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Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
Chapter 10 keynote.key
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Chapter 10 keynote.key

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  • THANKS YOU.
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  • Please work on the coloring of the text in this presentation. It would be a lot more readable if you had darker colors for the text and a single one instead of several different ones. Otherwise it was a pretty good presentation.
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Transcription and Translation
    • 2. Transcription and Translation By: Xenia Hofherr, Erin Harty, Miranda McLaughlin, and John David Stocking
    • 3. Chapter 10: How Proteins are Made Transcription and Translation By: Xenia Hofherr, Erin Harty, Miranda McLaughlin, and John David Stocking
    • 4. Vocabulary: Riboneucleic Acid (RNA): a ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis. Uracil: a nitrogen base within the RNA. Gene Expression: the process by which proteins are made based on the information encoded in DNA. RNA Polymerase: an enzyme that adds and links complementary RNA nucleotides during transcription. Messenger RNA: a form of RNA that carries the instructions for making a protein from a gene and delivers it to the site of translation. Codons: a series of three-nucleotide sequences on the mRNA.
    • 5. Vocabulary Continued.... Transfer RNA: molecules are single strands or RNA that temporarily carry a specific amino acid on one end. Anticodon: a three- nucleotide sequence on a tRNA that is complementary to an mRNA codon. Ribosomal RNA: molecules are RNA molecules that are part of the structure of ribosomes.
    • 6. Transcription
    • 7. Transcription Transcription: a process where the instructions for making a protein are transferred from a gene to an RNA molecule.
    • 8. The 3 Steps in Transcription • 1. RNA Polymerase binds to a gene promoter (also called the “start” signal) • 2. RNA Polymerase unwinds and separates the 2 DNA strands • 3. RNA Polymerase adds complementary nucleotides
    • 9. Facts about Transcription: What is the Final Product of Transcription? mRNA Where does Transcription take place? Nucleus
    • 10. Codons • mRNA strands always: • Start with a “start” codon: AUG • End with a “stop” codon: UAA, UAG, or UGA • AUG: “Start” Methionine • CCU: Proline • AGA: Arginine • UAG: STOP
    • 11. Transcription mRNA: form of RNA that carries instructions for making protein. RNA instructions are written as a series of 3 nucleotides called codons. Each codon codes for an amino acid EXAMPLE: DNA: A-T-G-C-C-T-A-G-A-T-A-G Amino Acid: TAC GGA TCT ATC mRNA: AUG CCU AGA UAG
    • 12. The Difference Bet ween DNA and RNA: • 1. RNA consists of a single strand of nucleotides instead of two strands • 2. RNA contains a 5-carbon ribose sugar rather than a deoxyribose. • 3. RNA has the nitrogen base called uracil instead of thymine.
    • 13. Translation • Translation: cell uses 2 different types of RNA to read the instructions of the RNA molecule and put together the amino acids that make up the protein. • Takes place in the cytoplasm • On which cell part do you think translation takes place? Ribosome
    • 14. 3 Steps in Translation • 1. tRNA molecules attach to mRNA molecules across the cytoplasm • 2. They bring with them an amino acid • 3. Once they hit the “stop” codon on the mRNA, the strand of amino acids detaches and forms a protein.
    • 15. Translation tRNA: a single strand of DNA thattemporarily carries a specific amino acid on one end and has an anticodon at the other end. • Anticodon: 3 nucleotide sequence on the tRNA complementary to the codon on the mRNA.
    • 16. What is the Final Product of Translation? An Amino Acid Chain
    • 17. Facts: What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid What does RNA stand for? Ribose Nucleic Acid What is the structure of a tRNA molecule? a Single Strand of DNA What does mRNA stand for? Messenger Ribonucleic Acid What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology? DNA>RNA>Protein
    • 18. Amino Acids Chart How to use the DNA->mRNA->tRNA->amino acids chart

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