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About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
About the American Indian Movement
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About the American Indian Movement

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a presentation compiled by Shilo Hayes and Linda Wikeepa ( 2008) for the Te Whiuwhiu o te Hau class.

a presentation compiled by Shilo Hayes and Linda Wikeepa ( 2008) for the Te Whiuwhiu o te Hau class.

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  • 1. American Indian Movement www.matoska.com/catgraph/7130-079mag.jpg Chief Joseph, Sitting Bull, Geronimo, Red Cloud Compiled by Shilo Hayes and Linda Wikeepa ( 2008) for Te Whiuwhiu o te Hau class
  • 2. quot;This war did not spring up on our land, this war was brought upon us by the children of the Great Father who came to take our land without a price, and who, in our land, do a great many evil things... This war has come from robbery - from the stealing of our land.quot; John Wooden Legs, Cheyenne
  • 3. Historical Background …. • Belief is that first Native Americans arrived during last ice-age, crossing a land bridge in Bering Sound from Siberia to Alaska approximately 20-30,000 years ago. • Sandia (15000 BC), Clovis (12000 BC) and Folsom (8000 BC) are the oldest documented Indian cultures in North America. • First Europeans to land in the America’s are thought to be Norse explorers Bjarni Herjolfsson in 986 and Leif Ericson (AD 1000). • The name “Indian” was coined by Christopher Columbus, believing that the lands of America were part of the Indies in Asia. • Pre-European American Indian’s lived in hunter/farmer communities where there were few rules and restrictions and a deep spiritual connection to the land and spirit ancestors existed. Decisions were made through consultation and consensus • Thousands of indigenous languages spoken in North and South America before European arrival
  • 4. Justification for the “New World” 18 June 1452 – Pope Nicholas V issues papal bull “Dum Diversas” 15 January 1455 – Pope Nicholas V issues papal bull “Romanus Pontifex” 14 May 1493 Pope Aleander VI issues papal bull “Intra Caetera” upload.wikimedia.org/.../9/94/Nicholas_V.jpg These three edicts served as the foundation and justification for the Doctrine of Discovery and set in place a catastrophic chain of events for indigenous peoples – all in the name of empire expansion and religious righteousness …. www.uv.es/.../edificilanau/013alexandre.jpg
  • 5. AIM Liberation Strategy The fight to have the papal bulls removed …. Some efforts undertaken 1992 Steve Newcombe (AIM of Colorado) traveled around Italy and Switzerland to publicize the papal bull issue 1993 Steve Newcombe and Birgil Kills Straight came to Aotearoa to meet with elders and publicize the papal bull issue 1993 Steve Newcombe travels to Australia for the Indigenous Intellectual Property conference where a resolution for the revocation of the papal bulls is passed Continued effort from 1972-2008 has not yet resulted in the revocation of the papal bulls which have left a legacy of destruction, destitution and mistrust in their wake …. Vatican’s response - “taken from the context of the political climate at the time, the notion of international law and the geographical notions then extant, the bull Inter Caetera, like other documents of that era, has become ipso facto obsolete and with no effect.” (grandmotherscouncil) However, to this date these bulls have not been revoked ….
  • 6. Currently 562 Federally recognized American Indian tribes and Alaskan Natives in the United States students.umf.maine.edu
  • 7. Liberation Strategy (AIM) – ban Columbus Day!! What is there to celebrate ….???? Viewed as a key founder of Kidnapped the “New native World” – the people impact & from Cuba legacies of his and Haiti to voyages live on take to … Spain Peoples & Refused to cultures baptise - before his Catholic law forbade the arrival called enslavement “pre of Christians Columbian” Led to introduction of slave trade Annihilation of the Taino people – as few native people remained forced gold mining, murder …. for enslaved labour
  • 8. John Locke (1632-1704) English Philosopher & Empiricist Philosophy underpins Political ideology and governance model of United classical republicanism states established under colonisation based on (Plato) and classical Locke’s philosophy liberalism Criticized for his hypocrisy – his major writings oppose Saw newborns as a slavery and aristocracy yet “tabula rasa” – blank he was instrumental in the slate and asserted the drafting of legislation that “… power of established a feudal education, believing www.arts.ualberta.ca aristocracy and gave a “education maketh the master absolute power over man” (wikipedia) his slaves…” (wikipedia)
  • 9. When two distinct world views collide …. American Indian Leadership U.S. Governance Leaders were chosen as leaders for their Leadership is a position. knowledge, experience and contribution. Leaders were chosen by the tribe and thus remained Leaders seek and are employed or elected to a leaders as long as the tribe needed them. position. They serve for a specified term or for the duration of their employment. Leaders had no power over others and could not Leaders can create laws which are enforced by police command. and justice system. Welfare of the tribe protected through maintaining Protection of individual rights. Protection of nation culture and traditions. through economic growth and maintenance of private property. Consensus was driving force behind decision- Decisions arrived at by majority vote. making. Spirituality inextricably intertwined in decision- Rationality is the driving force behind decision- making. making. Restitution-based justice which was focused on Retribution-based justice. restoring relationships. American Indian Policy Center, 2002
  • 10. The introduction of formal schooling for Native American Children Phoenix Indian School, June 1900
  • 11. Timeline 1960’s 1600 1930’s 1869 1879 1909 Jesuit Over President First 25 off Most off priests begin 100,000 Ulysses S boarding reservation reservation boarding American Grant school off a boarding boarding schools to Indian formalised reservation schools, 15 schools Christianize children closed – the boarding founded by 7 on American forced school Captain reservation students still Indian into system under Richard boarding attending on children and boarding Pratt – the Peace schools, 30 reservation remove them schools Policy – attendance 7 day boarding from the by the schools on mandatory schools schools 1960’s negative Indian operating mindset of reservations their parents were to be and turned over communities to Christian control
  • 12. Bibliography Churchill, W. (1997). American Indian activism: Alcatraz to the longest walk. United States of America: University of Illinois. Davis, J. (2001). American Indian boarding school experiences: recent studies from native perspectives. Organization of American Historians Magazine of History, 15, 0882- 228X. Retrieved from http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/desg/davis.html Keeper, B. (1989). The old ones told me: American Indian stories for children. United States of America: Binford & Mort. Pearson Education Inc. (2007). American Indian quotations. Retrieved September 2, 2008, from http://www.infoplease.com Pearson Education Inc. (2008). American Indian myths. Retrieved September 2, 2008, from http://www.factmonster.com Wilson, W.A., & Yellow Bird, M. (2005). For indigenous eyes only: Beginning decolonization. Retrieved September 2, 2008, from http://sarpress.sarweb.org/sarpress/images/pdf/darpress_27.pdf Waterman Wittstock., L & Salinas, E.J. (n.d.). A brief history of the American Indian Movement. Retrieved on August 22, 2008, from http://www.aimovement.or/ggc/history.html American Indian Movement. (1972). Our 20 point proposal. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from http://www.aimovement.org/ggc/trailofbrokentreaties.html American Indian Movement of Colorado. (2004). Steve Newcomb-Colonization Day. Retrieved August 20, 2008, from http://www.coloradoaim.org American Indian Movement. (1973). What is the American Indian Movement? Retrieved August 30, 2008, from http://www.aimovement.org American Indian Policy Center. (2002). Traditional American Indian leadership. Retrieved September 9, 2008, from http://www.airpi.org/research/tdlead.html American Indian Policy Center. (2005). Traditional American Indian leadership: a comparison with U.S. governance. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from http://www.airpi.org/research/tdsystems.html American Indian Policy Centre. (2005). A comparison with U.S. governance. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from http://www.airpi.org/research/tdcompare.html Minnesota Historical Society. (2008). American Indian Movement (AIM). Retrieved August 24, 2008, from http://www.mnhs.org/library/tips/history_topics/93aim.html Jacobs, D.T. (2001). Native American education alternative worldview. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from http://www.teachingvirtues.net/Nauspeech.html Morsette, A. (2007). Trauma in American Indian communities. Retrieved September 10, 2008, from http://www.giftfromwithin.org/html/amindian.html Wikipedia. (2008). John Locke. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke Wikipedia. (2008). European colonization of the Americas. Retrieved September 10, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_colonization_of_the_Americas James, M.A., & Halsey, T. (1992). The role of women in Native American liberation struggles. Retrieved September 2, 2008, from http://www.totse.com/en/politics/political_spew/indwomen.html
  • 13. American Indian Movement of Colorado. (2004). Steve Newcomb-Colonization Day. Retrieved August 20, 2008, from http://www.coloradoaim.org American Indian Movement. (1973). What is the American Indian Movement? Retrieved August 30, 2008, from http://www.aimovement.org American Indian Policy Center. (2002). Traditional American Indian leadership. Retrieved September 9, 2008, from http://www.airpi.org/research/tdlead.html American Indian Policy Center. (2005). Traditional American Indian leadership: a comparison with U.S. governance. Retrieved September 14, 2008, from http://www.airpi.org/research/tdsystems.html American Indian Policy Centre. (2005). A comparison with U.S. governance. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from http://www.airpi.org/research/tdcompare.html Minnesota Historical Society. (2008). American Indian Movement (AIM). Retrieved August 24, 2008, from http://www.mnhs.org/library/tips/history_topics/93aim.html Jacobs, D.T. (2001). Native American education alternative worldview. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from http://www.teachingvirtues.net/Nauspeech.html Morsette, A. (2007). Trauma in American Indian communities. Retrieved September 10, 2008, from http://www.giftfromwithin.org/html/amindian.html Wikipedia. (2008). John Locke. Retrieved September 13, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke Wikipedia. (2008). European colonization of the Americas. Retrieved September 10, 2008, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_colonization_of_the_Americas James, M.A., & Halsey, T. (1992). The role of women in Native American liberation struggles. Retrieved September 2, 2008, from http://www.totse.com/en/politics/political_spew/indwomen.html

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