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Seawater constituent
Seawater constituent
Seawater constituent
Seawater constituent
Seawater constituent
Seawater constituent
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Seawater constituent

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  • 1. Seawater Earth is an Ocean Planet
  • 2. Topics • Origin of the Ocean and Atmosphere • Hydrologic Cycle • Biogeochemical Cycle • Seawater Salinity • Variations in Seawater Chemistry • Carbonic Acid System
  • 3. Topics • Origin of the Ocean and Atmosphere • Hydrologic Cycle • Biogeochemical Cycle • Seawater Salinity • Variations in Seawater Chemistry • Carbonic Acid System
  • 4. Seawater Salinity
  • 5. Seawater Salinity Major Constituents, Minor Constituents,Trace Elements, and Gases
  • 6. Seawater is 96.5% H2O (solvent)
  • 7. Seawater is 96.5% H2O (solvent) 3.5% dissolved constituents (solutes)
  • 8. Seawater Constituents
  • 9. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes:
  • 10. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes: 1. Major constituents
  • 11. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes: 1. Major constituents 2. Minor constituents
  • 12. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes: 1. Major constituents 2. Minor constituents 3. Trace elements
  • 13. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes: 1. Major constituents 2. Minor constituents 3. Trace elements 4. Gases
  • 14. Salinity
  • 15. Salinity • Salinity of seawater is relatively uniform
  • 16. Salinity • Salinity of seawater is relatively uniform • Small changes are significant
  • 17. Salinity • Salinity of seawater is relatively uniform • Small changes are significant • Examples: 3.40% 3.49%
  • 18. Average Salinity
  • 19. Average Salinity • 3.5%
  • 20. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent
  • 21. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred
  • 22. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰
  • 23. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰ • 35 per mil
  • 24. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰ • 35 per mil • 35 parts per thousand
  • 25. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰ • 35 per mil • 35 parts per thousand 35 ppt
  • 26. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰ • 35 per mil • 35 parts per thousand 35 ppt 34.7 ppt
  • 27. Major Constituents
  • 28. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions
  • 29. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions • e.g. Cl- and Na+
  • 30. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions • e.g. Cl- and Na+ • Six major constituents
  • 31. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions • e.g. Cl- and Na+ • Six major constituents • Constitute >99% of seawater salinity
  • 32. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions • e.g. Cl- and Na+ • Six major constituents • Constitute >99% of seawater salinity • Concentrations of the major constituents determine the salinity of seawater
  • 33. Major Constituents
  • 34. Major Constituents 1. Cl-
  • 35. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+
  • 36. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2-
  • 37. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2- 4. Mg2+
  • 38. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2- 4. Mg2+ 5. Ca2+
  • 39. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2- 4. Mg2+ 5. Ca2+ 6. K+
  • 40. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2- 4. Mg2+ 5. Ca2+ 6. K+
  • 41. Salinity of Seawater
  • 42. Major Constituents
  • 43. Major Constituents
  • 44. NaCl 86%
  • 45. Range of Salinity
  • 46. Range of Salinity • Salinity is relatively uniform - 35 ppt
  • 47. Range of Salinity • Salinity is relatively uniform - 35 ppt • Salinity varies (over a small range)
  • 48. Range of Salinity • Salinity is relatively uniform - 35 ppt • Salinity varies (over a small range) • General range of variation in the open ocean is 33-37 ppt
  • 49. Range of Salinity • Salinity is relatively uniform - 35 ppt • Salinity varies (over a small range) • General range of variation in the open ocean is 33-37 ppt 33 ppt - 37 ppt
  • 50. Marcet’s Principle
  • 51. Marcet’s Principle • Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant
  • 52. Marcet’s Principle • Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant • Also called the principle of constant proportions
  • 53. Marcet’s Principle Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  • 54. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  • 55. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  • 56. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = x Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  • 57. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = x • Mg/K = y Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  • 58. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = x • Mg/K = y • Ca/SO4 = z Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  • 59. Cl/Na
  • 60. Cl/Na
  • 61. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = y • Ca/SO4 = z
  • 62. Mg/K
  • 63. Mg/K
  • 64. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = z
  • 65. Ca/SO4
  • 66. Ca/SO4
  • 67. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15
  • 68. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15
  • 69. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2
  • 70. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2 • Salinity - 36.3 ppt
  • 71. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2 • Salinity - 36.3 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8
  • 72. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2 • Salinity - 36.3 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4
  • 73. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2 • Salinity - 36.3 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15
  • 74. Marcet’s Principle
  • 75. Marcet’s Principle • Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant
  • 76. Marcet’s Principle • Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant • The principle of constant proportions
  • 77. Determine Salinity
  • 78. Determine Salinity • Station 3: salinity = x
  • 79. Determine Salinity • Station 3: salinity = x • To determine the salinity at a location, oceanographers need to know the concentrations of the major constituents
  • 80. Determine Salinity • Station 3: salinity = x • To determine the salinity at a location, oceanographers need to know the concentrations of the major constituents • Constitute >99% of seawater salinity
  • 81. Determine Salinity • Station 3: salinity = x • To determine the salinity at a location, oceanographers need to know the concentrations of the major constituents • Constitute >99% of seawater salinity • Concentrations of the major constituents determine the salinity of seawater
  • 82. Major Constituents
  • 83. Question
  • 84. Question • Considering Marcet’s principle -
  • 85. Question • Considering Marcet’s principle - how many of the major constituents must be measured to determine the salinity of seawater?
  • 86. Major Constituents
  • 87. Determine Salinity
  • 88. Determine Salinity • Only need to measure the concentration of one major constituent
  • 89. Determine Salinity • Only need to measure the concentration of one major constituent • Use Marcet’s principle to calculate the concentrations of the other constituents
  • 90. Determine Salinity • Only need to measure the concentration of one major constituent • Use Marcet’s principle to calculate the concentrations of the other constituents • Which major constituent generally is measured?
  • 91. Determine Salinity • Only need to measure the concentration of one major constituent • Use Marcet’s principle to calculate the concentrations of the other constituents • Which major constituent generally is measured? • Cl-
  • 92. Determine Salinity
  • 93. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl-
  • 94. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt
  • 95. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt • Cl-/Na+ = 1.8
  • 96. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt • Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 • Na+/Cl- = 0.56
  • 97. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt • Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • 19.35 x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt
  • 98. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt • Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • 19.35 x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt measure Cl- calculate Na+
  • 99. Determine Salinity
  • 100. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl-
  • 101. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56
  • 102. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14
  • 103. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07
  • 104. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02
  • 105. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02
  • 106. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt
  • 107. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt
  • 108. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt
  • 109. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.07 = 1.3 ppt
  • 110. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.07 = 1.3 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt
  • 111. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.07 = 1.3 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt
  • 112. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.07 = 1.3 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt 35.0 ppt
  • 113. Determine Salinity
  • 114. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents
  • 115. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents • Major constituents are >99% of salinity
  • 116. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents • Major constituents are >99% of salinity • Only have to measure one major constituents to determine salinity
  • 117. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents • Major constituents are >99% of salinity • Only have to measure one major constituents to determine salinity • Measure one constituent and calculate the others using Marcet’s principle
  • 118. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents • Major constituents are >99% of salinity • Only have to measure one major constituents to determine salinity • Measure one constituent and calculate the others using Marcet’s principle • Generally measure Cl-
  • 119. Conservative Property
  • 120. Conservative Property • Concentrations of the major constituents are conservative properties of seawater
  • 121. Conservative Property • Concentrations of the major constituents are conservative properties of seawater • Conservative properties are
  • 122. Conservative Property • Concentrations of the major constituents are conservative properties of seawater • Conservative properties are 1. altered primarily at the ocean’s surface
  • 123. Conservative Property • Concentrations of the major constituents are conservative properties of seawater • Conservative properties are 1. altered primarily at the ocean’s surface 2. not significantly affected by biological activity
  • 124. Change Salinity
  • 125. • Salinity is altered primarily at the ocean’s surface by Change Salinity
  • 126. • Salinity is altered primarily at the ocean’s surface by 1. addition of water (precipitation) Change Salinity
  • 127. • Salinity is altered primarily at the ocean’s surface by 1. addition of water (precipitation) 2. removal of water (evaporation) Change Salinity
  • 128. Explains Marcet’s Principle Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant
  • 129. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Explains Marcet’s Principle
  • 130. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Explains Marcet’s Principle
  • 131. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Explains Marcet’s Principle
  • 132. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Explains Marcet’s Principle
  • 133. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Explains Marcet’s Principle
  • 134. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Explains Marcet’s Principle
  • 135. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 33 ppt Explains Marcet’s Principle
  • 136. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 33 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Explains Marcet’s Principle
  • 137. Uniformity of Salinity
  • 138. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? Uniformity of Salinity
  • 139. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt Uniformity of Salinity
  • 140. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt • Uniform because the ocean is well mixed Uniformity of Salinity
  • 141. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt • Uniform because the ocean is well mixed • To explain how the ocean became well mixed, oceanographers use the Uniformity of Salinity
  • 142. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt • Uniform because the ocean is well mixed • To explain how the ocean became well mixed, oceanographers use the long residence times of the major constituents Uniformity of Salinity
  • 143. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt • Uniform because the ocean is well mixed • To explain how the ocean became well mixed, oceanographers use the long residence times of the major constituents short mixing time of the ocean Uniformity of Salinity
  • 144. All of the major constituents have residence times > 106 yr
  • 145. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  • 146. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  • 147. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  • 148. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  • 149. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  • 150. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific Mixing time ≈ 1000 yr
  • 151. Ocean Mixing pattern Mixing time ≈ 1000 yr
  • 152. Ocean Is Well Mixed
  • 153. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time
  • 154. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr
  • 155. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr 106 yr >>> 103 yr
  • 156. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr 106 yr >>> 103 yr • Residence time/mixing time = X
  • 157. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr 106 yr >>> 103 yr • Residence time/mixing time = X 106 yr/103 yr = 103
  • 158. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr 106 yr >>> 103 yr • Residence time/mixing time = X 106 yr/103 yr = 103 • In 1,000,000 yr, the ocean mixes itself 1000x
  • 159. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements
  • 160. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm
  • 161. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr
  • 162. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr • In general,
  • 163. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr • In general, Marcet’s principle does not apply
  • 164. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr • In general, Marcet’s principle does not apply tend to be nonconservative
  • 165. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr • In general, Marcet’s principle does not apply tend to be nonconservative tend to have shorter residence times
  • 166. Biolimiting Nutrients
  • 167. Biolimiting Nutrients • Primary biolimiting nutrients are in trace concentrations: N, P, Si, Fe
  • 168. Nutrient concentrations are low in the open ocean
  • 169. Nutrient concentrations are low in the open ocean Water is clear
  • 170. Atmospheric Gases
  • 171. Gases
  • 172. Gases • Atmospheric Gases
  • 173. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78%
  • 174. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21%
  • 175. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035%
  • 176. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035% • Oceanic Gases
  • 177. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035% • Oceanic Gases N2 - 48%
  • 178. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035% • Oceanic Gases N2 - 48% O2 - 36%
  • 179. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035% • Oceanic Gases N2 - 48% O2 - 36% CO2 - 15%
  • 180. Gases
  • 181. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative?
  • 182. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative
  • 183. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative • O2 is nonconservative
  • 184. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative • O2 is nonconservative • CO2 is nonconservative
  • 185. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative • O2 is nonconservative • CO2 is nonconservative Both O2 and CO2 are strongly affected by biological activity
  • 186. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative • O2 is nonconservative • CO2 is nonconservative Both O2 and CO2 are strongly affected by biological activity The concentrations of O2 and CO2 are altered below the ocean’s surface
  • 187. Banded Ironstone
  • 188. Variations in Seawater Chemistry
  • 189. Variations in Seawater Chemistry Next

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