On a trip to the ROC’s South Pacific                                          ally Nauru in March 2010, President         ...
5	 Foreign Relations                 At a Glance                 •	 Viable diplomacy: deepening relations with the world  ...
5            Foreign Relations                Foreign Policy                                 These include the Asian Devel...
Since announcing its intention to do          comprehensive picture of its trade poli-                so in September 2009...
5            Foreign Relations                                                                                       The f...
President Ma designated former Vice        for the ROC’s foreign aid policy (see box                President Lien Chan 連戰...
5            Foreign Relations                                             White Paper on Foreign Aid Policy:             ...
production of grains, and training for the        while learning from other cultures, the                production of bam...
5            Foreign Relations                    Meanwhile, the Buddhist Compas-           Africa, six in Oceania and one...
In January 2010, President Ma jour-      agriculture, green energy and cultural                neyed to Central America to...
5            Foreign Relations                to its obligations under the Taiwan Rela-                tions Act, enacted ...
more than three months in their home          Taiwan-ASEAN Relations                countries have been able to use their ...
5            Foreign Relations                Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan,         the ROC’s endeavors to play a ...
Among other positive developments                     •• December 2010—Taiwan and France                in Taiwan-EU relat...
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Foreign Relations. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch05 foreign relations


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From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

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Foreign Relations. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch05 foreign relations

  1. 1. On a trip to the ROC’s South Pacific ally Nauru in March 2010, President Ma Ying-jeou visits a Nauruan family who painted the ROC’s national flag on their house in a show of friendship. (Courtesy of the Office of the President)05五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 66 2011/10/18 12:20:21 AM
  2. 2. 5 Foreign Relations At a Glance • Viable diplomacy: deepening relations with the world • Giving back: international humanitarian aid and development cooperation A s a vibrant multiparty democracy, an economic powerhouse and a major provider of humanitarian and development assis- tance, the Republic of China plays an important role in world affairs. Though not a member of many major international or- ganizations, it strives to cultivate mutually beneficial interactions with all nations and to contribute to cooperative ventures of critical signifi- cance to mankind. Since President Ma Ying-jeou assumed office in mid-2008, the ROC’s foreign policy has been guided by a philosophy of “viable diplomacy,” with the principal aim of redirecting resources previously squandered on counterproductive competition in the international arena with main- land China to the task of improving people’s lives. 6705五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 67 2011/10/18 12:20:22 AM
  3. 3. 5 Foreign Relations Foreign Policy These include the Asian Development Bank; the World Trade Organization Viable Diplomacy (WTO), which Taiwan joined under the Since President Ma Ying-jeou took name “Separate Customs Territory of office in May 2008, his administration Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu”; has pursued a new approach to engaging and the Asia-Pacific Economic Coopera- the international community known as tion (APEC) forum, in which it partici- “viable diplomacy” 活路外交. The general pates as “Chinese Taipei”—a name the aim is to remove obstacles that have pre- country also uses for its national Olympic vented the Republic of China (Taiwan) Committee and in the World Health As- from cooperating more effectively with sembly (WHA). In addition, the ROC has other nations bilaterally and through in- observer status or other membership in 19 ternational forums. other IGOs or their subsidiary bodies. Before President Ma’s inauguration, By participating in these organiza- the main hindrance to such international tions, the ROC seeks not only to defend cooperation was hostile competition be- the rights and interests of its people, but tween the ROC government in Taipei 臺 also to forge friendships with other na- 北 and the Chinese Communist Party-led tions and develop initiatives that benefit the world as a whole. government in Beijing for diplomatic rec- ognition. Over a period of six decades, the two governments expended vast resources United Nations to secure support for their respective In the spirit of viable diplomacy, the stances in a sovereignty dispute that has ROC’s U.N.-related initiatives focus on persisted since 1949, making the Taiwan meaningful participation in U.N. special- Strait a potential flashpoint for armed con- ized agencies and mechanisms that ad- flict with severe implications for the entire dress issues pertaining to the welfare of world (see Chapter 3, “History”). its people and its national development. Cross-strait relations have warmed While full membership in the world notably, however, since the two sides body currently remains distant, the ROC shelved sovereignty issues in 2008 and re- is seeking every practical, feasible and sumed talks aimed at reaching agreements innovative means of meaningful partici- on mutually beneficial economic and civil pation, such as first becoming involved interchange and creating an environment as an observer. The ROC government’s conducive to long-lasting peace and pros- adoption of this pragmatic approach has perity. The subsequent improvement in enabled it to take part in a greater number relations has allowed the ROC to redirect of international forums than before. In diplomatic resources toward enhancing particular, Taiwan has been invited to the substantive ties with world nations (see WHA annual meeting as an observer for Chapter 6, “Cross-strait Relations”). three consecutive years since 2009. The government is following the same approach in seeking participation in the Participation in U.N.’s other specialized agencies and International Bodies mechanisms, with particular focus on the International Civil Aviation Organization Currently, the ROC has full member- (ICAO) and activities under the United ship in 32 intergovernmental organiza- Nations Framework Convention on Cli- tions (IGOs) and their subsidiary bodies. mate Change (UNFCCC). 6805五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 68 2011/10/18 12:20:22 AM
  4. 4. Since announcing its intention to do comprehensive picture of its trade poli- so in September 2009, the ROC has re- cies and practices as well as reiterating its ceived substantial international support. determination to cooperate constructively Many of its diplomatic partners have sent with other WTO members to promptly letters to the ICAO’s secretary-general complete the Doha Round with a mean- and to the UNFCCC’s executive secretary, ingful and balanced outcome. or made remarks favorable to the ROC As a genuine supporter of the Aid for at the United Nations General Assembly, Trade initiative of the WTO, the ROC be- the ICAO Assembly and the UNFCCC lieves that domestic development factors Conference of the Parties, respectively, should be considered in all DDA negotia- in support of the ROC’s meaningful and tions. To ensure that developing countries direct participation in their activities. Nu- and least developed countries (LDCs) are merous parliamentary bodies—including better integrated into the multilateral trad- the European Parliament, the United ing system, the ROC has offered financial States House of Representatives and the support to help LDC delegations take part Australian Senate—have also passed sup- in the 7th Ministerial Conference in 2009 portive resolutions. and continues to provide technical as- In June 2010, Environmental Protec- sistance and capacity building programs tion Administration 行政院環境保護署 Min- in cooperation with partner countries ister Shen Shu-hung 沈世宏 informed the through its International Cooperation UNFCCC Secretariat that the ROC will and Development Fund (TaiwanICDF) take concrete measures to reduce its green- 國際合作發展基金會. In 2010 the govern- house gas emissions by at least 30 percent ment contributed to the Standards and relative to the “business-as-usual” bench- Trade Development Facility trust fund, a mark before 2020. In recognition of such joint initiative by the Food and Agricul- responsibility and efforts to fulfill this goal, ture Organization, World Organization it is imperative that the ROC be accorded for Animal Health, World Bank, World at least observer status in the UNFCCC Health Organization (WHO) and WTO, Conference of the Parties, thereby en- in an effort to assist developing countries abling it to more effectively contribute to in improving their capacity to implement the work of combating and responding to international sanitary and phytosanitary the challenges of global warming. measures and to gain better access to ex- port markets. World Trade Organization In order to address core negotiation Since its accession to the WTO in issues and advance common interests, 2002, the ROC has faithfully imple- the ROC has endeavored to engage in mented its obligations under WTO rules trade talks on all fronts by joining vari- and, through its permanent mission based ous negotiating subgroups, such as the at the WTO headquarters in Geneva, has Group of Recently Acceded Members, continued to participate actively in the G-10 and the Friends of Anti-dumping Doha Development Agenda (DDA) nego- Negotiations. In addition, the govern- tiations. To fulfill its accession commit- ment is looking to expand trade and ment, the ROC became the 41st signatory economic relations by taking part in to the plurilateral Agreement on Govern- accession negotiations with prospec- ment Procurement on July 15, 2009 and tive new members, including Belarus, successfully concluded its second Trade Laos, Lebanon, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Policy Review in July 2010, presenting a Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. 6905五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 69 2011/10/18 12:20:22 AM
  5. 5. 5 Foreign Relations The founding ceremony of the SME Crisis Management Center, the first in Taiwan overseen by APEC. The center opened in Taipei in May 2010 and works with small and medium- sized enterprises to enhance their abilities to overcome the impacts of global economic challenges. The ROC also participates in the Dis- its fellow APEC member economies pute Settlement Mechanism to ensure that to promote sustained economic growth its interests are protected. In 2008, the through commitments to trade and government brought its first case, together investment liberalization, business fa- with two co-complainants—Japan and the cilitation, and economic and technical United States—to the Dispute Settlement cooperation in the region. It has played Body (DSB), against the European Com- a proactive role in APEC meetings and munities and its Member States (ECMS), activities in numerous realms: agricul- over their tariff treatment of certain in- tural technology, fisheries and marine formation technology products. The DSB resource conservation, human resource panel adopted a final report in September development, intellectual property rights 2010, confirming that the ECMS—today’s protection, telecommunications and European Union—had violated its obli- information, development of small and gations under the WTO and that tariffs medium-sized enterprises (SME), tour- imposed on the disputed products must be ism, energy efficiency, public health, abolished. The European Union indicated emergency preparedness, climate change, in October 2010 that it would bring its anti-corruption and counterterrorism. relevant measures in conformity with the Between August 2004 and December final report within a reasonable period of 2010, the ROC established 69 APEC Dig- time, and subsequently agreed with the ital Opportunity Centers in 10 APEC part- ROC that this would be nine months and ner member economies. Consequently, nine days from the date of the DSB ruling. training at these centers has been provid- ed 165,000 person-times, giving people access to digital opportunities to improve Asia-Pacific Economic their businesses, jobs, studies and overall Cooperation quality of life. In particular, the number Since joining APEC in 1991, the of female participants increased from 16 ROC has been working closely with percent in 2005 to 49 percent in 2010. 7005五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 70 2011/10/18 12:20:26 AM
  6. 6. President Ma designated former Vice for the ROC’s foreign aid policy (see box President Lien Chan 連戰 as his represen- “White Paper on Foreign Aid Policy”). tative to the APEC Economic Leaders’ The International Cooperation and Meetings held in Lima (2008), Singapore Development Act 國際合作發展法, promul- (2009) and Yokohama (2010). Lien is the gated June 15, 2010, is a landmark statute highest-ranking former official to have that provides a legal basis and serves as a attended the meeting in the president’s guideline for the ROC’s foreign aid activ- stead since the nation joined this multilat- ities. Drafted by the MOFA and drawing eral economic and trade forum. on the Paris Declaration on Aid Effective- In 2010, the ROC participated in ness of the Organization for Economic over 200 APEC activities and hosted 19 Cooperation and Development, the Act APEC-related meetings and workshops. aims to bring Taiwan’s international co- The APEC Business Advisory Council operation and development projects in meeting held in Taipei from May 17 to line with international norms. May 21 drew over 170 delegates from The International Cooperation and APEC’s 21 member economies. The Development Act designates the MOFA APEC SME Crisis Management Center, as the key organization responsible for which opened in Taipei in May 2010, handling foreign aid affairs and for coor- aims to enhance the ability of SMEs to dinating related efforts by other govern- cope with economic crises. The APEC ment agencies. The Act also authorizes Research Center for Typhoon and Society, the MOFA to entrust foreign aid work to established in Taipei in November 2010, TaiwanICDF as well as to private organi- serves as a platform for bringing together zations and professionals. relevant regional research, and for estab- lishing an effective early warning system International Cooperation and information-sharing network. Both Development Fund independently and in partnership with The TaiwanICDF was established in other member economies, the ROC will 1996 as an independent organization to continue to make significant contributions implement government-funded foreign to improving the quality of life for people aid programs. The organization’s core in the APEC community and to achieving competencies include lending and invest- growth, peace and prosperity throughout ment, technical cooperation, humanitarian the Asia-Pacific region. assistance, and international education and training. As of the end of 2010, the Development and organization had established 29 overseas technical missions, principally in Central Humanitarian Assistance and South America, the Caribbean, Africa and the Pacific. Policy The TaiwanICDF’s lending and in- In line with the principles of “proper vestment activities range from providing goals, legal processes and effective ad- micro-financing to funding large-scale ministration,” the Ministry of Foreign Af- infrastructure projects, and from assisting fairs (MOFA) in May 2009 published the private-sector growth to boosting social White Paper on Foreign Aid Policy: Part- development. In 2010, the organization nerships for Progress and Sustainable worked on several new lending projects in Development 援外政策白皮書:進步夥伴、永 these and other fields, with an emphasis 續發展, outlining key goals and strategies on agricultural finance. 7105五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 71 2011/10/18 12:20:26 AM
  7. 7. 5 Foreign Relations White Paper on Foreign Aid Policy: Partnerships for Progress and Sustainable Development In the 1950s, the ROC was the beneficiary of approximately US$100 million in foreign aid each year, equivalent to about 9 percent of its gross domestic product at the time. Thanks to such aid, it managed to get through the hard post-war years and create an “economic miracle.” Grateful for such generosity, the ROC people feel morally obligated to help out other societies in need. Over the past five decades, the ROC has provided hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of financial, material and technical aid, accumulating an abundance of valuable experience and a long list of accomplishments in the process. Since “viable diplomacy” was established as a core policy initiative in 2008, it has been stressed that the nation’s international assistance programs must be designed with proper goals in mind, conforming to legal processes and implemented effectively. In line with these principles, the MOFA has performed a comprehensive review of the ROC’s foreign aid, whose findings have been published in May 2009 as the White Paper on Foreign Aid Policy: Partnerships for Progress and Sustainable Development. Clearly outlining the key themes, goals, strategies and measures of the ROC’s foreign aid policy, the document also constitutes a declaration to ROC citizens and the world at large that the ROC government is determined to uphold the highest moral and professional standards and expand the scope of its humanitarian undertakings. The organization also nurtures aca- in 2010, covering a diverse range of sub- demic talent through its Higher Educa- jects such as health care management, tion Scholarship Program, which enables WTO technical barriers to trade and trade foreign students to pursue a range of promotion, tourism, media development, undergraduate and post-graduate degree SMEs, natural disaster management, programs at universities in the ROC. The agribusiness, waste management, food main focus of these scholarships is on safety, human capital management, urban sustainable agricultural development, planning, women’s development, climate public health and medicine, science and change and natural resource management, technology, the humanities and social sci- and economic planning and development. ences, and private-sector development. In the event of natural disasters, the Meanwhile, the MOFA also provides TaiwanICDF offers timely assistance in Taiwan Scholarships to foreign students cooperation with like-minded public and for higher education in a broader variety private organizations. When Haiti was of fields. To date, over 1,400 foreign stu- struck by a devastating earthquake in dents have benefited from the two schol- January 2010, the organization responded arship programs. immediately by dispatching a joint medi- More widely, the goal of educa- cal team with Taiwan Root Medical Peace tion and training operations at the Corps 台灣路竹會. The organization also TaiwanICDF is to spur social and eco- provided World Vision with emergency nomic progress by assisting partner coun- tents and shipped 800 tonnes of rice to tries to expand and improve their pool of Food for the Poor for distribution among human resources. To this end, the organi- survivors. To support Haiti’s long-term zation conducts seminars and workshops recovery, the TaiwanICDF is conducting on Taiwan’s own development experi- the Haiti Earthquake Calamity Recovery ences for participants from around the Assistance Project, covering basic train- world. Twenty workshops were organized ing for construction workers, increased 7205五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 72 2011/10/18 12:20:27 AM
  8. 8. production of grains, and training for the while learning from other cultures, the production of bamboo handicrafts. The TaiwanICDF recruits medics, technicians total cost of the project is approximately and agricultural experts to serve abroad. US$2.4 million. It also directs the Taiwan Youth Overseas Elsewhere, international humanitarian Service 外交替代役, through which young assistance by the TaiwanICDF has mainly men perform humanitarian service abroad focused on emergency relief and poverty in place of military service at home. Since alleviation. In recent years, the organiza- 1996, 509 experts have been dispatched tion has collaborated with Mercy Corps, to operate technical and medical missions the Red Cross Society of the Republic of overseas, while 710 alternative service- China, World Vision Taiwan, the Esperan- men have contributed to the work of such za de Vida in Guatemala and other inter- missions since 2001. national nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) to provide natural disaster relief Contributions by and post-disaster reconstruction aid in Nongovernmental Organizations Latin American and Caribbean countries. The ROC has carried out long-term To utilize the talents of ROC citizens humanitarian and environmental projects who are eager to share their know-how in East Asia and Southeast Asia in collab- oration with such INGOs as the Sumatran Orangutan Society, Research Triangle In- stitute International, the Humpty Dumpty Institute, the Thailand Burma Border Con- sortium and Handicaps Enfants sans Fron- tière. Through such interaction, Taiwan has also facilitated the participation of Taiwanese nongovernmental organiza- tions (NGO) in cooperative international ventures. Further, it has conducted numer- ous NGO training programs, seminars and presentations and has provided grants to NGO managers to receive training abroad and make study visits to INGOs. Private Taiwanese groups providing international assistance in 2010 included the Taiwan Root Medical Peace Corps, which delivered medical services to countries such as Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and the Philippines; the Taipei Overseas Peace Service 台北海外和平服 務團, which continued its decades-long work of providing primary education to Taiwan’s technical missions in the island refugee children in Thailand; and World nations of the Pacific are committed to Vision Taiwan and the Taiwan Fund for promoting sustainable agriculture. The Children and Families 台灣兒童暨家庭扶助 picture shows a trainee working with 基金會, which helped thousands of chil- seedlings at a demonstration farm in Tuvalu. dren around the globe with both public and private support. 7305五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 73 2011/10/18 12:20:30 AM
  9. 9. 5 Foreign Relations Meanwhile, the Buddhist Compas- Africa, six in Oceania and one in Europe. In 2010, it maintained 91 representative sion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation 佛教慈濟 慈善事業基金會, the world’s largest Bud- offices in the capitals and major cities of dhist charity with some 10 million regu- 57 countries. Meanwhile, the ROC’s dip- lar financial supporters worldwide and lomatic partners, other countries and the 2 million volunteer workers serving in European Union maintained 68 embassies 61 countries, provided medical services, or representative offices in Taiwan. emergency relief and various types of The ROC has also signed working long-term assistance all over the world. holiday programs with six countries— Typically, they have been among the first Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, New to reach the scenes of major natural disas- Zealand and South Korea—allowing ters, including the Japan earthquake and young people from Taiwan to live, work tsunami in March 2011. and vacation in those countries for up to World-renowned international orga- 12 months. Additionally, the number of nizations dedicated to global agricultural countries and territories extending visa- development that were founded decades free or landing visa privileges to ROC ago and continue to operate in the ROC in- passport holders has climbed from 53 clude AVRDC-The World Vegetable Cen- when President Ma entered office in May ter and the Food and Fertilizer Technology 2008 to 124 as of October 2011. Center under the Asian Pacific Council. 
 Diplomatic Partners Bilateral Ties The ROC has close relations with its diplomatic partners in Latin America and Through its partnerships with na- the Caribbean. Countless instances of tions the world over, the ROC seeks to fruitful cooperation between them can be advance common agendas of benefit to cited in areas such as the development of all. It has full diplomatic relations with SMEs, agriculture, forestry, fishery, ani- 23 states, including 12 in Central and mal husbandry, environmental protection South America and the Caribbean, four in and tourism. Vice President Vincent Siew (front center) stands with representatives from other nations at a ceremony celebrating Paraguay’s bicentennial in May 2011.(Courtesy of the Office of the President) 7405五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 74 2011/10/18 12:20:36 AM
  10. 10. In January 2010, President Ma jour- agriculture, green energy and cultural neyed to Central America to attend the exchanges were unveiled. inauguration of Honduran President The ROC and its four diplomatic Porfirio Lobo Sosa as well as to meet partners in Africa—Burkina Faso, the with the Dominican Republic’s President Gambia, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Leonel Fernández Reyna and Haiti’s Swaziland—are reviewing existing coop- Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive to erative projects and planning new ones. understand relief efforts in the wake of Current programs focus on medical care the January 12 earthquake that devastated and infrastructure development. Haiti. President Ma’s plane unloaded 10 In December 2010, Premier Wu Den- tonnes of relief supplies in the Dominican yih visited Burkina Faso to attend the Republic for delivery by truck to neigh- inauguration ceremony of President Blaise boring Haiti. In total, the ROC govern- Compaoré. While there, Premier Wu also ment and private sector donated US$16 presided over the opening ceremony for a million in cash and relief supplies to vocational training center built with ROC Haiti for post-disaster aid. In May 2011, support. The ROC will assist the West Af- Taiwan also donated US$300,000 to the rican nation with national industry devel- Pan American Development Foundation opment through the provision of vocational under the Organization of American States training programs and technical personnel. to support post-earthquake reconstruction In Europe, the ROC has diplomatic and cholera control and prevention efforts ties with the Holy See, founded on their in Haiti. common commitment to serving human- In May 2011, Vice President Vincent ity and advancing human dignity. Siew led a delegation to Paraguay and Panama for an official visit. While in Paraguay, he attended ceremonies cel- Taiwan-US Relations ebrating Paraguay’s bicentennial as well Despite their lack of formal diplo- as the centennial year of the ROC. The matic ties, Taiwan and the United States vice president told the media that the continue to enjoy a strong and fruitful ROC will help its ally create more local partnership. The United States is the jobs and expand agricultural manufactur- ROC’s third largest trading partner, while ing and processing for a greater share the ROC is the United States’ ninth larg- of the South American market. While in est. In 2010, the ROC’s total exports to Panama, Siew met with President Ricardo the United States amounted to US$31.47 Martinelli and witnessed the signing of an billion, up by 33.6 percent from the agreement between the two countries on previous year; imports from the United visa exemption for holders of diplomatic, States amounted to US$25.37 billion, an official, consular and special passports. increase of 39.8 percent. Relations with the ROC’s six diplo- The two countries maintain a wide matic partners in the Pacific—Kiribati, range of cooperative relations in the the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, the realms of international security, trade, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu—continued investment, cultural exchange, education, to flourish in 2010. In March of that and science and technology. year, during President Ma’s state visits In January 2010, the Obama admin- to the six nations, regional development istration approved the sale of a US$6.4 plans in the fields of medical care, fish- billion arms package to the ROC. This ery conservation, vocational training, demonstrates Washington’s commitment 7505五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 75 2011/10/18 12:20:36 AM
  11. 11. 5 Foreign Relations to its obligations under the Taiwan Rela- tions Act, enacted by the U.S. Congress the growing need for more exchanges be- tween the two countries. in March 1979. The Obama administration has ap- Taiwan-Japan Relations plauded the ROC’s efforts to relax ten- The ROC and Japan are neighbors sions and improve relations across the with significant historical, trade and in- Taiwan Strait. At the same time, it has vestment ties. While the two countries voiced support for the ROC’s participa- do not have formal diplomatic relations, tion in international organizations such Japan is the ROC’s second largest trading as the WHO and the International Civil partner, while the ROC is Japan’s fourth Aviation Organization. largest. In 2010, the ROC’s exports to On December 14, 2010, the first-ever Japan amounted to US$18.02 billion, an U.S.-Taiwan Clean Energy Forum 台美國 increase of 24.3 percent from the previous 際綠能產業/節能減碳論壇 took place in the year, while imports from Japan amounted southern city of Kaohsiung 高雄, with to US$51.93 billion, up by 43.4 percent. specialized seminars featuring presenta- On September 24, 2009, Taiwan’s Na- tions on clean energy innovation by dis- tional Chengchi University 國立政治大學, tinguished speakers from both the United under support from the Interchange Asso- States and Taiwan. This unprecedented ciation, Japan 日本交流協會 and the Japan event highlighted the two sides’ long- Foundation 日本國際交流基金會, set up the standing cooperation on energy issues. Center for Modern Japan Studies 當代日 本研究中心 as an academic exchange plat- Taiwan-Canada Relations form between the two countries. On April The ROC is Canada’s 13th-largest 21, 2010, the Taipei Culture Center 臺北 trading partner globally and fourth in 文化中心, dedicated to promoting cultural Asia. About 15,000 students from the exchanges between Taiwan and Japan, ROC are currently in Canada, the fourth opened in Tokyo. The center is the first of most popular foreign destination for study its kind in Asia and modeled after similar among Taiwanese. In April 2010, a Youth facilities in New York and Paris. Mobility Program agreement between the On April 30, 2010, Taiwan and Japan ROC and Canada came into effect, allow- signed a memorandum of understand- ing citizens from either side between the ing (MOU) calling on the two sides to ages of 18 and 35 to travel, live and work strengthen cooperation in 15 areas: trade, in the other country for up to 12 months. economics, tourism, academics, culture, The program quota for both sides was in- technology, disaster prevention, environ- creased from an initial 200 to 1,000 per- mental protection, energy conservation, sons in January 2011. Currently, holders maritime safety, crime-fighting, agricul- of Canadian passports are accorded visa- ture, fishery, city-to-city interactions and free entry for up to 90 days when enter- exchange visits of their media. It is the ing the ROC. On November 22, 2010, the first comprehensive document signed be- Canadian government waived the visitor- tween Taiwan and Japan since diplomatic visa requirements for holders of ordinary ties were severed in 1972. ROC passports for stays of up to six The two countries have been work- months, on the condition that such pass- ing to make travel more convenient and ports contain personal identification num- rewarding for each other’s citizens. Since bers. The success of the Youth Mobility October 2008, ROC and Japanese citizens Program and visa-waiver treatment reflect who have held a valid driver’s license for 7605五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 76 2011/10/18 12:20:37 AM
  12. 12. more than three months in their home Taiwan-ASEAN Relations countries have been able to use their na- In 2010, two-way trade between the tive licenses (with accompanying transla- ROC and the member states of the Associ- tions) to drive in the other country. ation of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) In April 2009, Japan signed a “work- amounted to US$70.2 billion. The ROC ing holiday” agreement with the ROC, is among the top foreign investors in the whereby young citizens of either country Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia can obtain special visas that allow them and Thailand. It is also an important mar- to work while visiting the other country. ket for ASEAN goods and services as well For several decades, flights to Japan as a provider of technology. were only available from international Although economic and trade rela- airports in Taoyuan 桃園 and Kaohsiung. tions between the ROC and ASEAN The resumption of flights between Taipei International Airport (Songshan Airport) countries are close, the ROC’s ability to 臺北國際航空站 and Tokyo International participate fully in East Asian economic Airport (Haneda Airport) on October 31, integration has been impeded as a con- 2010 after three decades of suspended sequence of Beijing’s objections. With a services has boosted the convenience of view to maximizing the benefits of free tourists from both cities and enhanced trade while removing hindrances to de- Taiwan-Japan relations. velopment of economic ties in the Asia- In the wake of the massive March 11, Pacific and beyond, since mid-2008 the 2011 earthquake and tsunami that rav- ROC government has signed the Cross- aged Japan, Taiwan sent an emergency Straits Economic Cooperation Frame- rescue team and over 500 tonnes of relief work Agreement (ECFA) 海峽兩岸經濟合 supplies to Japan, as well as over US$200 作架構協議 and 14 other agreements with million in aid—90 percent of which came mainland China. from private donors. Japanese Prime Min- In November 2010, the ROC and ister Naoto Kan subsequently issued an Vietnam concluded the Mutual Legal As- open letter thanking Taiwan for its friend- sistance Agreement, making Vietnam the ship and assistance during his nation’s second nation, after the United States, worst natural calamity in decades. with which the ROC does not have formal Despite a lack of formal ties, visits diplomatic relations, to sign such a pact to Taiwan by several Japanese political with Taiwan. The agreement, in addition heavyweights over the past two years have to furthering bilateral relations between signified a close relationship between the two nations, will make it easier for Taipei and Tokyo. These include trips by Taiwan and Vietnam to fight crime and former Japanese prime ministers Taro Aso deal with a range of civil cases. (in April 2010), Shinzo Abe (November The Taipei Representative Office 2010), Yoshiro Mori (December 2010) and in Singapore and the Singapore Trade Toshiki Kaifu (March 2011) to promote Office in Taipei simultaneously issued cultural, economic and tourism exchanges a joint press release on December 15, between the two countries. In May 2011, 2010, stating that Taiwan and Singapore Yoshiro Mori returned again to attend the had completed a feasibility study and opening ceremony of a park in honor of agreed to initiate negotiations in 2011 Japanese civil engineer Yoichi Hatta, re- on an economic partnership agreement sponsible for creating southern Taiwan’s under the rules of the WTO. The com- irrigation system during the Japanese co- prehensive pact, to be known as the lonial period (1895-1945). Agreement between Singapore and the 7705五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 77 2011/10/18 12:20:37 AM
  13. 13. 5 Foreign Relations Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, the ROC’s endeavors to play a construc- tive role in the international community Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu on Econom- ic Partnership, will address issues such and contribute to regional and global as lowering tariffs and reducing non- peace and prosperity. tariff barriers. Embassies and Missions Abroad Taiwan-Europe Relations Embassies Taiwan enjoys strong ties with Euro- pean countries. The 27-member European Belize Kiribati Saint Lucia Union is currently Taiwan’s fourth-largest Burkina Faso Marshall Saint Vincent trading partner, while Taiwan is the Euro- Dominican   Islands   and the pean Union’s seventh-largest Asian trading   Republic Nauru   Grenadines partner. In 2010, Taiwan’s exports to the El Salvador Nicaragua São Tomé European Union totaled US$27.3 billion, Gambia, The Palau   and Príncipe up by 28 percent from the previous year, Guatemala Panama Solomon while imports from the European Union Haiti Paraguay   Islands Holy See Saint Kitts Swaziland amounted to US$21.6 billion, an increase Honduras   and Nevis Tuvalu of 36 percent. The European Union is the top foreign investor in the ROC, ahead of the United States and Japan. The annual Missions¹ Taiwan-EU Consultation, held alternately in Brussels and Taipei, serves as an impor- Argentina India Philippines tant platform for promoting economic and Australia Indonesia Poland cooperative relations. The 22nd round of Austria Ireland Portugal consultations was convened in Brussels in Bahrain Israel Russia November 2010. Brazil Italy Saudi Arabia Brunei Japan Singapore Since President Ma took office in Canada Jordan Slovakia 2008, the European Council and Euro- Chile South Korea South Africa pean Parliament have issued statements Colombia Kuwait Spain and resolutions praising the ROC’s efforts Czech Latvia Sweden to improve cross-strait relations and to   Republic Libya Switzerland participate more fully in international or- Denmark Malaysia Thailand ganizations by extending cross-strait con- Ecuador Mexico Turkey ciliation into the realm of global affairs. Belgium Mongolia United Arab On June 30, 2010, the high representative   (European Netherlands   Emirates   Union)² New Zealand United of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Se- Fiji Nigeria   Kingdom curity Policy, Catherine Ashton, issued Finland Norway United States a statement on behalf of the European France Oman   of America Union, hailing the signing of the ECFA Germany Papua New Vietnam between Taiwan and mainland China. Greece   Guinea World Trade Parliamentary liaisons in particular Hungary Peru   Organization have played a valuable role in encour- aging the development of cooperative 111 The ROC has 91 representative offices in 57 coun- bilateral and multilateral ties over the tries in addition to a mission at the World Trade Organization headquarters in Geneva. years. The European Parliament’s Taiwan 22 The ROC representative office in Belgium doubles Friendship Group founded in 1991, for as the nation’s mission to the European Union. example, has enthusiastically supported Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, April 2011 7805五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 78 2011/10/18 12:20:37 AM
  14. 14. Among other positive developments •• December 2010—Taiwan and France in Taiwan-EU relations in 2010, the inked an agreement to abolish double tax- Taiwan Textile Federation 紡拓會 and the ation between the two countries, which European Apparel and Textile Federa- came into effect on January 1, 2011; tion signed an MOU in October that is •• January 2011—A Taiwan-Hungary expected to assist textile firms from both agreement abolishing double taxation sides to make joint inroads into the vast between the two countries took ef- mainland Chinese market. fect; and Taiwan and France signed a On December 22, 2010, the European cooperation protocol to bolster judicial Union announced the inclusion of Taiwan training exchanges. in its visa-waiver program. Since Janu- ary 11, 2011, ROC passport holders have enjoyed visa-free entry to 35 European Commitment to Global countries for up to 90 days. Vision and Understanding Recent positive developments in inter- actions between the ROC and individual To enhance the effectiveness of Taiwan’s EU member states include: cultural diplomacy, the MOFA has orga- •• May-September 2010—the ROC and nized the Training Course on Internation- the Czech Republic signed one MOU al Affairs for Future Talents 國際事務人才 in May on cooperation in the field of 培訓班, the Training Camp for Diplomatic e-government, and two MOUs in Sep- Pioneers 外交尖兵培訓營, the Festival of tember on information exchange and Public Diplomacy 公眾外交嘉年華, the In- cooperation between the intellectual ternational Young Ambassadors Program property offices of the two countries; 國際青年大使 and the International Youth •• September 2010—Ireland inked a driver’s Culture and Study Tour in the Republic of license exchange agreement with Taiwan, China (Taiwan) 國際青年台灣研習營. It also becoming the 10th European nation to encourages young people to take educa- do so, after the Netherlands, Belgium, tional tours abroad. Luxembourg, France, Denmark, Italy, At the same time, the MOFA pro- Hungary, Finland and Switzerland; motes visits by foreign academics, artists •• October 2010—The ROC and the Unit- and political figures by conducting or fa- ed Kingdom amended a previous avia- cilitating a variety of international semi- tion agreement, allowing a substantial nars, conferences and other events in the increase in flight services between the ROC. Its website and those of its offices two countries; the ROC-Germany work- around the world also provide a wealth of ing holiday program came into effect; information about the nation. • Ministry of Foreign Affairs: http://www.mofa.gov.tw Related • International Cooperation and Development Fund: http://www.icdf.org.tw Websites • AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center: http://www.avrdc.org • Food and Fertilizer Technology Center: http://www.agnet.org 7905五校 (spelling check)(indexed2).indd 79 2011/10/18 12:20:38 AM