Theory (60 marks)
Midterm exam =18 marks
Final term exam=36 marks
Assignment/ Quiz = 06 marks
Practical (20 marks)
Daily evaluation =10 marks
= 05 marks
Final Viva +copy = 05 marks
7th edition by
Kumar, V. ; Cotran, R.S.; Robbins, S.L.
Veterinary Pathology by 6 th edition by Jones,
T.C.; Hunt, R.D.; King, N.W.
Introduction to Veterinary Pathology, 3rd
Edition - by Norman F. Cheville
Mechanisms of Disease: A Textbook of
Comparative General Pathology by David O.
Course aims & objectives
course aims to introduce students with common
pathological terms and pathogens
Get familiarized to gross and microscopic lesions of
Mechanism of disease development
Interpretation of lesions to help clinician in diagnosis
What is Pathology?
is a combination of two words
scientific Study of disease is called
The study of disease except treatment is called
The scientific study of the nature of disease and
its causes, processes, development, and
What is Pathology?
The study of structure and function of the body in
disease condition is called Pathology.
The study of molecular, biochemical, structural and
functional changes in the cells of the body is called
Pathology deals with the following questions?
What is wrong with the normal?
Why and how the wrong has happened?
Dis-ease which mean uneasiness or condition in which
individual show deviation from normal even though all the
nutritional and environmental condition provided adequately.
It is a state in which an individual live in complete harmony. In
human medicine it is state of complete physical, mental, social
State of more economical live stock production maximum
production at minimum cost from livestock then animal in health.
Why we study pathology?
To understand the causation and mechanism of
What is a pathologist?
A person trained in the mechanisms,
morphological alterations and diagnosis of
Objectives of a Pathologist.
objectives of a pathologist are to find out
the lesions, names and interpret them to make
His/her main purpose is to help the clinician in
arriving at a correct conclusion for the
diagnosis of the disease.
Branches of Pathology
It is concerned with the study of basic reactions of cells and
tissue as a result of disease. e.g. Fatty change, Necrosis etc
Systemic Pathology deals with alterations in tissues/ organs of a
particular system. e.g. Respiratory system, Genital system etc.
It includes certain laboratory methods which helps in making the
diagnosis using animal excretions/secretions/ blood/ skin
scrapings/ biopsy etc. e.g. Urine examination, Blood
pathology: It is the study of
Toxopathology: Toxopathology or Toxic
Pathology deals with the study of tissue/ organ
alterations due to toxins/ poisons
Poultry pathology: it deals with the pathology
of poultry (birds) diseases
Pathology: Humoral Pathology is
the study of alterations in fluids like antibodies
Chemical Pathology: Chemical Pathology is
the study of chemical alterations of body
fluids/ tissues. e.g. Enzymes in tissue.
Pathology deals with alteration in the functions
of organ / system. It is also known as
Pathophysiology. e.g. Indigestion, Diarrhoea,
Nutritional Pathology: Nutritional Pathology is the study of
diseases occurred due to deficiency or excess of nutrients. e.g.
Vit.-A deficiency induced nutritional roup, rickets due to
Forensic Pathology: Forensic Pathology includes careful
examination and recording of pathological lesions in case of
Oncology: Oncology is the study of cancer/ tumor/
Immunopathology: Immunopathology deals with the study of
diseases mediated by immune reactions. It includes
Cytopathology: Cytopathology is the study of cells shed off
from the lesions for diagnosis.
Terminology used in pathology
it refers to the cause of disease. It is of two
types (1)intrinsic (inside) (2) extrinsic (outside)
Pathogen: is the micro organism that causes disease
Symptom. is that which is described by a person not
observed (in human only)
Clinical sign. which is observed not described by a
person (in animals only)
Lesion. is a pathological alteration in structure/
function that can be detectable..(Gross and
Pathognomonic lesions: Those which definitely or
directly point toward specific disease
Diagnosis is an art of precisely
knowing the cause of a particular disease
(Dia= thorough, gnosis= knowledge).
Prognosis .It is the probable outcome of a
examination of the body after death to observe
the lesions for diagnosis.
Syndrome: A combination of symptoms
caused by altered physiological process
Biopsy.it is the removal and microscopic examination
of tissues from the living body for diagnosis
Morbid changes. changes that develop before death.
Postmortem changes. changes that develop after
Morphological changes: The structural alterations in
cells or tissue
Pathogenesis. It is the mechanism of disease
Pathogenicity: Pathogenicity is the capability of an
organism for producing a disease
Morbidity rate: Morbidity rate is the percentage/
proportions of affected animals out of total population
in a particular disease outbreak.e.g. Out of 100 animals,
20 are suffering from diarrhoea. The morbidity rate of
diarrhoea will be 20%.
Mortality rate: Mortality rate is the percentage/
proportions of animals out of
total population died due to disease in a particular
disease outbreak. e.g. In a population of 100 animals, 20
falls sick and 5 died. The mortality rate will be 5%.