Western and Maori Models of Counselling


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Western and Maori Models of Counselling

  1. 1. Western & Maori Model Analysis Compiled By Rawiri Waretini Karena
  2. 2. Comparative Analysis Work <ul><li>Have a look at the different models and compare the world views </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths & limitations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Models: <ul><li>Western Models </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Behavioral Therapy v.s </li></ul><ul><li>By Aaron T Beck </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Intellectual Development v.s </li></ul><ul><li>By Jean Piajjet </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs motivational model v.s </li></ul><ul><li>By Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt v.s </li></ul><ul><li>By Fritz Perls </li></ul><ul><li>The Bio-ecology of Human Development v.s By Urie Brofenbrenner </li></ul><ul><li>Maori Models </li></ul><ul><li>Whare TapaWha model </li></ul><ul><li>By Mason Durie </li></ul><ul><li>Purakau model </li></ul><ul><li>By Jacquelyn Elkington </li></ul><ul><li>Tuakiri o Te Tangata Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Katarina Mataira </li></ul><ul><li>Poutama Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Paraire Huata </li></ul><ul><li>Te Wheke Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Rose Pere </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy By Aaron T Beck <ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>CBT can help you to make sense of overwhelming problems by breaking them down into smaller parts. This makes it easier to see how they are connected and how they affect you. These parts are: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A Situation - a problem, event or difficult situation From this can follow: </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Physical feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Actions </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these areas can affect the others. How you think about a problem can affect how you feel physically and emotionally. It can also alter what you do about it. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It is a way of talking about: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>How you think about yourself, the world and other people </li></ul><ul><li>How what you do affects your thoughts and feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>CBT can help you to change how you think (&quot;Cognitive&quot;) and what you do (&quot;Behaviour)&quot;. These changes can help you to feel better. Unlike some of the other talking treatments, it focuses on the &quot;here and now&quot; problems and difficulties. Instead of focussing on the causes of your distress or symptoms in the past, it looks for ways to improve your state of mind now. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been found to be helpful in: </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Panic </li></ul><ul><li>Agoraphobia and other phobias </li></ul><ul><li>Social phobia </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive compulsive disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Post traumatic stress disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy By Aaron T Beck
  6. 6. Whare Tapa Wha Model by Mason Durie Wairua Hinengaro Tinana Whanau
  7. 7. Stages of Intellectual Development By Jean Piajet <ul><li>The stages of intellectual development formulated by Piaget appear to be related to major developments in brain growth.  The human brain is not fully developed until late adolescence or in the case of males sometimes early adulthood.  We often expect children to think like adults when they are not yet capable of doing so.  It is important that parents know what to expect from their child as they develop and to be sure that the expectations they may have for their child at a given age are realistic. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stages of Intellectual Development By Jean Piajet Reflexive Stage  (0-2 months) Simple reflex activity such as grasping, sucking.  Primary Circular Reactions (2-4 months) Reflexive behaviors occur in stereotyped repetition such as opening and closing fingers repetitively. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months) Repetition of change actions to reproduce interesting consequences such as kicking one's feet to more a mobile suspended over the crib. Coordination of Secondary Reactions (8-12 months) Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences.  Actions take on an &quot;intentional&quot; character such as the infant reaches behind a screen to obtain a hidden object Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) Discovery of new ways to produce the same consequence or obtain the same goal such as the infant may pull a pillow toward him in an attempt to get a toy resting on it. Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination  (18-24 months) Evidence of an internal representational system.  Symbolizing the problem-solving sequence before actually responding.  Deferred imitation. 
  9. 9. Purakau Model By Jacquelyn Elkington
  10. 10. Hierarchy of Needs motivational model By Abraham Maslow <ul><li>. M aslow's hierarchy of needs - </li></ul><ul><li>Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Self-Actualization needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tuakiri O Te Tangata by Kataraina Mataira Mauri Ihi Tapu Mana Wehi Ngakau Wai Hanga Iho Matua Whatu Manawa Pumanawa Taura here ki Ihowa Tinana, Iwi Rangi tuhaha Rarohenga Whatu kura Apa kura Ao, Wairua Ihowa Hinengaro Whanaungatanga Waihanga Maoritanga Tinana Wairua
  12. 12. Tuakiri in practice 1 <ul><li>Whaka-a-rongo is switched on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iho Matua </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mauri </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mana </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wehi </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ihi </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What do they know about their identity? connectedness </li></ul><ul><li>What understanding do they have of their life essence? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they see their quality as a person? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they see themselves in regards to others? </li></ul><ul><li>How would they describe their personality? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tuakiri in practice 2 <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tapu </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waihanga </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whatumanawa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ngakau </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pumanawa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hinengaro </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What is it they hold sacred? </li></ul><ul><li>What are skills talent no one knows about? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the centre of their universe? Essence of their life? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they interpret, negotiate counter act negative feelings? </li></ul><ul><li>What traits skills talents habits have they inherited genetically? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they gage information gathered to process feelings ? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gestalt By Fritz Perls <ul><li>Focus on unfinished business with others. Re-experience past feelings and how they are blocking current relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques + Confrontation + Dialog with polarities + Role playing + Staying with the feeling + Re-experiencing unfinished business + Dream work + No formal diagnosis + What and How questions + Empty Chair Applications + Crisis Intervention + Psychosomatic + Marriage and Family + Behavior of problem children + Group + Individual + Get clients in touch with present-centered experiences </li></ul>
  15. 15. TE POUTAMA O TE POWHIRI He Taumata The guiding body Te karanga The call Hariru Physical greeting Karakia Prayer Hakari Feast Nga Mihimihi Speeches Himene Hymn Nga Waiata Songs Framework are committed to the recognition afforded to Tangata Whenua Maori in Aotearoa and will be guided by cultural expertise from governance through to service user representation. The powhiri (formal welcome) is a respected, recognised and structured process and has been embraced by the organisation as a cultural model that can be applicable to all cultural diversities. The call” encapsulates a willingness to “invite guests” into the organisation, service etc where the concepts of aroha (love) and manaaki (caring) are intrinsic parts of Te Poutama (The Steps). Songs of praise allows all parties the opportunity to acknowledge the previous step of karakia. Although not strictly a religious concept, “the prayer” step is about safety and the acknowledgement of spiritual connections. “ This step acknowledges that all parties have a shared vision – moving forward. The body of Te Powhiri (The Welcome) is captured in the speeches. This is the working component of Te Poutama and is inclusive of all parties talking TO each other. In Maoridom, the songs that follow speeches are normally supportive and meaningful “actions” that give integrity to what has been said. He Kaupapa Purpose Kotahitanga Unity By Paraire Huata
  16. 16. The Bio-ecology of Human Development By Urie Brofenbrenner <ul><li>Microsystem: </li></ul><ul><li>as the setting within which the individual is behaving at a given moment in his life. It is “the complex of relations between the developing person and environment in an immediate setting containing the person” ( Brofenbrenner , 1977, p.515). </li></ul><ul><li>Mesosystem </li></ul><ul><li>is the set of microsystems constituting the individual’s developmental niche within a given period of development : it is “the interrelations among major settings containing the developing person at a particular point in time” </li></ul><ul><li>Exosystem: </li></ul><ul><li>is composed of contexts that, while not directly involving the developing person (e.g. the workplace of a child’s parent), have an influence on the person’s behavior and development </li></ul>Meso-system Micro-system Exo-system
  17. 17. Te Wheke Model by Rose Pere Tinana Hinengaro Mauri Mana Wairua-tapu Whanaungatanga Taonga Tuku Iho Whatumanawa
  18. 18. Te Wheke Model Tentacle Meaning Tentacle Meaning Wairua tapu Mana Hinengaro The hinengaro (mind) is a mother energy with two descendants who are twins They reside in the human brain. Rongo-ma-tane (female) is the right side Tumatuenga is the left side Whanaungatanga Together we make up god treat all living things with respect know who you are, receiving peace and strength in this knowledge Tinana Treasure your tinana & it will take care of you. Eat, live, rest, learn. Tihei Mauri ora Taonga tuku iho Teachings, treasures handed down by ancestors leaving a legacy Mauri The wairua is implant in the embryo when eyes are formed acquiring a soul. The spiritual & physical are joined as one by the Mauri Whatumanawa Is the seat of emotions & feelings in each of us at conception Sensed through eyes, ears, nose, skin Detected with hinengaro this tentacle listens, feels, senses vibrations & teachings
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