Systems Development and Project Management DEVELOPING ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS Developing Software Business-Related Consequences of Software Success and failures Increases or decreases revenues – organizations have the ability to directly increase profits by implementing successful IT systems. Repair or damage to brand reputation – CRM can directly enhance a company’s brand. Software can also seriously damage a company’s reputation if it fails to work as advertised. Prevent or incur liabilities – CT Scans and MRI’s help save lives and faulty technology on airlines, cars, or pacemakers can cause serious injury or death Increase or decrease productivity – CRM and SCM can directly increase productivity and software malfunctions can cause losses The System Development Life Cycle The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is the overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance. The seven phases: Planning – involves establishing a high-level plan of intended project and determining project goals.
Analysis – involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system. Design – involves describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen lay-outs, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation. Development – involves taking all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system. Testing – involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability and verify that system meets all business requirements defined in the analysis phase. Implementation – involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the systems. Maintenance – Maintaining the system is the final sequential phase of any systems development effort. Rapid Application Development (RAD) Methodology Rapid application development emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of system to accelerate the systems development process. Rational Unified Process (RUP) RUP provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into gates.
The gates include: Gate One – inception phase includes inception of the business case Gate Two – Elaboration phase provides a rough order of magnitude. Gate Three – Construction – phase includes building and developing the product. Gate Four – Transition – addresses ownership of the system and training of key personnel. Developing Successful Software Slash the budget – small budgets force developers and users to focus on the essentials. If it Doesn’t Work, Kill It – Bring all key stakeholders together at the beginning of a project and as it progresses bring them together again to evaluate the software. Keep Requirements to a Minimum – start each project with what the software must absolutely do. Test and Deliver Frequently Assign Non-IT Executives to Software Projects PROJECT MANAGEMENT The Project Management Institute Project deliverables – are any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result or item that is produced to complete a project or part of a project.
Project milestones – represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed. Project manager – is an individual who is an expert in project planning and management Project management office (PMO) – an internal department that oversees all organizational projects Understanding Project Planning Project Charter – is a document issued by the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities Project charters include: Project scope – the work that must be completed to deliver a product with the specified features and functions Project objectives – criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success Project constraints – factors that can limit options Project assumptions – factors that are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. Project Plan – a formal, approved document that manages and controls project execution Kill switch – a trigger that enables a project manager to close the project prior to completion. Outsourcing Projects Three different forms of outsourcing
Onshore – engaging another company within the same country for service Nearshore – contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country Offshore – using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems Drivers affecting the growth of outsourcing: Core competencies Financial savings Rapid growth Industry changes The internet Globalization Benefits of Outsourcing Increased quality and efficiency of process, service, or function Reduced operating expenses Resources focused on core profit-generating competencies Reduced exposure to risks involved with large capital investments Access to outsourcing service providers economies of scale Access to outsourcing service providers expertise
And best-in-class Access to advanced technology Increased flexibility with the ability to respond quickly to changing market demands No costly outlay of capital funds Reduced head count and associated overhead expense Reduced frustration and expense related to hiring and retaining employees in an exceptionally tight job market Challenges of Outsourcing Contract length o Difficulties in getting out of contracts o Problems forecasting the next 5-10 years o Problems reforming internal IT Competitive edge Confidentiality Scope definition