Biographies. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 05biographies sun ma siew wu


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From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

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Biographies. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 05biographies sun ma siew wu

  1. 1. Sun Yat-sen 孫中山 political ideals are summarized in a set of Founding Father, Republic of China doctrines called the Three Principles of the People 三民主義, comprising solidarity of the people, power to the people and prosperity of the people. Over the next 16 years, Sun and his followers launched 10 futile attempts to topple the Qing government. Finally, on October 10, 1911, forces loyal to Sun took over Wuchang 武昌, the capital of Hubei Province 湖北省. Thereafter, other prov- inces and important cities joined the revo- lutionary camp and declared independence from the Qing government. On December 29, 1911, Sun was elected provisional presi- dent of the new Republic by delegates from across China gathered in Nanjing. He was inaugurated on January 1, 1912, the found- ing day of the ROC. To preserve national unity, Sun relin- quished the presidency on April 1, 1912 to military strongman Yuan Shi-kai 袁世凱, who S un Yat-sen 孫逸仙, also known as declared himself emperor in 1915. Sun and Sun Chung-shan 孫中山 and Sun other leaders relocated to Japan to continue Wen 孫文, was born in 1866 in the revolutionary struggle until Yuan’s death a coastal village of Xiangshan in 1916. Thereafter, they organized a new County 香山縣, Guangdong Province 廣東省. government in Guangzhou 廣州, and in 1921 After receiving his early education in both Sun became its president. He devoted the rest Chinese and Western schools, he moved to of his life to uniting China’s feuding factions. Hawaii in 1879, where he attended Iolani Sun denied the inevitability of commu- and Oahu Colleges. In 1883, he returned to nism in China. He believed that class strug- China to continue his studies, concentrating gle, an intrinsic element of communism, was on the Chinese classics and history. He later not an inevitable stage in human progress. moved to Hong Kong to attend Queen’s He reiterated this point in a joint declara- College and in 1892 graduated from Hong tion issued with Soviet envoy Adolf Joffe in Kong Medical College for Chinese. 1923, which stated that communism was not Deeply concerned at the Qing 清 dynas- suitable for China. Sun also believed that co- ty government’s oppression, corruption and operation rather than class struggle was the submissiveness toward foreign powers, Sun driving force behind social development. gave up his medical career to pursue politi- Sun died of cancer on March 12, 1925, cal reform. In 1894, together with a group of at the age of 59 in Beijing. In 1940, he was young overseas Chinese, Sun established his posthumously declared the founding father first revolutionary organization, the Revive of the ROC for his lifelong contributions to China Society 興中會, in Honolulu. His the revolution. 55-2011編輯群&National Symbols OK (indexed).indd 5 2011/10/17 10:28:31 PM
  2. 2. Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九 B orn in Hong Kong on July 13, 1950, Ma Ying-jeou moved with his family to Taiwan one year President later. After receiving a bachelor Republic of China (Taiwan) of law (LL.B.) degree from National Taiwan University 國立臺灣大學 in 1972 and per- forming his military service, he earned a master of laws (LL.M.) degree from New York University School of Law in 1976, and a doctor of juridical science (S.J.D.) degree from Harvard Law School in 1981. Upon completion of his studies, Ma re- turned to Taiwan and dedicated his life to public service. In 1981, he became Deputy Director of the First Bureau at the Office of the President, doubling as President Chiang Ching-kuo’s 蔣經國 English interpreter and secretary. He later served concurrently as Deputy Secretary-General of the Kuomin- tang (KMT) 中國國民黨. In 1988, Ma was appointed Chairman of the Research, Development and Evalu- ation Commission 行政院研究發展考核委員 會. Concurrently, he was assigned to form a Mainland Affairs Task Force 大陸工作會 報 in charge of formulating policy toward mainland China, and subsequently served as its Executive Secretary. Three years later, he was appointed Vice Chairman and Spokes- man of the new Mainland Affairs Council 行 政院大陸委員會. Ma became Minister of Justice in 1993. In that post, he directed aggressive cam- paigns to combat corruption, vote buying and organized crime, and he oversaw reform of the prison system. In 1996, he was ap- pointed Minister without Portfolio. A year later, he became an associate professor of law at National Chengchi University 國立政 治大學. 66-元首簡介三校OK (indexed).indd 6 2011/10/17 10:24:17 PM
  3. 3. In 1998, Ma won the race for mayor In international affairs, the administra- of Taipei City, and four years later won tion has been pursuing a policy of viable re-election by a landslide. In 2005 he was diplomacy 活路外交, which aims to redirect elected Chairman of the KMT, and in early resources expended on diplomatic rivalry 2007 announced his candidacy for the presi- with mainland China to other causes of ben- dency. Campaigning on a platform to rejuve- efit to humanity. As a result, the ROC has nate the economy, build a clean government seen many breakthroughs on the internation- and improve relations with mainland China, al front. The nation joined the World Trade he was elected the following year with 58.5 Organization’s Government Procurement percent of the vote. Agreement in 2009, for example, and has In his inaugural speech on May 20, been invited to attend meetings of the World 2008, President Ma pledged to create a Health Assembly since 2009. Additionally, more open and just society with expanded the number of countries and territories ex- opportunity for the underprivileged. Not tending visa-free or landing visa privileges long after taking office, the president was to ROC nationals has climbed from 53 when met with a severe economic recession. The Ma entered office to 124 as of October 2011. administration took swift response measures Domestically, the president has initiated that included issuing a blanket bank deposit wide-ranging reforms designed to build guarantee and lowering interest rates seven a more competitive nation. In 2010, local times. Stimulus programs were also adopted governments were restructured to raise the to create jobs, expand public infrastructure number of special municipalities from two and spur private investment. Consequently, to five, further integrating regional resources Taiwan was well-positioned for the global to improve efficiency and citizens’ quality of recovery that unfolded starting late 2009. life. In 2011, a second-generation National Economic growth hit a 24-year high of Health Insurance system was approved in 10.82 percent in 2010, and per capita GDP order to achieve greater efficiency, equity is forecast to surpass US$20,000 in 2011. and quality. Meanwhile, steps are being In cross-strait relations, President Ma has taken to reduce the number of Cabinet-level energetically promoted dialogue with main- agencies from 37 to 29 beginning January 2012. land China. Since May 2008, the two sides have concluded 15 agreements covering a With the ROC celebrating its centennial, wide range of concerns, including direct President Ma in his 2011 New Year’s Day transport, financial supervisory cooperation, address declared his administration’s com- mutual judicial assistance, and medical and mitment to lead the nation into a prosperous health care. In particular, the Cross-Straits second century, with emphasis on maintain- Economic Cooperation Framework Agree- ing peace, providing humanitarian aid, and ment 海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議 is expected creating new technologies and business op- to usher in greater prosperity for both sides. portunities. In laying a firm foundation for This new model of cooperation has helped the future, the ROC will become a nation set a sound foundation for lasting peace in that is respected by the world and an inspi- the region. ration to many. 76-元首簡介三校OK (indexed).indd 7 2011/10/17 10:24:17 PM
  4. 4. Vincent C. Siew 蕭萬長 V incent C. Siew was born on Janu- ary 3, 1939 in Chiayi City 嘉義 市, Taiwan. He graduated from Vice President National Chengchi University’s Republic of China (Taiwan) 國立政治大學 Department of Diplomacy in 1961, earned a master’s degree from the same institution in international law and diplomacy in 1965, and was awarded an Eisenhower Fel- lowship for study in the United States in 1985. Siew joined the Ministry of Foreign Af- fairs in 1962, but after the ROC was forced to withdraw from the United Nations in 1971, he shifted his focus to economic af- fairs, convinced that the nation would need to rely on economic strength to hold its own in the international community. As Director-General of the Bureau of Foreign Trade 經濟部國際貿易局 (1982-1988), Minister of Economic Affairs (1990-1993) and Chairman of the Council for Economic Planning and Development 行政院經濟建設 委員會 (1993-1994), Siew negotiated most- favored nation status with the United States and pushed through public projects that boosted economic development. In 1993 and 1994, he represented President Lee Teng-hui 李登輝 at Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit meetings in Seattle and Jakarta be- fore being appointed in December 1994 as Chairman of the Mainland Affairs Council 行政院大陸委員會. In that position he initiated a series of measures to improve relations between Taiwan and mainland China. After being elected as a legislator in 1995, Siew organized a cross-party caucus on legislation to facilitate Taiwan’s bid to join the World Trade Organization. When appointed Premier in August 1997, he was dubbed the “Commoner Premier” by the media because he comes from a farming 86-元首簡介三校OK (indexed).indd 8 2011/10/17 10:24:18 PM
  5. 5. family. In 2000, he was chosen as running vouchers, cuts in inheritance and gift taxes, mate to Kuomintang (KMT) 中國國民黨 and promotion of the development of presidential candidate Lien Chan 連戰, but emerging and service industries. And be- the ticket lost due to a split in the KMT. tween January and May 2009, he chaired six Roundtable Conferences for Cultural and Siew’s premiership coincided with the Creative Industries 文化創意產業圓桌論壇 to 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis and a devas- build consensuses on policies. tating earthquake that struck central Taiwan on September 21, 1999. Under his leader- Further, the Vice President serves as ship, Taiwan weathered the financial crisis convener of the Presidential Office Human far better than its neighbors, while suffering Rights Consultative Committee 總統府人權諮 from the earthquake was kept to a minimum. 詢委員會, established on December 10, 2010, After leaving public office, Siew lectured Human Rights Day, and oversees arrange- at universities and devoted himself to civic ments for a year-long series of activities in affairs. Inspired by the European Union, he celebration of the ROC Centennial in 2011. founded the Cross-Straits Common Market In areas of vital importance to Taiwan’s Foundation (CSCMF) 兩岸共同市場基金會 in future, Vice President Siew has striven to 2001 to promote systemization of trade rela- promote normalization of economic and tions between Taiwan and mainland China. trade relations across the Taiwan Strait. In 2003, then President Chen Shui-bian 陳 These efforts were rewarded when, in June 水扁 recruited Siew to chair the Presidential 2010, Taiwan signed the Cross-Straits Eco- Economic Advisory Panel 總統經濟顧問小組. nomic Cooperation Framework Agreement In that capacity he helped stabilize the econ- 海峽兩岸經濟合作架構協議 with mainland Chi- omy in the aftermath of the SARS epidemic. na. Meanwhile, he also endeavors to help In June 2007, KMT presidential candi- formulate strategies for pursuing free trade date Ma Ying-jeou tapped Siew as his run- agreements with other trade partners. ning mate, and the pair won the March 22, The nation is fortunate that a man of such 2008 election by a landslide. In April, in his caliber stands by the President to help guide capacity as CSCMF Chairman, Siew attend- the nation through some of the most chal- ed the Boao Forum for Asia, where he and lenging economic conditions seen in decades. mainland Chinese leader Hu Jintao 胡錦濤 exchanged views on the future of relations across the Taiwan Strait. This “ice-breaking” trip helped pave the way for lively cross- strait interaction. When the global financial crisis erupted in 2008, Vice President Siew led the Finan- cial and Economic Advisory Task Force of the Presidential Office 總統府財經諮詢小 組 in developing strategies for responding to it, including the issuance of consumer 96-元首簡介三校OK (indexed).indd 9 2011/10/17 10:24:18 PM
  6. 6. B Wu Den-yih 吳敦義 orn in Nantou County’s 南投縣 Caotun Township 草屯鎮 in cen- tral Taiwan in 1948, Wu Den-yih Premier was appointed the nation’s chief Republic of China (Taiwan) executive officer on September 10, 2009 on the strength of his wealth of experience gar- nered from 36 years in public service. Most recently, he has served as a legislator as well as vice chairman and secretary-general of the Kuomintang 中國國民黨. Over the years, he has gained a reputation for decisiveness in framing and executing policies based on a firm grasp of people’s real needs and aspirations. Wu’s well-known talent for articulate, impassioned expression was evident in his student days at National Taiwan University (NTU) 國立臺灣大學, where he majored in history. An essay he penned for publication in the student periodical University News 大 學新聞, which he headed from 1968 to 1969, prompted the future ROC President Chiang Ching-kuo 蔣經國 to urge him to “serve the people and the nation.” Taking these words to heart, after gradu- ating from NTU in 1970 and completing his military service, he worked as a journalist and editorial writer for the China Times 中國 時報 (1971-1973), where he became known for his insightful commentary. And at age 25, he stood for and won a seat in the Taipei City Council (1973-1983), becoming its youngest member. As a councilman, Wu was resolute in holding fellow politicians and public ser- vants to a high standard of integrity. With respect to misconduct by a certain city of- ficial, for example, he asserted that bending the law is even more reprehensible than cor- ruption. As he has often done in his political 106-元首簡介三校OK (indexed).indd 10 2011/10/17 10:24:20 PM
  7. 7. career, Wu cited an ancient historical work government became the first local govern- in support of his contention that although ment to institute a subsidized “nutritious secretly taking bribes violates the law, the lunch” program covering all elementary and law nevertheless survives; whereas when of- junior high schools and to provide financial ficials publicly manipulate the law with im- assistance to single parents. punity, the law dies. The mayor and future As the nation enters its 100th year, Pre- president, Lee Teng-hui 李登輝, agreed and mier Wu has declared that some of the top disciplined the official in question. priorities of his Cabinet include economic Wu’s direct, energetic style of keeping innovation, workforce cultivation, carbon informed and resolving problems is illus- reduction, governance enhancement, and trated by his practice, both as Nantou County safeguarding citizens’ rights to a fair and magistrate (1981-1989) and as Kaohsiung just society. On the last topic, underscoring 高雄市 mayor (1990-1998), of throwing his his commitment to promoting the welfare of doors open to the public once a week. If ac- the common person, the premier has direct- companying government department heads ed government agencies to step up efforts to failed to provide clear answers to citizens’ increase employment and raise salary lev- questions or propose satisfactory solutions to els, provide affordable housing, encourage their problems, he took the initiative to do so. young people to start families, improve care for the elderly, and narrow the gap between Further illustrating his penchant for rich and poor. openness and direct interaction with the people he works for and with, Wu knew Keenly aware that Taiwan cannot hope most borough chiefs by name within a short to pursue such domestic goals in isolation time of becoming Kaohsiung mayor, and he from global problems—including the ex- sometimes went out to meet with borough acerbation of natural disasters by climate residents to discuss issues of special impor- change, the cross-border spread of poten- tance. This proved invaluable, for example, tially lethal diseases, and instabilities in in the implementation of vital infrastructure the global financial system—Premier Wu programs such as the construction of waste has also stressed the imperative for all gov- incinerators or laying down water mains. ernment departments to remain abreast of changing global trends, thereby enabling Wu has frequently demonstrated his re- Taiwan to advance the common good solve to safeguard the welfare of people un- of humanity. der his care. The quarrying activities of two cement companies within the Kaohsiung City limits, for instance, had for many years caused severe pollution. Despite the pollut- ers’ influential social connections, Mayor Wu’s uncompromising effort to shut them down was finally successful. And under his forceful leadership, the Kaohsiung City 116-元首簡介三校OK (indexed).indd 11 2011/10/17 10:24:20 PM