The ROC’s centennial is celebrated                                      at the New Year Day flag-raising                  ...
4	 Government                 At a Glance                 •	 Government restructuring                 •	 Five special muni...
4            Government               The ROC Constitution                           Three Principles of the People are a ...
Restrictions on constitutional free-            Following the end of martial law in                doms are valid only if ...
4            Government               package was ratified by an ad hoc Nation-               al Assembly elected for the ...
Structure of the Central Government After Executive Yuan Reorganization                                           (Impleme...
4            Government               Executive Yuan                                  eight councils, three independent ag...
Legislators elect from their ranks the         The Administrative Court system,                legislative speaker, or pre...
4            Government               appointed as lifetime judges in one of the               above-mentioned court syste...
This well-preserved                                                                                   Baroque-style edific...
4            Government                                                                                         President ...
e-Government Development                                 connections of government agencies,                              ...
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Government. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch04 government


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From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

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Government. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch04 government

  1. 1. The ROC’s centennial is celebrated at the New Year Day flag-raising ceremony on January 1, 2011.04五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 54 2011/10/18 12:11:20 AM
  2. 2. 4 Government At a Glance • Government restructuring • Five special municipalities • Clean, efficient government T he central government of the Republic of China is responsi- ble for ensuring the overall well-being of the nation, includ- ing its prosperity and security as well as educational opportunity for all citizens. Recent major changes in government include measures to streamline the central government’s executive branch, whereby the number of ministries and agencies will be reduced from 37 to 29. The revamped structure will include six new ministries—Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Environ- ment and Natural Resources, Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Sci- ence and Technology. At the local level, three new special municipalities—New Taipei City, Taichung City and Tainan City were formed in December 2010 with the aim of more effectively and equitably utilizing public resources. 5504五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 55 2011/10/18 12:11:22 AM
  3. 3. 4 Government The ROC Constitution Three Principles of the People are a phil- osophical blueprint for building the ROC The Republic of China is a multiparty into a modern, forward-looking nation. democracy founded on the ROC Constitu- The Principle of Nationalism 民族主義 tion. The Constitution was adopted by the asserts the ROC’s sovereign status and National Assembly 國民大會 in Nanjing on insists on its equal rights in the interna- December 25, 1946; was promulgated on tional community, as well as equality January 1, 1947; and took effect on De- among all ethnic groups within the na- cember 25 of that same year. It comprises tion. The Principle of Democracy 民主主義, 175 articles in 14 chapters, plus 12 Ad- which assures each citizen the right to ditional Articles added in seven rounds of exercise political and civil liberties, is the revision between 1991 and 2005. foundation of the government’s organ­ The document begins by declaring: ization and functions. The Principle of “The Republic of China, founded on the Social Well-being 民生主義 states that the Three Principles of the People 三民主義, powers granted to the government must shall be a democratic republic of the be used to serve the people by develop- people, to be governed by the people and ing a prosperous, just society. These three for the people.” Formulated by Sun Yat- Principles have shaped government policy sen (see introductory “Biographies”), the and legislation in areas ranging from edu- cation and land reform to social welfare. The full text of the Constitution and its Additional Articles can be viewed in Appendix III of this book. Constitutional Rights and Freedoms The rights and freedoms guaranteed to citizens by the Constitution include equality before the law; the right to work and own property; and the powers of elec- tion and of recall and initiative by means of referendum. In line with Article 136 of the Constitution, the system for exercis- ing the right of direct democracy is stipu- lated in the Referendum Act 公民投票法. People are also ensured the freedoms of speech, choice of residence, move- ment, assembly, confidential communica- tion, religion and association. Obtaining an education is considered both a right and a duty of citizens. Rights and free- The ROC Constitution was adopted in doms not specified in the Constitution are 1946 and saw seven rounds of revision protected by Article 22, which states, “All between 1991 and 2005. It serves as other freedoms and rights of the people the foundation for the ROC to safeguard that are not detrimental to social order or people’s rights and freedoms. public welfare shall be guaranteed under the Constitution.” 5604五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 56 2011/10/18 12:11:25 AM
  4. 4. Restrictions on constitutional free- Following the end of martial law in doms are valid only if contained in leg- 1987, the National Assembly abolished islation deemed necessary to prevent the Temporary Provisions in 1991, with infringement on the freedoms of oth- the aim of more effectively implementing ers, respond to emergencies, maintain constitutional democracy as well as foster- social order or enhance public well- ing healthy development of relations with being. Law enforcement-related affairs— mainland China. In that same year, Presi- investigations, detention, indictments, dent Lee Teng-hui 李登輝 decreed the end trials and punishment—must be carried of the Period of National Mobilization for out in strict accordance with due legal Suppression of the Communist Rebellion. process. In the event individuals’ rights are (See Chapter 6, “Cross-strait Relations.”) violated by government authorities, they The past two decades have witnessed are entitled to compensation by the state. a number of major reforms in the ROC’s political system accomplished through amendments to the Constitution in the Fundamental National Policies form of Additional Articles proposed by The Constitution specifies areas of the Legislative Yuan (Legislature) 立法院 concern that require supplementary legisla- and ratified by the National Assembly. tion as well as issues of importance to the Six rounds of constitutional revision in nation. Chapter XIII of the Constitution, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1997, 1999 and 2000 titled “Fundamental National Policies,” initiated direct popular elections for the contains guidelines on national defense, offices of ROC president and vice presi- foreign policy, the economy, social wel- dent; instituted regular elections for all fare, education and culture. Principles gov- seats in the Legislative Yuan; granted erning a number of other issues—including the Legislative Yuan power to initiate a scientific development, environmental no-confidence vote against the premier protection, national health insurance and (president of the Executive Yuan 行政院); gender equality—are enunciated in the Ad- gave the president of the ROC authority ditional Articles of the Constitution. to dissolve the Legislative Yuan; reformed the Control Yuan 監察院; and reduced the Political Reforms scope of authority and operations of the Taiwan Provincial Government 臺灣省政府. To deal with the threat posed by the In 2004, the Legislative Yuan passed Chinese Communist Party during the an additional package of proposals for Chinese Civil War, the National Assem- constitutional amendments on issues bly adopted the Temporary Provisions regarding parliamentary organization, Effective During the Period of National changes in the system for electing legisla- Mobilization for Suppression of the Com- tors, transfer of power to ratify proposed munist Rebellion 動員戡亂時期臨時條款 in constitutional amendments from the Na- 1948. Thereby, presidential powers were tional Assembly to the general electorate greatly expanded while protection of through referendum, and abolition of the basic freedoms and rights were seriously National Assembly. The reason for abol- eroded for the duration of the emergency ishing the National Assembly was that it period. The Temporary Provisions also al- would no longer perform its original con- lowed for the president and vice president stitutional functions of initiating propos- of the ROC to be re-elected indefinitely als to amend the Constitution, ratifying despite the two-term restriction stipulated such proposals and electing the nation’s by the Constitution. president and vice president. In 2005, the 5704五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 57 2011/10/18 12:11:26 AM
  5. 5. 4 Government package was ratified by an ad hoc Nation- al Assembly elected for the specific pur- With respect to the last point, emer- gency decrees must be ratified by the Leg- pose of debating and voting on whether to islative Yuan within 10 days of issuance. adopt the proposed amendments. Should the Legislative Yuan withhold Since 2005, the Central Election Com- ratification, emergency decrees are im- mission (CEC) 中央選舉委員會 has merged mediately annulled. In the event disagree- various types of elections in order to reduce ments arise between the Executive Yuan financial and social costs and meet public and the Legislative Yuan, for example, the expectations. By amendments to the Local president of the ROC may call a meeting Government Act 地方制度法 in February of the presidents of the two branches—the 2010, the terms of office of incumbent premier and the legislative speaker—to heads of local governments and members work out a solution. of representative councils will terminate Under the direct administrative juris- at the same time in late December 2013. diction of the Office of the President are Thereafter, seven types of local govern- Academia Sinica 中央研究院, Academia ment elections will be held simultaneously. Historica 國史館 and the National Se- Meanwhile, on April 19, 2011, the CEC curity Council 國家安全會議. Academia announced the commissioners’ consensual Sinica scholars are widely reputed as be- decision to merge the national-level presi- ing among the nation’s top researchers in dential and legislative elections of 2012. many disciplines in both the physical and social sciences. Academia Historica is Central Government the custodian of the national archives and other important historical items. And the The central government consists of National Security Council is charged with the Office of the President and five assisting the president in addressing issues branches, or yuans—the Executive Yuan, that concern the nation’s critical interests the Legislative Yuan, the Judicial Yuan 司 (see Chapter 7, “National Defense”). 法院, the Examination Yuan 考試院 and the The president and the vice president Control Yuan. are elected as a ticket and win office by receiving a plurality of the popular vote. Presidency Their term of office is four years, and The president of the ROC is the head they may be re-elected to serve one con- of state and commander-in-chief of the secutive term. Armed Forces (see Chapter 7, “National The ROC is sometimes described Defense”). As head of state, the president as having a semi-presidential system represents the nation in foreign relations because the president does not exercise and at state functions, and may conclude direct administrative authority over the international agreements. The president is executive branch. Nevertheless, the presi- further empowered by the Constitution to dent exerts considerable influence over appoint and remove top civil and military the operations of the various branches of officials; promulgate laws; dissolve the the central government through his power Legislative Yuan in the event it dismisses to appoint the premier and other top of- the premier through a vote of no con- ficials. As the president’s appointment of fidence; help resolve disputes between the premier does not require confirmation branches of the central government; and by the Legislative Yuan, the premier’s issue emergency decrees in response to policy-making normally adheres closely national security threats or other crises. to guidelines laid out by the president. 5804五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 58 2011/10/18 12:11:27 AM
  6. 6. Structure of the Central Government After Executive Yuan Reorganization (Implementation period: Jan. 1, 2012 ~ Dec. 31, 2014) Ministry of the Interior National Development Council National Security Ministry of Foreign Affairs Mainland Affairs Council Council Ministry of National Financial Supervisory Defense Commission Academia Sinica Ministry of Finance Ocean Affairs Council Overseas Chinese Ministry of Education Affairs Council Academia Historica Ministry of Justice Veterans Affairs Council Ministry of Economic Council of Indigenous Peoples and Energy Affairs Hakka Affairs Council Ministry of Transportation and Construction Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics Ministry of Labor Directorate-General of Personnel Administration Ministry of Agriculture Central Bank of the Republic Ministry of Health of China (Taiwan) and Welfare National Palace Museum Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Central Election Commission Ministry of Culture Fair Trade Commission Ministry of Science and Technology National Communications Commission Standing & Ad Hoc Committees Supreme Court, High Courts & District Courts Commission on the Disciplinary Sanctions of Functionaries Supreme Administrative Court & High Administrative Courts Judicial Personnel Study Center Intellectual Property Court Civil Service Protection Ministry of Examination and Training Commission Public Service Pension Ministry of Civil Service Fund Supervisory Board Standing & Special Committees Ministry of Audit 5904五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 59 2011/10/18 12:11:29 AM
  7. 7. 4 Government Executive Yuan eight councils, three independent agencies and four additional organizations. Six The Executive Yuan is the executive branch of the ROC government, headed new ministries will be created through by the premier. The premier is directly the reorganization or consolidation of appointed by the president, while other existing agencies, including Ministry of members of the Executive Yuan Council, Labor, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry or Cabinet—comprising the vice premier, of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Envi- ministers, chairpersons of commissions and ronment and Natural Resources, Ministry ministers without portfolio—are appointed of Culture and Ministry of Science and by the president on recommendation of Technology. Meanwhile, several agencies the premier. In addition to supervising the will cease to exist after their functions are subordinate organs of the Executive Yuan, transferred to other commissions or minis- the premier explains administrative poli- tries. These include the Mongolian and Ti- cies and reports to the Legislative Yuan betan Affairs Commission 蒙藏委員會, the and responds, either orally or in writing, to National Youth Commission 行政院青年輔導 the interpellations of legislators. For laws 委員會, the Atomic Energy Council 行政院 to take effect after enactment by the Leg- 原子能委員會, the Public Construction Com- islative Yuan, they must be promulgated mission 行政院公共工程委員會, the Council by the president and countersigned by the for Economic Planning and Development premier. In the event of vacancies in both 行政院經濟建設委員會, the Sports Affairs the presidency and the vice presidency, the Council 行政院體育委員會 and the Govern- premier performs the duties of the presi- ment Information Office 行政院新聞局. dent for up to three months. Further, the Legislative Yuan enacted Currently, there are eight ministries a law in April 2011 enabling certain and 29 other Cabinet-level organizations state-run organizations to be operated as under the Executive Yuan. To streamline independent administrative juridical per- the central government and improve its sons to facilitate flexible recruitment and effectiveness, while at the same time en- procurement processes. These include hancing flexibility within its departments, the Chung-Shan Institute of Science and the Cabinet proposed several government- Technology 中山科學研究院 under the Min- restructuring bills to the Legislative Yuan, istry of National Defense, the National which were enacted and promulgated in Sports Training Center 國家運動選手訓練中 early 2010. Among them are amendments 心 under the Ministry of Education, and to the Basic Code Governing Central Ad- the National Science and Technology ministrative Agencies Organizations 中央 Center for Disaster Reduction 國家災害防 行政機關組織基準法 and the Organizational 救科技中心 currently under the Executive Act of the Executive Yuan 行政院組織法. In Yuan’s National Disasters Prevention and addition, the Central Government Agency Protection Commission 行政院災害防救委員 Personnel Quota Act 中央行政機關總員額 會 and the National Science Council 行政 法 and the Provisional Act for Adjustment 院國家科學委員會. of Functions and Organizations of the Ex- ecutive Yuan 行政院功能業務與組織調整暫行 條例 have come into force. Legislative Yuan As a result, the number of Cabinet- The Legislative Yuan is the central level organizations will be reduced from 37 government’s sole law-making body. It to 29. After restructuring, over the period comprises 113 legislators, one per electoral January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014, the district, who serve four-year terms and are Executive Yuan will consist of 14 ministries, eligible to stand for re-election indefinitely. 6004五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 60 2011/10/18 12:11:29 AM
  8. 8. Legislators elect from their ranks the The Administrative Court system, legislative speaker, or president of the consisting of regional high administra- Legislative Yuan. The speaker is respon- tive courts and a Supreme Administrative sible for coordinating operations of the Court 最高行政法院, adjudicates cases in Legislative Yuan. This includes facilitat- which individuals, groups of persons or ing communication and compromise juridical persons seek remedies to viola- between legislators regarding contentious tions of laws or regulations allegedly aspects of legislation. committed by government organizations. The Legislative Yuan’s functions and The high administrative courts hand down powers include general legislative power; judgments on questions of both fact and hearing reports by government officials law, while the Supreme Administrative and questioning them on government pol- Court reviews only questions of law. icies and their implementation; reviewing Cases involving alleged violations of budgetary bills and audit reports; con- intellectual property laws and regulations firming presidential nominations to top may, under certain circumstances and at government posts, including members of the Control Yuan and Examination Yuan various stages of litigation, be referred to a and the Judicial Yuan’s Constitutional specialized Intellectual Property Court 智慧 財產法院, which began operations in 2008. Court justices; and initiating proposals to amend the Constitution subject to ratifica- Through its Commission on the Dis- tion by popular referendum. ciplinary Sanctions of Functionaries 公務 Further, the Legislative Yuan is em- 員懲戒委員會, the Judicial Yuan also hands powered to help settle disputes involving down decisions on administrative disci- local governments; initiate no-confidence pline of government employees who have votes against the premier; review and been censured or impeached by the Con- confirm emergency decrees issued by the trol Yuan for malfeasance or for having ROC president; and impeach the ROC been found by a court of law to be guilty president or vice president. of violating criminal or civil laws. De- To enable legislators to carry out their pending on the severity of the offense in responsibilities without being subjected to question, the commission may mete out undue pressures, they are granted certain punishments including demotions, salary immunities by the Constitution. They are reductions, demerits, reprimands, suspen- not legally liable for votes cast or state- sion from office or dismissal. In the case ments made in the Legislative Yuan. And, of political appointees, only dismissals except in case of flagrante delicto, they and reprimands are applicable. cannot be arrested or detained without Judges in the ROC’s court systems consent of the Legislative Yuan. are not appointed to their positions by a political leader, nor can local judges be Judicial Yuan elected. Like career civil servants in the The central function of the Judicial executive branch, judges are selected Yuan is to oversee the operations of the through an examination process, but the nation’s court systems, the largest of process is designed and administered by which hears criminal and civil cases and the Judicial Yuan rather than by the Ex- comprises district courts, high courts and amination Yuan. Those who pass the ex- a Supreme Court 最高法院. Issues of fact amination undergo an intensive course of are adjudged by district courts and high training at the yuan’s Judicial Personnel courts, while the Supreme Court consid- Study Center 司法人員研習所. And those ers only issues of law. who complete the course successfully are 6104五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 61 2011/10/18 12:11:30 AM
  9. 9. 4 Government appointed as lifetime judges in one of the above-mentioned court systems. Judges Public Service Pension Fund Supervisory Board 公務人員退休撫卹基金監理委員會. who serve in the Intellectual Property Court must additionally receive special- Control Yuan ized training in IP legal affairs. The Control Yuan is an independent At the apex of the ROC’s judicial sys- watchdog body comprised of 29 mem- tem are the Justices of the Constitutional bers and the Ministry of Audit 審計部. Court 司法院大法官. The court’s 15 justices All members, including the Control render rulings, referred to as “interpreta- Yuan president, as well as the head of the tions,” on the constitutionality of laws, ministry—the auditor-general—are ap- legal procedures and government actions; pointed by the ROC president with the make recommendations concerning recti- consent of the Legislative Yuan for a term fication of inconsistencies between differ- of six years, which may be renewed. ent laws and regulations; and preside over The Control Yuan is mandated to in- impeachment trials of the national presi- vestigate complaints of malfeasance or dent or vice president if the Legislative criminal acts committed by public servants Yuan passes an impeachment resolution. or agencies and to censure or impeach The justices, including the Judicial them. Individuals are able to initiate such Yuan president and vice president, are investigations without having to expend nominated and appointed by the ROC legal fees, while Control Yuan members president with the consent of the Legisla- are empowered to launch investigations on tive Yuan. Since 2003, they have served their own initiative. Through the Ministry staggered terms of eight years and may of Audit, the Control Yuan also exercises not serve a second term consecutively. the power to monitor the propriety of gov- ernment organizations’ expenditures. Examination Yuan Depending upon their findings, Control The Examination Yuan is responsible Yuan members may vote simply to pre- for administering the nation’s civil service scribe corrective measures to an offending system. The primary rationale for having government agency or public servant and this independent branch of government is demand progress reports on their imple- to ensure equality of opportunity among mentation within a specified time. In cases candidates for government employment of serious infractions, they may issue and to set uniform standards, salaries and censures to or impeach public servants, benefits throughout the central govern- resulting in punishment meted out by the ment as well as local governments. Judicial Yuan’s Commission on the Disci- This branch of government comprises plinary Sanctions of Functionaries or, in a president, a vice president and up to cases involving military personnel, by the 19 members, all of whom are appointed Ministry of National Defense. In instances to six-year terms by the ROC president where the watchdog agency concludes that with consent of the Legislative Yuan. crimes have been committed, it refers such At the end of their terms, they may be cases to both courts and the commission. reappointed. Subordinate organizations under the Examination Yuan include the Ministry of Examination 考選部, the Local Government Ministry of Civil Service 銓敘部, the Civil The governments of Taiwan Province Serv­ ce Protection and Training Com- i and Fujian Province 福建省 (including the mission 公務人員保障暨培訓委員會 and the Kinmen Islands 金門列島 and the Matsu 6204五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 62 2011/10/18 12:11:30 AM
  10. 10. This well-preserved Baroque-style edifice, which originally served as the Taipei Prefecture Hall during the Japanese colonial era, now houses the Control Yuan, the central government’s independent watchdog body. Islands 馬祖列島) have been drastically Taiwan’s administrative map has been downsized, and most of their functions reshaped by the inauguration of three have been transferred to central govern- new special municipalities and the ex- ment departments. pansion of an existing one in December There are three levels of autonomous 2010, in accordance with amendments local government: special municipalities, to the Local Government Act enacted in counties and provincial municipalities, April 2009 and February 2010. The three and county municipalities and townships. new ones are: Their statuses are determined by their •• New Taipei City 新北市, originally Tai- populations and various legally prescribed pei County 臺北縣; economic, cultural and other criteria. In •• Taichung City 臺中市, formed through terms of population, a region of over 1.25 the merger of the original Taichung million people may be accorded special- City with Taichung County 臺中縣; and municipality status; an area with a popu- lation of over 500,000 can qualify as a •• Tainan City 臺南市, formed through the provincial municipality; and an area with merger of the original Tainan City with a population of over 150,000 may rank as Tainan County 臺南縣. a county municipality. Meanwhile, the previously existing The mayors and magistrates as well as special municipality of Kaohsiung City representative council members of cities, 高雄市 merged with Kaohsiung County 高 towns and counties are elected to terms of 雄縣 to become today’s expanded Kao­ four years. Local governments obtain the hsiung City special municipality. The bulk of their budgets through a revenue- status of the special municipality and na- sharing arrangement whereby funds are tional capital, Taipei City 臺北市, remains allocated to them by the central govern- unchanged. Further, Taoyuan County 桃園 ment in accordance with standard criteria 縣 was designated by the Executive Yuan concerning such factors as population and as a provisional special municipality ef- economic development. fective January 1, 2011. 6304五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 63 2011/10/18 12:11:34 AM
  11. 11. 4 Government President Ma Ying- jeou and Premier Wu Den-yih (third and second from right) together with Control Yuan President Wang Chien-shien (far left), Judicial Yuan President Rai Hau- min (second from left) and Executive Yuan Secretary- General Lin Join- sane applaud the inauguration of the Agency Against Corruption on July 20, 2011. Expected benefits of transforma- Reflecting such efforts, Taiwan’s tion into special municipalities and the ranking in the Corruption Perceptions enlargement of an existing one include Index released by Transparency Interna- enhanced governmental effectiveness and tional in October 2010—No. 33 out of better coordination of public resources, as 178 nations—was up six notches from its well as a stronger voice for their residents 2008 ranking. in national affairs. As part of an effort to build cleaner gov- ernment, the Agency Against Corruption 法 Clean Government 務部廉政署, dedicated to prevention, investi- gation and prosecution of corruption, began To boost transparency of government operations in July 2011 under the Ministry operations, in August 2007 the Legisla- of Justice. In its initial stage, approximately tive Yuan passed the Lobbying Act 遊說 240 staffers were recruited from the Nation- 法, which took effect in August 2008. al Police Agency 內政部警政署, the Investi- The law requires lobbyists to register gation Bureau 法務部調查局 and the ethics their lobbying activities, while central departments of government agencies. and local government officials and elect- To ensure administrative neutrality ed representatives must inform respon- and press freedom, the Legislative Yuan sible agencies of their communications in January 2011 approved an amendment with lobbyists. to the Budget Act 預算法, which prohibits Other actions taken to combat cor- government agencies, state-run busi- ruption in recent years include the enact- nesses and foundations, as well as enter- ment of regulations limiting the value prises in which the government holds a and sources of gifts that public servants majority stake, from engaging in embed- may accept, and amendment of the Anti- ded advertising. In addition, promotions Corruption Statute 貪污治罪條例 in April of government policy or messages to the 2009, making it a crime for defendants in public in the media must be clearly la- corruption-related cases to refuse to re- beled as such, along with the name of the veal their sources of personal assets. sponsoring agency. 6404五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 64 2011/10/18 12:11:35 AM
  12. 12. e-Government Development connections of government agencies, thereby saving around NT$3.6 billion For many years, ROC central and lo- (about US$122 million) annually, while cal governments have striven to improve effectively shielding agencies from spam their services by utilizing the Internet and malware. And through intranet ap- and other information and communica- plication consolidation, 11 agencies share tions technologies (ICT). In addition to services via a government-to-employees electronic exchange of documents be- (G2E) platform. tween government offices, e-government Public utilization of simplified, in- advances in recent years include estab- tegrated e-government services has in lishment of an online government pro- recent years increased substantially. curement information system, creation In 2010, for example, 67.1 percent of of a database enabling the public to view personal income tax reports were filed the full text of laws, and mechanisms to online, while 97.8 percent of businesses ensure online information security. filed tax reports online. According to In 2008, the Cabinet-level Research, a 2010 user survey conducted by the Development and Evaluation Commission RDEC, 78 percent of the respondents (RDEC) 行政院研究發展考核委員會 drew up were aware of government online serv­ a four-year Ubiquitous Government Net- ices, 65.5 percent were satisfied with work Plan 優質網路政府計畫(2008-2011) government website information updates with funding of approximately NT$10 and 67.4 percent were satisfied with the billion (US$338.87 million) to create a benefits of e-government services. Anoth- comprehensive array of government serv­ er 2010 Digital Divide Survey 99年數位落 ices accessible via the Internet. 差調查 from the RDEC showed that 86.5 Through e-government development percent of citizens were satisfied with the programs, agencies have implemented MyEGov government-entry portal. ICT infrastructure consolidation and In the Global Information Technology shared services, thus achieving greater Report 2010-2011 released by the World cost-effectiveness and better service qual- Economic Forum, Taiwan is ranked sixth ity. A case in point is the Executive Yuan among the 138 countries included in the Data Center Consolidation Project 行政院 report’s Networked Readiness Index. This 及所屬委員會共構機房, which has consoli- ranking, up five notches from the previ- dated the ICT infrastructures of seven ous year, is the second-highest in Asia af- participating agencies and has been certi- ter Singapore. Within that index, Taiwan fied as ISO 20000-compliant. Meanwhile, ranks fifth and second, respectively, in its the Government Service Network (GSN) government readiness and government 政府網際服務網 has consolidated Internet usage subindicies. • Office of the President: Related • Executive Yuan: Websites • Legislative Yuan: • Judicial Yuan: • Examination Yuan: • Control Yuan: • MyEGov: 6504五校2(spelling and indexed).indd 65 2011/10/18 12:11:36 AM