Chapter 10 keynote.key


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  • Chapter 10 keynote.key

    1. 1. Transcription and Translation
    2. 2. Transcription and Translation By: Xenia Hofherr, Erin Harty, Miranda McLaughlin, and John David Stocking
    3. 3. Chapter 10: How Proteins are Made Transcription and Translation By: Xenia Hofherr, Erin Harty, Miranda McLaughlin, and John David Stocking
    4. 4. Vocabulary: Riboneucleic Acid (RNA): a ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis. Uracil: a nitrogen base within the RNA. Gene Expression: the process by which proteins are made based on the information encoded in DNA. RNA Polymerase: an enzyme that adds and links complementary RNA nucleotides during transcription. Messenger RNA: a form of RNA that carries the instructions for making a protein from a gene and delivers it to the site of translation. Codons: a series of three-nucleotide sequences on the mRNA.
    5. 5. Vocabulary Continued.... Transfer RNA: molecules are single strands or RNA that temporarily carry a specific amino acid on one end. Anticodon: a three- nucleotide sequence on a tRNA that is complementary to an mRNA codon. Ribosomal RNA: molecules are RNA molecules that are part of the structure of ribosomes.
    6. 6. Transcription
    7. 7. Transcription Transcription: a process where the instructions for making a protein are transferred from a gene to an RNA molecule.
    8. 8. The 3 Steps in Transcription • 1. RNA Polymerase binds to a gene promoter (also called the “start” signal) • 2. RNA Polymerase unwinds and separates the 2 DNA strands • 3. RNA Polymerase adds complementary nucleotides
    9. 9. Facts about Transcription: What is the Final Product of Transcription? mRNA Where does Transcription take place? Nucleus
    10. 10. Codons • mRNA strands always: • Start with a “start” codon: AUG • End with a “stop” codon: UAA, UAG, or UGA • AUG: “Start” Methionine • CCU: Proline • AGA: Arginine • UAG: STOP
    11. 11. Transcription mRNA: form of RNA that carries instructions for making protein. RNA instructions are written as a series of 3 nucleotides called codons. Each codon codes for an amino acid EXAMPLE: DNA: A-T-G-C-C-T-A-G-A-T-A-G Amino Acid: TAC GGA TCT ATC mRNA: AUG CCU AGA UAG
    12. 12. The Difference Bet ween DNA and RNA: • 1. RNA consists of a single strand of nucleotides instead of two strands • 2. RNA contains a 5-carbon ribose sugar rather than a deoxyribose. • 3. RNA has the nitrogen base called uracil instead of thymine.
    13. 13. Translation • Translation: cell uses 2 different types of RNA to read the instructions of the RNA molecule and put together the amino acids that make up the protein. • Takes place in the cytoplasm • On which cell part do you think translation takes place? Ribosome
    14. 14. 3 Steps in Translation • 1. tRNA molecules attach to mRNA molecules across the cytoplasm • 2. They bring with them an amino acid • 3. Once they hit the “stop” codon on the mRNA, the strand of amino acids detaches and forms a protein.
    15. 15. Translation tRNA: a single strand of DNA thattemporarily carries a specific amino acid on one end and has an anticodon at the other end. • Anticodon: 3 nucleotide sequence on the tRNA complementary to the codon on the mRNA.
    16. 16. What is the Final Product of Translation? An Amino Acid Chain
    17. 17. Facts: What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid What does RNA stand for? Ribose Nucleic Acid What is the structure of a tRNA molecule? a Single Strand of DNA What does mRNA stand for? Messenger Ribonucleic Acid What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology? DNA>RNA>Protein
    18. 18. Amino Acids Chart How to use the DNA->mRNA->tRNA->amino acids chart