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This report presented a practice change strategy focused on a household related unsustainable practice. This practice is summarised in the increasing inefficiency in living space utilisation in ...

This report presented a practice change strategy focused on a household related unsustainable practice. This practice is summarised in the increasing inefficiency in living space utilisation in Melbourne for a certain household sector, where large percentage of empty nesters choose to continue living in the same houses with the same space arrangement, though the structure of their families has changed. Reasons restraining many empty nesters from downsizing to smaller houses are varied, and they are driven by different social, physical and economical factors as highlighted in the report. To present the strategy, the report was divided into two main parts:
Section 1: Rationale and analysis of the practice
Section 2 Rationale for and the design of the strategy
It concluded with highlighting the limitations of the strategy and the areas that need special concern.

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!nter: for Intergenerational living !nter: for Intergenerational living Presentation Transcript

  • [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] !nter: For Intergenerational Living A social practice change strategy Yousef Taibeh 2012 Page I of 22
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyTable of ContentsList of figures ................................................................................................... III Appendix 1 House Modification ...................................................................... 18List of Tables .................................................................................................... III Appendix 2 Process ......................................................................................... 20Executive summary .......................................................................................... 4 References: ..................................................................................................... 21Introduction ...................................................................................................... 4Methodology .................................................................................................... 5Section 1: Rationale and analysis of the practice ............................................. 5 Environmental Implications .......................................................................... 5 The rationale behind the practice ................................................................ 9 Components of the practice ....................................................................... 10Section 2: Rationale for and the design of the strategy ................................. 11 Addressed Challenges................................................................................. 12 Seized Opportunities .................................................................................. 12 Other organisations .................................................................................... 13 Key Stakeholders ........................................................................................ 13 Time frame and milestones ........................................................................ 16Limitations and Conclusion ............................................................................ 17 II
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyList of figures List of Tables Table 1: percentage of older ages in Australia 1950-2050 ............................... 6Figure 1 Projected increase ratios in households and population inMelbourne ........................................................................................................ 7 Table 2 The different sides of the practice and possible responses ............... 10Figure 2 Ageing population association with household compositional Table 3 Benefits across the triple bottom line of sustainability ..................... 12change, projections for year 2031 .................................................................... 7 Table 4 Selected home stay service providers in Australia ............................. 13Figure 3 Concentration of children in Melbourne <15 years ........................... 8 Table 5: key stakeholders in the strategy, their priorities, drivers and ways toFigure 4 Concentration of old people in Melbourne >60 years ....................... 8 influence them ................................................................................................ 14Figure 5 Persons who changed residence within the last 5 years ago ............. 9 Table 6 Five years strategy .............................................................................. 16 III
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyExecutive summaryThis report presented a practice change strategy focused on a household related unsustainable practice. This practice is summarised in the increasinginefficiency in living space utilisation in Melbourne for a certain household sector, where large percentage of empty nesters choose to continue livingin the same houses with the same space arrangement, though the structure of their families has changed. Reasons restraining many empty nestersfrom downsizing to smaller houses are varied, and they are driven by different social, physical and economical factors as highlighted in the report. Topresent the strategy, the report was divided into two main parts:Section 1: Rationale and analysis of the practiceSection 2 Rationale for and the design of the strategyIt concluded with highlighting the limitations of the strategy and the areas that need special concern.IntroductionWith the increasing demand for new accommodations in Melbourne due to the natural increase in population and immigration policies, there is aneed for managing this demand in an environmentally sustainable manner. In this context, the government is encouraging accommodating bigportions of this future demand in already developed areas. The focus is mainly on inner suburbs and strategically identified Activity Centres. Thereare huge opportunities for accommodating some of this demand in other established areas as highlighted by many researchers. This reportpresented a strategy that tried to capitalise on one of these opportunities, namely: the intergenerational living in middle suburbs. 4
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyThe demographic change in Victoria is leading to major increase in households’ numbers that are also getting smaller. Large portion of the buildingsstock in Melbourne was built for other types of households and family structures. The strategy tried to accelerate a trend for upgrading thesebuildings to accommodate more families. The international students were selected as driver for this trend.MethodologyThe report draws on various resources including literature review, census data analysis and official reports/studies. It also depends on a TV reportprepared by Peter Overton for Channel Nine as part of the ‘60 minutes’ program. This report documented the daily lives of 3 Melbournian familiesabout to become Empty Nesters over 5 years period, including the before and after changes (60 Minutes Friday 4 Nov. 2011).Section 1: Rationale and analysis of the practiceThis section presents analysis of the practice and sets out the rationale behind its existence. This is done through firstly illustrating the implications ofthis practice on the environment, then dissecting it into its different components, highlighting the various participants, their different drivers andpossible ways of addressing these drivers. This section finally concludes with listing the different opportunities and challenges that face anyintervention in the regard.Environmental ImplicationsAustralians are encountering many shifts in their way of living due to the new technological advances and to the changing nature of economy.Moreover, there are major demographic transformations in the structure of the Australian nation. Australia has a big percentage of aging population.People above 60 year old are estimated to exceed the 25% of the total population by 2030, see Table 1. 5
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyTable 1: percentage of older ages in Australia 1950-2050. Source (Population Division D E S A 2006)On another side, the average household in Australia is getting smaller with time. The projected increase rate in households is higher than theestimated rate of population growth, see Figure 1. This is mainly due to the emergence of new household types such as the ‘lone person household’,in addition to the projected increase in families without children, particularly in the older ages (O’leary 2006). See Figure 2. All of this, coupled withincreasing population through immigration and natural growth is creating a big demand for new accommodations. 6
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyFigure 1 Projected increase ratios in households and population in Melbourne. Figure 2 Ageing population association with household compositional change,Source: (O’leary 2006) projections for year 2031. Source: (O’leary 2006)This increasing demand for living spaces will clearly have huge implications on the natural environment. This demand is typically fulfilled by releasingnew Greenfield areas for development. Greenfield developments eat the natural land surrounding the city (the Green Belts) and normally result inlonger travel distances and car dependent communities (Department of Infrastructure 2002). For all of the aforementioned reasons, the governmentis planning to accommodate big percentage of the expected future demand in Brownfield areas mainly through allowing for taller buildings withhigher densities in inner suburbs and other strategically identified Activity Centres (Department of Infrastructure 2002).This is in general a reasonable strategy; still it has some environmental and social implications. The easement of development regulations in the innerareas of the city will eventually result in increasing development pressures that leads to losing buildings in good conditions or associated withcultural values, this would dramatically alter the character of these areas. The unnecessary demolishing of many buildings and the new constructionworks will have big environmental cost, in addition to large social implications of the increasing development pressures that would raise the pricethreshold in these locations and exclude large sector of the community. 7
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategySeveral researchers illustrated that there is a space for accommodating big percentage of the expected demand in suburban area with minor heightincreases and without the need for huge investments in infrastructure (Woodcock et al. 2010). In this context, this report presents a social practicechange strategy aiming at enhancing the efficiency in living space utilisation through increasing the residential density in middle suburbs. This isenvisaged through encouraging and normalising inter-generational living in existing houses. Middle suburbs were chosen as they include the highestconcentration of older age people without children, see Figure 3 & 4. The reason for this concentration is that these people have simply aged in theplace where they first partnered, had children and purchased their first family home forty years ago or so (Spatial Analysis and Research 2012).Figure 3 Concentration of children in Melbourne <15 years, 2006 census. Figure 4 Concentration of old people in Melbourne >60 years, 2006 census.Source: (Spatial Analysis and Research 2012) Source: (Spatial Analysis and Research 2012) 8
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyThe rationale behind the practiceThere are several constraints preventing many empty nesters from downsizing to smaller houses or leasing out part of their properties or evenproviding home-stay. These constraints are driven by social, physical and economical factors. Census data show that very small percentage of peopleabove 60 years old choose to live in smaller flats in inner suburbs (Griffith 2010), see Figure 5. Researchers due this trend to the increasing prices ofaccommodations in the city centre (Tolhurst 2011), in addition to the attachment of many families to their local communities and neighbourhoods(Glenn 2011). On the other hand, reasons for not leasing out includes the physical constrains in the house itself, or personal factors such as valuingprivacy and seeking less responsibilities. Many empty nesters also keep the extra space for their kids, in case they returned back in the future.Figure 5 Persons who changed residence within the last 5 years, census 2006. Source: (Spatial Analysis and Research 2012)Several young families in the matter of fact are increasingly choosing to live with their parents for predominately economical reasons, also manyempty-nesters accommodate one or more of their parents (Sweeney Research 2006). These are positive trends in the context of this report. Theproposed strategy tries to accelerate and facilitate for these trends by eliminating several constraints. 9
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyComponents of the practiceTable 2 clarifies the different sides of the practice and what possible actions to be taken by the concerned parties1.Table 2 The different sides of the practice and possible responsesASPECTS DETERRENTS POSSIBLE RESPONSES TOOLS/PARTICIPANTSCommon Leasing-out is associated with more responsibilities Out-sourcing the responsibilities and Property Manger to facilitate theUnderstanding and tasks. tasks to a third party process Leasing-out would compromise the privacy of families Ensure privacy through use of materials Contracts & Architects to provide and proper layout professional advice Lack of interest Illustrating the hidden social & financial Media potentials Wealthier families live in bigger houses highlighting current changing trends, and Media normalising house sharing Moving will result in losing friends and community Eliminating the need for moving by Architects to give professional advice values updating the houseMaterial The house layout is too difficult to be altered and it Provide more information for the families Architects to give professional adviceInfrastructure would cost too much to make informed decisionsMaterial Current house has a preferred location, proximity to Provide onsite solutions without the need Architects to give professional adviceInfrastructure amenities, green spaces ... etc for relocation No demand for new accommodations in the area Facilitate access for potential renters Government and educational institutions to create the demandPractical Knowledge After living for years this way, there is no other way to Provide onsite solutions without the need Architects to give professional advice, live for relocation government to create demand Familiarity with the area Provide onsite solutions without the need Architects to give professional advice for relocationRules Building regulations preventing house modification ease building regulations and providing Local governments incentives1 Chosen aspects are based on a lecture presented by Dr. Susie Moloney (Moloney, S. 18 April 2012. From behaviour change to social change. Lecture at RMIT.) 10
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategySection 2: Rationale for and the design of the strategyIt is clear from the analysis in the previous section that several actions need to be taken on different levels in order to change the practice. Thisrequires the involvement of different parties from private and public sectors. Initiated physical interventions by landlords are necessary to upgradeand enable the houses, while Media utilisation is paramount in providing the necessary information and shifting the negative attitudes.On another side, the creation of considerable demand for such living spaces is also necessary for this endeavour to kick-start. As mentioned earlier,most of the demand for new housing is expected to be accommodated in other areas including the Greenfields. A transient residential population isbelieved to able to blow life in this new trend. The proposed strategy is learning from the success of inner Melbourne in targeting internationalstudents through the easements in regulations that allowed for the emergence of students’ oriented living spaces (e.g. high density accommodationswith low requirements for car parking) (Tsutsumi & Oconnor 2005). These updates in building regulations was triggered by governmental decision toopen education for international students and to streamline visa acquiring processes, besides the active involvement of the major educationalinstitutions in providing for and adapting to the needs of the international markets (Tsutsumi & Oconnor 2005). The strategy will make use of theseexisting polices and governmental structures to target almost untapped sector of the international students, namely: those with worried families.Here again, the active involvement of the educational institutions is indispensable. However, the focus is shifted to middle suburbs that holdeducational institutions or have easy accessibility through public transportation.An endeavour with this magnitude needs to be institutionalised to provide accountability and a point of contact for all the different parties, inaddition to efficiently manage all the related procedures. This new organisation needs to work in close coordination with local governments andeducational institutions. It has to have the capacity for providing technical architectural advices and for managing the database and contracts, inaddition to following up with families and students for resolving any emerging issues. The organisation needs to have a social face as well throughorganising events and activities for the students and their hosting families. 11
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyAddressed ChallengesThe strategy facilitates change through focusing on physically modifying houses. These modifications are not considered by many families due totechnical, financial or personal reasons. The strategy tries to address all of these factors in reasonable and professional manner, working with thefamilies to reach to the best solutions. The strategy also provides flexible and relatively short term commitment for families, based on the servicesthey are willing to offer and the type of students they expect. After concluding their contracts, families may renew or opt out and offer the extraspace in the market.Seized OpportunitiesFamilies entering the empty nest phase of their life pass through a psychologically critical stage as clarified by different studies (Robinson 2010, 60Minutes Friday 4 Nov. 2011, Europe Intelligence Wire 5 Aug. 2005). Being parents for the most of their life, many empty nesters find it hard to adapt.The strategy tries to provide an option for these families to move gracefully through this stage. Also it provides an opportunity to know othercultures, especially with more free time available for families without children. On another side, the strategy utilise redundant spaces and turn theminto revenue source for families. Table 3 lists the various benefits the strategy aiming at across sustainability triple-bottom-line.Table 3 Benefits across the triple bottom line of sustainability AREA BENEFITS Environment Use space efficiently through more density and less area per person. Less energy consumption per person. Less need for new infrastructure/constructions. Little need for parking and high opportunity to vitalise public transportation Society Building social capital through cultural exchange and emotional satisfaction for both generations. Increased level of safety. Building international relations and sharing the Australian values i.e. international students as ambassadors for their original countries and for Australia Economy Revenue source for hosting families. Generating new direct & indirect jobs. Targeting almost untapped sector of the international students blocked by family’s worries 12
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyOther organisationsThe home-stay business is already established in Australia providing services for the international students. Concerns regarding the quality andregulatory of this section resulted in creating “The Australian Homestay Network” a governmental entity responsible for ensuring the quality and thecompliance of this sector to regulations (Australian Homestay Network 2012). In this context, the private service providers in Australia are many,Table 4 lists some of these companies.Table 4 Selected home stay service providers in Australia Name Web Site AUZZIE FAMILIES Homestay Care http://www.auzziefamilies.com/ Global Experience http://www.globalexperience.com.au/ Homestay Experience http://www.homestayexperience.com/ HOMESTAY NETWORK http://www.homestaynetwork.com.au/ Homestay Web http://www.homestayweb.com/ Oz Homestay http://www.ozhomestay.com.au/All of these businesses are profit oriented targeting wide sector of students and families. The services provided are very basic with no value addingexperiences for families or students. On another level, one international not-for-profit organisation is worth mentioning. It is called HomeshareInternational (http://homeshare.org/). This organisation is also concerned with matching students with old age home providers. However, the focusis on people in need of special care normally 75+ years old. The student in this case helps in house duties as part of his commitment. The targetedsector for the presented strategy in this report is the 45-75 years old empty nester.Key StakeholdersThe strategy involves many participants and Table 4 lists the key stakeholders in this strategy. The table identifies their roles, drivers and the waysthey need to be addressed, in addition to the priority levels of the different actions. 13
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyTable 5: key stakeholders in the strategy, their priorities, drivers and ways to influence them Name Role Drivers Strategy tools Priority Empty nesters Providing house, possibly Psychological, having more free- Reach to families, provide Very escort and some household time, interest in learning new information, provide free professional High services such as: cooking, things, revenue source advice for modifying houses, cleaning, laundry... etc. coordinate and pay for construction, match with students, resolve issue and disputes, provide social activities with Students International Rent the space Getting education, practice English, Reach to students, provide Very Students seeing new places information, facilitate procedures, High match with families, resolve issue and disputes, provide social activities with families Educational main reason for international Reaching a new sector of students Work and Coordinate with Very Institutions students to come, support in i.e. those with worried families Educational Institutions High establishing the organisation, providing space, marketing Media Reach Families and Students, Part of the business as usual, profit Carry out marketing campaigns Very provide Information, affecting through television, radio and printed High families and students decisions materials Internet Information source. Facilitate Part of the business as usual Launch an official website Very procedures including: booking, High payment and reservation Families of Int. Sponsor the students covering Peace of mind if worried on their Reach to the families, provide High Students travel, education and rent young kids, cultural issues information, facilitate procedures (including services). including food and religion Local Data source, regulations and Activating their areas, supporting Coordinate with local governments, High Governments development guidelines, local businesses lobby for the easement of some marketing support restrictive building regulations 14
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change Strategy Name Role Drivers Strategy tools Priority Central Subsidies, political support More foreign currency and Use official channels to register the High Government business encouragement, jobs organisation and get official support creating IDP Marketing, link with student Part of the business as usual Support with marketing materials and High and their families, facilitating information through universities. their procedures Finance sector and Finance the work Part of the business as usual, profit Ensure being eligible for short term High banks financing options Architects Professional requirements for Protecting members’ interest Employ a registered Architect or seek Medium association modifying houses official architectural consultancy Civil Engineering Professional requirements for Protecting members’ interest Employ a registered Engineer or seek Medium association modifying houses official Engineering consultancy Local Businesses Places for marketing and giving Part of the business as usual, profit Carry out marketing campaigns and Medium information information provision in local shopping centres and malls Builders Do building modification Part of the business as usual, profit Assign recommended builders Medium Lawyers prepare the agreements with Part of the business as usual, profit Assign recommended law adviser Medium families and students Empty Nester’s Give advice, assuring the Concern for emergency cases or Reach through media Low families hosting families possible house accidents Other relatives Give advice Ethical Reach through media Low and friends Overseas Competition losing potential customers Provide better service Low Universities Real Estate Agents Facilitating the renting of losing potential customers Explain the scheme for agents as Low other types updated houses add to their business in the future Real Estate Build new houses losing potential customers Ensure central & local governments Low Developers support 15
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyTime frame and milestonesThe strategy is intended for 5 years period with main activities as identified in Table 6 2. As per the timeframe, establishment of the organisation isexpected to conclude by midyear 1. Registration of interest needs to overlap with this activity, while the construction process needs to start as soonas the organisation is established to conclude before receiving the last group of students by end of year 4. Reception of first group of students willnot be possible before the end of year 1 with availability of some upgraded houses. Group sizes are intended to increase incrementally with theadditional numbers of enabled houses. A marketing campaign will accompany the activities from initiation date till receiving the last group.Table 6 Five years strategy Activity year 1 year 2 year 3 year 4 year 5 Establish !nter & secure funding Register interest from hosting families Construction works Receive & supervise students for the 1st year Receive & supervise students for the 2nd year Receive & supervise students for the 3rd year Receive & supervise students for the 4th year Marketing2 for detailed information on the full process please refer to Appendix 2 16
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyLimitations and ConclusionIncreasing residential densities in existing areas will clearly have many environmental benefits. Nevertheless, it may include several downsides thatneed to be tackled separately and preferably on a bigger scale. One immediate problem may be the increased travel distances for many students andfuture residents. In this context mass transit options need to be considered. The location selection and the intended concentration of students haveto be driven by this factor by using already existing public transportation or vitalising new services.On another side, the strategy depends strongly on the support and corporation of local governments and educational institutions. Some of theeducational institutions have established businesses for accommodating students and they may feel threatened by such strategy. In this context, it isimportant that the strategy confines itself to the targeted community sector and the identified category of the international students, normally outof reach of many educational institutions. This would help to win the support of such institutions. For the local governments, changing buildingrequirements may be long and tiring procedure. The direct and indirect economical benefits to the area need to be clearly presented to decisionmakers to be able to initiate such changes.Finally, the strategy will always need the corporation of all the related parties in order to be able to produce effective results. The institutionalisationof the strategy is hoped to facilitate this requirement, in addition to building assets and networks that can be put in a different positive use with theconclusion of the strategy. 17
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyAppendix 1 House ModificationAustralia has the biggest houses in the world with average house of 240 m² (Johanson 2011). In the following is a possible architecture modificationfor an average area house with a common layout in Australia. Original layout based on (Herald Sun 2012). 18
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyHouses have different layouts and they differ in level of intervention needed, hence a professional advisory is intended to be an integral part of thestrategy. In this example it is possible to have complete separation or to be internally linked if families are related. It is clear that the needed spacesfor the 1st family are barely affected by these modifications and the same area is now accommodating 2 families. The separation wall may haveenforced insulation to ensure convenience. A full scheme would also include a solution for entries and exits. 19
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyAppendix 2 Process Create !ner, not-for-profit organisation. Secure a grant/ starter Prepare a profile to apply for financing Identify possible action areas i.e. middle suburbs, coordinate with TAFE/Universities Launch a web-site and conduct a marketing campaign in Australia and overseas Register Interest Build database Provide free inspections & Architectural Advice Prepare plans, discuss with families (separate / semi-separate options) Secure funding and carry out modifications to accommodate students Cost of construction to be repaid by rent Return period same as student contract time starts with 3 months flexible term. Financial expertise required. Match students/families based on requirements (food, age, services ... etc) Follow up and resolve conflicts Feedback from students & families At contract’s end, families may renew or opt out Houses are updated and are ready to be offered for rent Page 20 of 22
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategyReferences:60 Minutes. Friday 4 Nov. 2011. The Empty Nesters [Online]. TV Report. Available: http://sixtyminutes.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=8369951.Australian Homestay Network. 2012. Welcome to the Australian Homestay Network [Online]. Available: http://www.homestaynetwork.org/ [Accessed 19 May, 2012].Department of Infrastructure 2002. Melbourne 2030: Planning for sustainable growth. Melbourne: State of Victoria.Europe Intelligence Wire. 5 Aug. 2005. Lament of an empty nester. General OneFile [Online]. Available: http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=DateDescend&inPS=true&prodId=ITOF&userGroupName=darebin&tabID=T004&sea rchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=AdvancedSearchForm&currentPosition=1&contentSet=GALE%7CA134929617&&d ocId=GALE|A134929617&docType=GALE&role= [Accessed 26 May 2012].Glenn, T. 2011. Are empty nesters moving to inner-city apartments? Available: http://blog.id.com.au/2011/demographics/inner-city-apartments-housing-trends/ [Accessed 18 May 2012].Griffith, A. 2010. A profile of high-rise apartment dwellers in City of Melbourne as of 2006. Melbourne: City of Melbourne.Herald Sun. 2012. Home Addendum. Sat.19 May.Johanson, S. 2011. Australian homes still the worlds biggest [Online]. Available: http://www.theage.com.au/business/property/australian-homes-still-the-worlds- biggest-20110822-1j5ev.html [Accessed 26 May 2012, 2012].Moloney, S. 18 April 2012. From behaviour change to social change. Lecture at RMIT.O’leary, J. 2006. The Housing Decisions of Empty Nesters. Melbourne: Department of Sustainability and Environment.Population Division D E S A. 2006. World Population Ageing: 1950-2050 [Online]. United Nations. Available: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldageing19502050/pdf/027ausne.pdf [Accessed 19 May, 2012].Robinson, D. 2010. Empty Nest – He’s Leaving Home [Online]. Available: http://www.australianwomenonline.com/empty-nest-hes-leaving-home/ [Accessed 26 May, 2012]. Page 21 of 22
  • !nter: For Intergenerational Living A Social Practice Change StrategySpatial Analysis and Research 2012. Victoria in Future: Population and Household Projections for Victoria and its Regions 2011–2031. Melbourne: Department of Planning and Community Development.Sweeney Research 2006. Insights into the Housing Decision Made by Empty-Nesters Melbourne: Department of Sustainability and Environment.Tolhurst, C. 2011. Downsizers feeling the squeeze [Online]. Available: http://news.domain.com.au/domain/home-investor-centre/downsizers-feeling-the-squeeze- 20110617-1g6gp.html [Accessed 18 May, 2012].Tsutsumi, J. & Oconnor, K. 2005. international Students and the Changing Character of the Inner Area of a City: A Case Study of Melbourne. State of Australian Cities National Conference. Brisbane.Woodcock, I., Dovey, K., Wollan, S. & Beyerle, A. 2010. Modelling the compact city: capacities and visions for Melbourne. Australian Planner, 47 (2): 94-104. Page 22 of 22