January 1 of the year immediately fol- There are two categories of national lowing the year of their 18th birthday and defense personnel: civilian and military. December 31 of the year of their 36th Civilian personnel are recruited through birthday. High school, vocational high national examinations and a more flexible school and university students can defer open selection process, while military military service until after graduation. personnel are inducted through conscrip- With increasing numbers of profes- tion and voluntary enlistment. sional personnel in Taiwan’s regular Over the years, measures have been forces, the period of compulsory military taken to create a more streamlined, more service was cut from 14 to 12 months in effective fighting force consisting of an January 2008. increasingly higher proportion of career professionals. The total number of per- Exemptions and sonnel in the Armed Forces has been Alternative Service slimmed down to 275,000. Currently over Individuals in poor health are exempt 50 percent of the nation’s soldiers are ca- from military service. Draftees with reer military personnel. heavy family responsibilities or who According to the 2009 QDR, the are outstanding athletes may apply for a MND plans to further reduce personnel shortened service period of two months to 215,000 by 2014. It is anticipated that or less. All draftees are eligible to apply the proportion of volunteers will increase for alternative service positions in lieu by 10 percentage points annually between of military service, as provided for in the now and that year, thereby largely com- Enforcement Statute for Substitute Serv­ pleting the transition to an all-volunteer ices 替代役實施條例 of 2000. Following force. When the process is complete, a short period of basic military training, male citizens will still be required to re- those admitted to the program are placed ceive four months’ basic military training according to their interests and skills. and become reservists. Alternative service falls into two cat- At present, all male ROC citizens of egories: general and R&D. Draftees who sound body and mind are obligated to opt for general alternative service can An All-volunteer Force The transition from a mixed volunteer-conscript system to an all-volunteer military is taking place in three stages: The first stage (May 20, 2008 to June 30, 2009) involved overall planning for the MND restructuring; revising related legislation; and drawing up such measures as those concern- ing remuneration, training, barracks construction and reservist mobilization. The second stage (July 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010) was geared toward enacting complementary laws and regulations based on the progress achieved in the first phase. Re- lated organizational infrastructure was to be ready by the period’s end, with plans for remu- neration and benefits implemented ahead of schedule if practicable. During the third stage (January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014), all related objectives are to be accomplished, resulting in an all-volunteer force. 9607 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 96 2011/10/18 12:32:42 AM
    • serve in a wide variety of positions, in- school-level academies become noncom- cluding security guard, firefighter, social missioned officers. worker, medical personnel, agricultural Thereafter, graduates of either level advisor or worker, teacher, surveyor and receive further, specialized training in ar- overseas humanitarian project worker. eas such as infantry tactics and command, Draftees performing R&D alternative operation or maintenance of naval craft service, who must have at least a master’s or aircraft, use of weapon systems, civil degree, work for three years at MND- engineering, communications or aspects approved government institutions, public of base management. or private research centers, or universities. Throughout their careers, ROC pro- fessional soldiers are provided with Military Education abundant opportunities—and, in some instances, are even required—to periodi- The MND provides three general cally undergo supplementary in-service categories of education to prospective education and training to hone their skills professional soldiers and those in active and leadership capabilities. service: pre-service education at MND- Those who aspire to higher levels of operated college- and high school-level responsibility must successfully complete military academies; in-service education; advanced levels of education. Commis- and advanced education. sioned officers may pursue master’s and Students who receive undergraduate doctoral programs at either military or degrees from college-level academies civilian institutes of higher learning. Can- are on track to become commissioned didates for the ranks of colonel or major officers, while those who wish to begin general (and their naval equivalents) must active service after graduating from high complete a special course of studies at The ROC Military Academy, founded by Sun Yat-sen, has for decades trained officers who have served as the backbone of the ROC military. (Courtesy of the ROC Military Academy) 9707 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 97 2011/10/18 12:32:46 AM
    • 7 National Defense Military personnel clean up a flooded street in Pingtung County’s Linbian Township following the devastating Typhoon Morakot of 2009. (Huang Fu-ren) National Defense University 國防大學 that security. These broadly include prevent- focuses on advanced leadership, analyti- ing terrorist attacks; gathering and sharing cal and management skills. Noncom- intelligence with friendly nations; manag- missioned officers and career soldiers of ing the country’s borders; protecting criti- lower rank are similarly encouraged to cal infrastructure; maintaining operations pursue studies leading to higher degrees. of essential public- and private-sector functions in times of crisis; safeguarding Internet security; and coordinating disas- Homeland Security ter response and management. In addition to combat preparedness, The Wan An Exercises 萬安演習, a the ROC government attaches great im- series of civil defense drills, are held an- portance to other aspects of homeland nually to buttress the emergency response Rescue and Relief Work After Typhoon Morakot 莫拉克颱風 ravaged Taiwan in August 2009, laws were amended to make disaster prevention and rescue a core mission of the Armed Forces. On September 19, 2010, Typhoon Fanapi 凡那比颱風 pounded eastern and southern Taiwan with strong winds and heavy rainfall, causing flooding and significant agricultural losses in Hualien 花蓮, Kaohsiung and Pingtung 屏東. In one day alone, Qiaotou District 橋頭區 of Kaohsiung City received as much as 850 millimeters of rain. To help with the post-storm recovery, between September 19 and October 1, the MND conducted 53,821 personnel sorties, involving 2,979 ground vehicle, 77 boat and 22 aircraft missions, evacuating 7,750 residents and removing 12,055 tonnes of debris. A month later, on October 24, Typhoon Megi 梅姬颱風 hit northeastern Taiwan heavily, killing 38 people. Yilan 宜蘭 County was the hardest hit, with massive landslides trapping some 400 passengers in 32 vehicles. The MND arranged for 45,502 personnel sorties, in- cluding 832 ground vehicle, 26 boat and 165 aircraft rescue missions. 9807 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 98 2011/10/18 12:32:49 AM
    • capability of local governments and the Security 行政院國土安全辦公室 in 2007. Ad- military for such contingencies as fires, ditionally, after the devastation wreaked terrorist attacks and nuclear accidents. by Typhoon Morakot in August 2009, The Executive Yuan began convening the Executive Yuan set up the Office of joint policy conferences in 2007 to inte- Disaster Management 行政院災害防救辦公 grate domestic disaster prevention and 室 in 2010, with which the Armed Forces relief mechanisms, communicable disease closely cooperate. control, counterterrorism operations and Since 2006, the Coast Guard Adminis- other emergency response systems. It also tration 行政院海岸巡防署 has implemented set up the Counterterrorism Office 行政院 the An Hai Project 安海專案 to crack down 反恐怖行動管控辦公室 in 2004, which was on smuggling of goods and trafficking of reorganized as the Office of Homeland arms, drugs and persons. • Ministry of National Defense: http://www.mnd.gov.tw Related • National Defense Report: http://www.mnd.gov.tw/2011mndreport/ Websites • National Security Bureau: http://www.nsb.gov.tw • Aerospace Industrial Development Corp.: http://www.aidc.com.tw • Coast Guard Administration: http://www.cga.gov.tw 9907 四校OK (spelling and indexed) 2.indd 99 2011/10/18 12:32:50 AM