Melissa Kabinoff, Sunny Parsons, Zarah Katrina ViñOla
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Melissa Kabinoff, Sunny Parsons, Zarah Katrina ViñOla Melissa Kabinoff, Sunny Parsons, Zarah Katrina ViñOla Document Transcript

  • Title: The Cold War at Home Subject: American History Topic: Cold War Grade(s): 11 Designer(s): Melissa Kabinoff, Sunny Parsons, Zarah Katrina Viñola Introduction: This unit focuses on the United States government’s domestic policy during the Cold War Era. Our group decided to concentrate on the Anti-Communist propaganda promoted by the U.S. government. We want the students to understand the effect of U.S. foreign policy to their actions in carrying out their domestic policy. In a time period when television has a profound effect on our students, we are hoping that this unit will help student gain critical thinking skills that will allow them to question today’s government and their ability to control or utilize the media in advocating their domestic as well as foreign policies. Stage 1 – Desired Results Established Goal (s) / Main Essential Question How powerful is government propaganda and to what extent can we control or monitor those influences? Understanding(s) Essential Question (s) Students will understand …. 1.) Does the government influence public - To what extent the government control opinion? public’s opinion 2.) Is the media a tool or a check on the - How the government utilizes American government? propaganda in gaining public support Focus Question (s) - The historical background of the Cold 1.) What were the causes of the Cold War? War 2.) What was the U.S. Foreign Policy - The economic background of the Cold during the Cold War? War 3.) What is Propaganda? Students will know… Students will be able to… - the causes of the Cold War - begin questioning government’s actions - what propaganda means - understand how the government utilizes - the ways the government utilizes propaganda in gaining public support propaganda in gaining public support - strengthen their critical thinking skills - students will learn different strategies - strengthen their writing skills in gaining support 1
  • Stage 2 - Assessment Performance Task(s) In this unit: 1.) Analyzing documents 2.) Reflective writing 3.) Creating posters Other ideas: 4.) Simulation Activity- Can be used in understanding Harry S. Truman’s decision 5.) Role Play Activity- Truman decision, reviewing important people involve in the Cold War 6.) Write newspaper articles – Articles for Anti-Communism in the U.S., articles on the effects of the Red Scare in the U.S., Underground newspaper supporting Communism 7.) Essay on the causes of the Cold War Key Criteria - Accuracy - Showing different points of view through writing and speech - Being able to support their argument or position with relevant facts and documents Other Evidence - In class response - Reflective writing - Homework - Using the documents correctly - Accountable talk Stage 3 – Learning Plan - Interpreting/analyzing documents - Research for writing their newspaper article - Creating charts/graphic organizers - Writing journals/diary - Creating propaganda posters - Writing a play - Using documents and organizing notes for their essay Other possible aims and suggestions for this unit: 1.) How did the United States respond to the expansion of communism in Asia and Europe? 2.) What was the United States’ role in internationals affairs after WWII? 3.) Was the Cold War inevitable? 4.) What constitutional values were sacrificed in responding to the perceived communist threat in the United States? 5.) How did the second Red Scare compare with the first Red Scare? 6.) What were the causes and effects of the Cold War? 7.) Was the United States successful in carrying out its policy of containment? 8.) How Cold was the Cold war? 9.) Does the term “superpowers” accurately describe the Soviet Union and the United States? 10.) How did military realities cause political hysteria? *** For additional documents and resources, see pages 15- *** 2
  • By: Zarah Katrina Viñola COLD WAR LESSON PLAN Objective: 1. To understand the U.S. foreign policy of Containment 2. To understand the domestic policies of the U.S. during the Cold War 3. To understand how the U.S. respond to communist threat NYS Learning Standards: Standard 1: History of the United States and New York Understand the foundation of the United States Constitution Standard 5: Civics, Citizenship, and Government Understand the basic concepts of the United States Constitution ELA Standards: (Conventions, Grammar, and Usage of the English Language) 1. E4a. Independently and habitually demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English Language and grammar. Do Now: “Step on it, Doc!” political cartoon. (click to enlarge and adjust size for your use) 1.) What do you see? 2.) What symbols do you recognize? 3.) What do you think the cartoonist is trying to say? Follow up: 1.) What is the vulture carrying? 2.) Why is Communism represented by a vulture? 3.) Why is the Congress called “doctor”? 4.) Where is the “doctor” heading to? Aim: How did the United States respond to communist threat at home? Materials: Documents Cold War Powerpoint for review Large Chart Paper, markers Cold War at Home hand-out Motivation: Group work and powerpoint Development and Activities: Word Wall: Cold War, Containment, HUAC, McCarthyism 1.) Go over Do Now. 2.) Divide students into groups of 3 3.) Each group will be assigned with a specific reading or document that explains a specific action or law passed by the government to promote containment at home (Ex: The Hiss Case, HUAC) 4.) They will then answer two main questions: 1.) What is this law or action about? 2.) How did this affect the American people? The answers will be written down on the large chart paper. 5.) Distribute Cold War at Home hand-out. Each student will write down information in this hand-out while a specific group is presenting. This is also part of their individual activity. 6.) If you have more time, have each group present. Otherwise you may just choose one group for each action or law. Summary: Go over filled in hand-out, What are some of the actions done by the government to promote Anti- Communism? Application: Is there any specific actions done by our government today to promote “Anti-Terrorism”? Assessment: Students will take both essay and multiple choice exams. Homework: 1.) Imagine you are arrested for being a Communist. You are not a Communist but are finding a hard time proving this. Write a letter from your jail cell to a love one stating your innocence and your experienced arrest. 2.) You are Sen. McCarthy, write a speech convincing the public about the dangers of Communism spreading in the United States. 3
  • The Cold War At Home Government Action How did this affect the people? (Write a brief explanation) HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee) The Smith Act, 1940 Loyalty Program Hiss Case McCarthyism The Rosenberg Case Reviewing the Constitution: How did the domestic policies during the Cold War violate people’s rights? Which specific rights were violated during the Cold War period? (Hint: Think about the Bill of Rights) 4
  • Group Work Readings: HUAC The Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was originally established in 1937 under the chairmanship of Martin Dies. The main objective of the HUAC was the investigation of un-American and subversive activities. The HUAC originally investigated both left-wing and right wing political groups. Some called for the leaders of the Ku Klux Klan to be interrogated by the HUAC. Martin Dies however was a supporter of the Klan and had spoken at several of its rallies. Other members of the HUAC such as John Rankin and John S. Wood were also Klan sympathizers. Wood defended the Klan by arguing that: "The threats and intimidations of the Klan are an old American custom, like illegal whisky-making." Eventually Ernest Adamson, the HUAC's chief counsel, announced that: "The committee has decided that it lacks sufficient data on which to base a probe." John Rankin added: After all, the KKK is an old American institution." Instead, the HUAC concentrated on investigating the possibility that the American Communist Party had infiltrated the Federal Writers Project and other New Deal projects. After Martin Dies ceased being chairman of the HUAC in 1944 he was followed by Edward Hart (1945), John S. Wood (1945-46), John Parnell Thomas (1947-48), John S. Wood (1949-1952) and Harold Velde (1953-54) and Francis Walter (1955-63). Other key figures on the HUCA included John Rankin of Mississippi, Karl Mundt of South Dakota and Richard Nixon of California. In 1947 the HUAC began an investigation into the Hollywood Motion Picture Industry. In September 1947, the HUAC interviewed 41 people who were working in Hollywood. These people attended voluntarily and became known as "friendly witnesses". During their interviews they named several people who they accused of holding left-wing views. One of those named, Bertolt Brecht, an emigrant playwright, gave evidence and then left for East Germany. Ten others: Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole, Albert Maltz, Adrian Scott, Samuel Ornitz,, Dalton Trumbo, Edward Dmytryk, Ring Lardner Jr., John Howard Lawson and Alvah Bessie refused to answer any questions. Known as the Hollywood Ten, they claimed that the 5th Amendment of the United States Constitution gave them the right to do this. The HUAC and the courts during appeals disagreed and all were found guilty of contempt of congress and each was sentenced to between six and twelve months in prison. Larry Parks, Leo Townsend, Isobel Lennart, Roy Huggins, Richard Collins, Lee J. Cobb, Budd Schulberg and Elia Kazan, afraid they would go to prison, were willing to name people who had been members of left-wing groups. Edward Dmytryk, who had originally refused to talk, changed his mind in order to save his career and also named names. Those identified as communists or socialists were now ordered to testify before the HUAC. If these people refused to name names, they were added to a blacklist that had been drawn up by the Hollywood film studios. Over 320 people were placed on this list that stopped them from working in the entertainment industry. This included Lillian Hellman, Dashiell Hammett, Clifford Odets, Larry Parks, Michael Wilson, Paul Jarrico, Louis Untermeyer, Anne Revere, Jeff Corey, Arthur Miller, Pete Seeger, Yip Harburg, John Garfield, Howard Da Silva, Joseph Losey, Richard Wright and Abraham Polonsky. In 1969, HUAC was renamed the Internal Security Committee. Six years later it was abolished and its functions transferred to the House Judiciary Committee. 5
  • Smith Act of 1940 The Alien Registration Act of 1940, usually called the Smith Act because the antisedition section was authored by Representative Howard W. Smith of Virginia, was adopted at 54 Statutes at Large 670-671 (1940). The Act has been amended several times and can now be found at 18 U.S. Code § 2385 (2000). § 2385. Advocating Overthrow of Government. Whoever knowingly or willfully advocates, abets, advises, or teaches the duty, necessity, desirability, or propriety of overthrowing or destroying the government of the United States or the government of any State, Territory, District or Possession thereof, or the government of any political subdivision therein, by force or violence, or by the assassination of any officer of any such government; or Whoever, with intent to cause the overthrow or destruction of any such government, prints, publishes, edits, issues, circulates, sells, distributes, or publicly displays any written or printed matter advocating, advising, or teaching the duty, necessity, desirability, or propriety of overthrowing or destroying any government in the United States by force or violence, or attempts to do so; or Whoever organizes or helps or attempts to organize any society, group, or assembly of persons who teach, advocate, or encourage the overthrow or destruction of any such government by force or violence; or becomes or is a member of, or affiliates with, any such society, group, or assembly of persons, knowing the purposes thereof-- Shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both, and shall be ineligible for employment by the United States or any department or agency thereof, for the five years next following his conviction. If two or more persons conspire to commit any offense named in this section, each shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both, and shall be ineligible for employment by the United States or any department or agency thereof, for the five years next following his conviction. As used in this section, the terms "organizes" and "organize", with respect to any society, group, or assembly of persons, include the recruiting of new members, the forming of new units, and the regrouping or expansion of existing clubs, classes, and other units of such society, group, or assembly of persons. 6
  • Truman Loyalty Oath, 1947 (excerpt) Code of Federal Regulations, Title 3 -- The President 1943-1948 Compilation or 3 CFR, 1943-1948 Comp PRESCRIBING PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF AN EMPLOYEES LOYALTY PROGRAM IN THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF THE GOVERNMENT Whereas each employee of the Government of the United States is endowed with a measure of trusteeship over the democratic processes which are the heart and sinew of the United States; and Whereas it is of vital importance that persons employed in the Federal service be of complete and unswerving loyalty to the United States; and Whereas, although the loyalty of by far the overwhelming majority of all Government employees is beyond question, the presence within the Government service of any disloyal or subversive person constitutes a threat to our democratic processes; and Whereas maximum protection must be afforded the United States against infiltration of disloyal persons into the ranks of its employees, and equal protection from unfounded accusations of disloyalty must be afforded the loyal employees of the Government: Now, Therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, including the Civil Service Act of 1883 (22 Stat. 403), as amended, and section 9A of the act approved August 2, 1939 (18 U.S.C. 61i), and as President and Chief Executive of the United States, it is hereby, in the interest of the internal management of the Government, ordered as follows: PART I, -- INVESTIGATION OF APPLICANTS 1.) There shall be a loyalty investigation of every person entering the civilian employment of any department or agency of the executive branch of the Federal Government. PART II -- INVESTIGATION OF EMPLOYEES 1. ) The head of each department and agency in the executive branch of the Government shall be personally responsible for an effective program to assure that disloyal civilian officers or employees are not retained in employment in his department or agency. 2. ) He shall be responsible for prescribing and supervising the loyalty determination procedures of his department or agency, in accordance with the provisions of this order, which shall be considered as providing minimum requirements. PART III -- RESPONSIBILITIES OF CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION 4.) The Board shall make rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the provisions of this order, deemed necessary to implement statutes and Executive orders relating to employee loyalty. PART IV -- SECURITY MEASURES IN INVESTIGATIONS 3.) Each department and agency of the executive branch should develop and maintain, for the collection and analysis of information relating to the loyalty of its employees and prospective employees, a staff specially trained in security techniques, and an effective security control system for protecting such information generally and for protecting confidential sources of such information particularly. The White House, March 21, 1947. 7
  • The Hiss Case The public controversy was brought to light in 1948 over Whittaker Chambers's accusation that Alger Hiss, assisted by his wife Priscilla, had been a member of the Communist Party and a spy. After Time (magazine) managing editor Whittaker Chambers charged him with being a Communist, Alger Hiss voluntarily appeared before the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Some Committee members had misgivings at first about attacking Hiss, but Congressman Richard Nixon, covertly being fed information by the Roman Catholic Church's secretive "Commie" hunter, Father John Francis Cronin, and using materials which he had been secretly and illegally receiving from the FBI, claimed to have sensed that Hiss was hiding something and pressed the Committee to act. Initially, Hiss denied having ever known Chambers, saying quite specifically "the name means nothing to me." After being asked to identify Chambers, whom he had not seen in at least a dozen years, from a photograph, Hiss indicated that his face "might look familiar." When he later confronted Chambers in a hotel room, with HUAC representatives present, Hiss identified him as a person he had known as "George Crosley", whom Hiss had allowed to live in his home when Chambers was destitute in the mid-1930s. Later, Hiss claimed to have given Chambers an old car, which in fact was given to the American Communist party. Hiss was charged with two counts of perjury; the grand jury could not indict him for espionage, as the statute of limitations had run out. Hiss went to trial twice. The first trial started on May 31, 1949, but ended in a hung jury on July 7, 1949. Hiss's character witnesses at his first trial included such notables as former Democratic presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson, Justice Felix Frankfurter, and John W. Davis. The second trial lasted from November 17, 1949, to January 21, 1950, and the jury found Hiss guilty on two counts of perjury. Some of the Baltimore Documents were indeed classified, and four handwritten notes were in Hiss's own handwriting. The verdict was upheld at the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States. Hiss was sentenced to five years on January 25, 1950, and served 44 months at the Lewisburg Federal Prison before being released in November 1954. Disbarred, Hiss became a salesman. He continued for the rest of his life to claim innocence and actively combatted further evidence produced against him. The case heightened public concern about Soviet espionage penetration of the US Government in the 1930s and 1940s. Publicity surrounding the case fed the early political career of Richard M. Nixon, helping him move from the House of Representatives to the United States Senate in 1950, and to the Vice Presidency of the United States in 1952. 8
  • McCarthyism McCarthyism took place during a period of intense suspicion in the United States primarily from 1950 to 1954, when the U.S. government was actively countering American Communist Party subversion, its leadership, and others suspected of being Communists or Communist sympathizers. During this period people from all walks of life became the subject of aggressive "witch-hunts," often based on inconclusive or questionable evidence. It grew out of the Second Red Scare that began in the late 1940s and is named after the U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican of Wisconsin. The term originates from March 29, 1950 political cartoon by Washington Post editorial cartoonist Herbert Block. The cartoon depicted four leading Republicans trying to push an elephant (the traditional symbol of the Republican Party) to stand on a teetering stack of ten tar buckets, the topmost of which was labeled "McCarthyism". The reluctant elephant was quoted in the caption as saying "You mean I'm supposed to stand on that?". With the war going badly in Korea and communist advances in Eastern Europe and in China, the American public were genuinely frightened about the possibilities of internal subversion. McCarthy, was made chairman of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate, and this gave him the opportunity to investigate the possibility of communist subversion. For the next two years McCarthy's committee investigated various government departments and questioned a large number of people about their political past. Some lost their jobs after they admitted they had been members of the Communist Party. McCarthy made it clear to the witnesses that the only way of showing that they had abandoned their left-wing views was by naming other members of the party. Some left-wing artists and intellectuals were unwilling to live in this type of society and people such as Joseph Losey, Richard Wright, Ollie Harrington, James Baldwin, Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole and Chester Himes went to live and work in Europe. McCarthy's next target was what he believed were anti-American books in libraries. His researchers looked into the Overseas Library Program and discovered 30,000 books by "communists, pro- communists, former communists and anti anti-communists." After the publication of this list, these books were removed from the library shelves. In October, 1953, McCarthy began investigating communist infiltration into the military. Attempts were made by McCarthy to discredit Robert Stevens, the Secretary of the Army. The president, Dwight Eisenhower, was furious and realized that it was time to bring an end to McCarthy's activities. The United States Army now passed information about Joseph McCarthy to journalists known to be opposed to him. This included the news that McCarthy and Roy Cohn had abused congressional privilege by trying to prevent David Schine from being drafted. When that failed, it was claimed that Cohn tried to pressurize the Army to grant Schine special privileges. The well-known newspaper columnist, Drew Pearson, published the story on 15th December, 1953. Dwight Eisenhower also instructed his vice president, Richard Nixon, to attack Joseph McCarthy. On 4th March, 1954, Nixon made a speech where, although not mentioning McCarthy, made it clear who he was talking about: "Men who have in the past done effective work exposing Communists in this country have, by reckless talk and questionable methods, made themselves the issue rather than the cause they believe in so deeply." The senate investigations into the United States Army were televised and this helped to expose the tactics of Joseph McCarthy. One newspaper, the Louisville Courier-Journal, reported that: "In this long, degrading travesty of the democratic process McCarthy has shown himself to be evil and unmatched in malice." Leading politicians in both parties, had been embarrassed by McCarthy's performance and on 2nd December, 1954, a censure motion condemned his conduct by 67 votes to 22. McCarthy lost the chairmanship of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate. He was now without a power base and the media lost interest in his claims of a communist conspiracy. As one journalist, Willard Edwards, pointed out: "Most reporters just refused to file McCarthy stories. And most papers would not have printed them anyway." Although some historians claim that this marked the end of McCarthyism, others argue that the anti- communist hysteria in the United States lasted until the end of the Cold War. 9
  • Melissa Kabinoff Teach American History Grant Fall 2005 Unit: Cold War Lesson: Propaganda American History and Government Aim: What is Propaganda? Do-Now: What is propaganda? Find a definition of this term and share it with the class. Have you ever seen or heard propaganda used? If so, relate what you saw/heard and whether it had an effect on you. Why do you think that governments and political leaders often employ propaganda? Discuss how propaganda is a powerful tool when combined with mass media. Learning Activity/Procedure: Give students handout on types of propaganda Propaganda Student Handout Types of Propaganda There are many techniques commonly used in the dissemination of propaganda. Use this handout to help you identify different types of propaganda throughout Cold War. BANDWAGON: The basic idea behind the bandwagon approach is just that, "getting on the bandwagon." The propagandist puts forth the idea that everyone is doing this, or everyone supports this person/cause, so should you. The bandwagon approach appeals to the conformist in all of us: No one wants to be left out of what is perceived to be a popular trend. EXAMPLE: Everyone in Lemmingtown is behind Jim Duffie for Mayor. Shouldn't you be part of this winning team? TESTIMONIAL: This is the celebrity endorsement of a philosophy, movement or candidate. In advertising, for example, athletes are often paid millions of dollars to promote sports shoes, equipment and fast food. In political circles, movie stars, television stars, rock stars and athletes lend a great deal of credibility and power to a political cause or candidate. Just a photograph of a movie star at political rally can generate more interest in that issue/candidate or cause thousands, sometimes millions, of people to become supporters. EXAMPLE: "Sam Slugger", a baseball Hall of Famer who led the pros in hitting for years, appears in a television ad supporting Mike Politico for U.S. Senate. Since Sam is well known and respected in his home 10
  • state and nationally, he will likely gain Mr. Politico many votes just by his appearance with the candidate. PLAIN FOLKS: Here the candidate or cause is identified with common people from everyday walks of life. The idea is to make the candidate/cause come off as grassroots and all-American. EXAMPLE: After a morning speech to wealthy Democratic donors, Bill Clinton stops by McDonald's for a burger, fries, and photo-op. TRANSFER: Transfer employs the use of symbols, quotes or the images of famous people to convey a message not necessarily associated with them. In the use of transfer, the candidate/speaker attempts to persuade us through the indirect use of something we respect, such as a patriotic or religious image, to promote his/her ideas. Religious and patriotic images may be the most commonly used in this propaganda technique but they are not alone. Sometimes even science becomes the means to transfer the message. EXAMPLE: The environmentalist group PEOPLE PROMOTING PLANTS, in its attempt to prevent a highway from destroying the natural habitat of thousands of plant species, produces a television ad with a "scientist" in a white lab coat explaining the dramatic consequences of altering the food chain by destroying this habitat. FEAR: This technique is very popular among political parties and PACs (Political Action Committees) in the U.S. The idea is to present a dreaded circumstance and usually follow it up with the kind of behavior needed to avoid that horrible event. EXAMPLE: The Citizens for Retired Rights present a magazine ad showing an elderly couple living in poverty because their social security benefits have been drastically cut by the Republicans in Congress. The solution? The CRR urges you to vote for Democrats. LOGICAL FALLACIES: Applying logic, one can usually draw a conclusion from one or more established premises. In the type of propaganda known as the logical fallacy, however, the premises may be accurate but the conclusion is not. EXAMPLE: • Premise 1: Bill Clinton supports gun control. • Premise 2: Communist regimes have always supported gun control. • Conclusion: Bill Clinton is a communist. We can see in this example that the Conclusion is created by a twisting of logic, and is therefore a fallacy. GLITTERING GENERALITIES: This approach is closely related to what is happening in TRANSFER (see above). Here, a generally accepted virtue is usually employed to stir up favorable emotions. The problem is that these words mean different things to different people and are often manipulated for the propagandists' use. The important thing to remember is that in this technique the propagandist uses these words in a positive sense. They often include words like: democracy, family values (when used positively), rights, civilization, even the word "American." 11
  • EXAMPLE: An ad by a cigarette manufacturer proclaims to smokers: Don't let them take your rights away! ("Rights" is a powerful word, something that stirs the emotions of many, but few on either side would agree on exactly what the 'rights' of smokers are.) NAME-CALLING: This is the opposite of the GLITTERING GENERALITIES approach. Name-calling ties a person or cause to a largely perceived negative image. EXAMPLE: In a campaign speech to a logging company, the Congressman referred to his environmentally conscious opponent as a "tree hugger." II. Activity: Working in groups of 4-5 students; after reading through the different types of propaganda, students are to choose one type of propaganda and come up with a commercial that advertises for the product or person of their choice. Please stress that it has to be school appropriate. III. Student groups will have approximately 4-5 minutes to perform their commercial. The other students observing the commercial must refer back to the list as they are viewing and write down which type of propaganda they are experiencing. This way, all students are accountable!! III. Assessment: Have students watch television and have them create a list of the ads they saw that used each type of propaganda technique. 12
  • 1. How does this image portray Communism? Give three examples _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ The Cold War “Beginning in about 1890, with the first Red Scare, capitalists, who constituted the ruling class in most Western nations, began the War Against Communism that has progressed through public school education, the purpose of which was to indoctrinate young children with anti-communist propaganda; union busting; the Cold War, with the Space Race, the Arms Race, the Korean War, the Vietnam War; and culminating in the monumental anti-communist propaganda attack mounted by the United States since Ronald Reagan took office that has permeating every aspect of American society, every newspaper story, every television show, every school lesson plan, every election campaign, until it is so pervasive that it is mistaken for life itself and is no longer noticed. It is a fact of life, akin to the Survival Instinct itself, that no rich person wants to become poor.” - Thomas L. Wayneborn, Professor of Psychology 2. How does Professor Wayneborn view anti-communist propaganda in the United States? Please cite an example from his text. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________ 13
  • Capitalist Lies vs. the Communist Truth "Propaganda must not serve the truth, especially not insofar as it might bring out something favorable for the opponent." -- Adolph Hitler We can never hope to disprove the lies as fast as the bourgeoisie can grind them out. Furthermore, we do not have access to the media to bring out the truth. We must therefore win our friends and co-workers -- and, first of all, ourselves -- to this axiom: Don't drink water from a poisoned well. Never believe anything the bosses or their "experts" say about communism! The louder they say it, the more the exploiters unite -- Russian, British, American, whoever -- the less we should believe them. The capitalists have much to lose from the truth, as this series has shown. Their lies about working-class history are a means to protect their privileges, to preserve their right to exploit. Only the working class can afford to look at the world objectively, because, as Marx and Engels said in 1948, at the dawn of the communist era, "We have nothing to lose but our chains. We have a world to win." Join us! 3. Put Hitler’s quote into your own language. What is he trying to say about propaganda? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ 4. In this publication, this shows the Communists being anti-American. How do Communists use propaganda against us (capitalists)? Use ex. From above selection… ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________ 14
  • 5. How does America sway children to be against Communism? What will become of America if it is under a Communist regime? If you had no prior knowledge about communism and you viewed this image, what are the first words that come to mind? _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ . 6. What is the meaning behind this symbol? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ 15
  • . 7. How does this image make destroying Communism sound sexy, exciting and full of adventure? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ __________________ 8. 16
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  • Project by: Sunny Parsons Propaganda Poster And Presentation Your Mission: You have been hired by the United States government to help deliver a media message to the American public during the Cold War. The poster that you create will be posted all over the country’s billboards, train stations, and city buildings. The message must in some way promote American foreign policy against the Soviet Union. Use the information you have gained in class to generate ideas for your poster presentation. Some messages you may want to send include:  Pro- Vietnam War  Pro- Korean War  Support for the Truman Doctrine  Support for the Domino Theory  Anti- Soviet Union  Anti- Communist  A topic of your choice (check with teacher before you begin) Task:  In groups of 3, pick a topic  Design a poster which send a clear message to the American people about one of the topics above  Be sure to use as many of the propaganda strategies discusses in class  Your poster must have a slogan ( a short phrase or sentence that is meant to reinforce/support the message of your poster)  You have two in-class days to complete your task For details about expectations for your poster and presentation, see the rubric attached 19
  • Some propaganda strategies that you may want to use: (You are not limited to these suggestions) 1. Appeal to fear: Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling fear in the general population. 2. Bandwagon and inevitable-victory appeals attempt to persuade the target audience to take the course of action that "everyone else is taking." 3. Join the crowd: This technique reinforces people's natural desire to be on the winning side. This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is in their best interest to join. 4. Inevitable victory: invites those not already on the bandwagon to join those already on the road to certain victory. 5. Direct order: This technique hopes to simplify the decision making process. The propagandist uses images and words to tell the audience exactly what actions to take, eliminating any other possible choices. 6. Stereotyping or Labeling: This technique attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable. 7. Scapegoating: Assigning blame to an individual or group that isn't really responsible, thus alleviating feelings of guilt from responsible parties and/or distracting attention from the need to fix the problem for which blame is being assigned.. 8. Virtue words: These are words in the value system of the target audience which tend to produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, etc. are virtue words. Source: wikipedia.com 20
  • Propaganda Posters Team Members: Name: ____________________________, ________________________________ ____________________________, _______________________________ CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Presentation Your presentation is Your presentation, for Your presentation is Your presentation is not organized, confident, the most part is, sometimes difficult to understood or heard by easy to hear, and gives organized, confident, hear or understand. the class. Students are a clear explanation of easy to hear, and gives Not all students show a not present. your poster. a clear explanation of clear understanding of your poster. their poster. Concept The concept of your The concept of your Your poster sends a The poster lacks focus poster shows an poster shows a fair message but the or a clear message. excellent understanding of message is more understanding of propaganda (at least obvious than strategic. propaganda (using one strategy) and (Does not use subtle or multiple propaganda delivers a clear convincing strategies) strategies) and delivers message. a very convincing message. Attractiveness The poster is The poster is attractive The poster is The poster is exceptionally attractive in terms of design, acceptably attractive distractingly messy or in terms of design, layout and neatness. though it may be a bit very poorly designed. It layout, and neatness. messy. is not attractive. Slogan Slogan can be read Slogan can be read Slogan can be read The slogan is too small from 6 ft. away and is from 6 ft. away and from 4 ft. away and and/or does not quite creative. describes content well. describes the content describe the content of well. the poster well. Use of Class Used time well during Used time well during Used some of the time Did not use class time Time each class period. each class period. well during each class to focus on the project Focused on getting the Usually focused on period. There was OR often distracted project done. Never getting the project done some focus on getting others. distracted others. and never distracted the project done but others. occasionally distracted others. Score: __________ X 5 = ___________% 21
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  • Cold War Films and Clips 1.) See http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/experience/culture/film.essay/ “The Red Scare Goes Hollywood” - The Manchurian Candidate, Dr. Strangelove, Apocalypse Now 2.) The Day After (1983) Director, Nicholas Meyer. Cast: Jason Robards, Jobeth Williams, Steven Guttenberg, John Cullum, John Lithgow. "The Day After" takes as its premise the ultimate what-if, portraying with stark realism the catastrophe of a nuclear confrontation and its devastating effect on a group of average American citizens. 122 min. 999:4000 3.) Fail-Safe (1964) Director: Sidney Lumet. A computer malfunction causes nuclear equiped American bombers to destroy Moscow and the president of the United States has to take terrible measures to appease the Soviets and prevent all-out nuclear war. 111 min. 999:734 (CC) 4.) On the Beach (1959) Director: Stanley Kramer. Radioactive fallout from a nuclear war has wiped out the entire northern hemisphere, with the exception of Australia. With fallout expected momentarily, the Australians review their lives, establish new relationships and prepare for their tragic demise. 135 min. DVD 4333; vhs 999:717 5.) Red Dawn (1984) Director: John Milius; featuring Patrick Swayze, C. Thomas Howell, Lea Thompson, Ben Johnson, Harry Dean Stanton, Ron O'Neal, William Smith, Powers Boothe. A film depicting the invasion of the United States by communist forces from Nicaragua and Russia and the efforts of midwestern high school students turned refugees, to turn back the invasion. This film is one of the basis of the beliefs of the citizens militias and patriot groups about the possibility of a U.N. takeover of the U.S. The movie and the theory of the New World Order proposed by the militias are similar; invasion by a foreign force, arrest of gun owners, re-education facilities (concentration camps), and a citizen force that strikes back. 114 min. 999:3229 6.) The Peacemaker (1997) Directed by Mimi Leder. Cast: George Clooney, Nicole Kidman, Armin Mueller-Stahl. When a nuclear bomb goes missing in the former Soviet Union, a U.S. nuclear specialist and a Special Forces Colonel join forces to avert disaster. Putting aside their personal differences they track the last remaining warhead to the steps of the United Nations in this taut apocalyptic thriller. 124 min. DVD 1200 7.) Korean War Films: M*A*S*H (1970) Director: Robert Altman; featuring Donald Sutherland, Elliott Gould, Tom Skerritt, Sally Kellerman, Robert Duvall. Highlights the outrageous antics of three skilled young surgeons drafted from civilian life and assigned to a unit of the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) M*A*S*H (TV series) Cast: Alan Alda, Wayne Rogers, McLean Stevenson, Loretta Switt, Larry Linville, Gary Burghoff. A television comedy highlighting the outrageous antics of three skilled young surgeons drafted from civilian life and assigned to a unit of the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) during the Korean War. Disc 1. MASH, the pilot -- To market, to market -- Requiem for a lightweight -- Chief surgeon who? -- The moose -- Yankee Doodle doctor -- Bananas, crackers, and nuts -- Cowboy -- Disc 2. Henry, please come home -- I hate a mystery -- Germ warfare -- Dear dad -- Edwina -- Love story -- Tuttle -- The ringbanger -- Disc 3. Sometimes you hear the bullet -- Dear dad... again -- The longjohn flap -- The Army-Navy game -- Sticky wicket -- Major Fred C. Dobbs -- Cease fire -- Showtime. Originally aired on television between September 17, 1972 and March 25, 1973. ca. 612 min. DVD 1000 Spring in my Hometown (Arumdaun sijol) (1998) Directed by Kwangmo Lee. A heart-warming story examining the turbulent period of the Korean War through the eyes of a little boy who lives in a backwater village. Set in the early 1950s when the US military presence was 23
  • predominant in Korea, the film depicts the life of an older generation from a child's perspective. Two children peep through the hole in the fence of an abandoned mill and chance upon the scene of one child's mother having sex with an American soldier and now their world can never be the same. 120 min. DVD 1487 8.) Vietnam War: The Quiet American Bat*21 (1988) Directed by Peter Markle. Cast: Gene Hackman, Danny Glover, Jerry Reed. Vietnam, 1968. Based on a true story of a middle-aged air force officer, LTC Iceal Hambleton, who's never seen combat before. He is stranded behind enemy lines and all he can do is wait and hope. Then a voice crackles over his radio, and he has found a friend. 105 min. DVD 4258 Born on the Fourth of July (1989) Director: Oliver Stone. Follows the young Ron Kovic from his days as a zealous teen who eagerly joins up for the Vietnam War, to his return from the war as an embittered veteran, paralyzed from mid-chest down. Chronicles his disillusionment with the country's continued involvement in Vietnam, his physical struggle and his emergence as a brave new voice for thousands of disenchanted vets. 145 min. DVD 769; VHS 999:740 A Bright Shining Lie (1998) Director: Terry George; featuring Bill Paxton, Amy Madigan, Vivian Wu, Donal Logue, Eric Bogosian, Kurtwood Smith, Robert J. Burke, James Rebhorn, Ed Lauter, Harve Presnell, Pichariva A dramatization based on true events of LTC John Paul Vann and his work as a military and civilian advisor in Vietnam over a ten year period (1962-72). As a military advisor, Vann attempted to fight corruption in the Vietnamese army, recognizing the need to build trust among the Vietnamese peasantry. When his recommendations were ignored by the U.S. military, he exposed falsified battle reports and other deceptions to a New York Times reporter, effectively ending his military career. As the war escalated, however, Vann returned to Vietnam as a civilian advisor under Nixon's "Vietnamization" program, ending as the defacto commander of Vietnamese forces in the successful defense of the Central Highlands during the 1972 Easter Offensive. Based on the book by Neil Sheehan (Main Stack DS558.S471 1988; Moffitt DS558.S47 1988)Videocassette release of the May 30, 1998 television motion picture. 118 min. 999:2689 A Case of Honor (1988) Directed by Eddie Romero. Cast: Timothy Bottoms, John Phillip Law, Nick Nicholson, Robert Marius, Nigel Hogge, Jeff Griffith. Five men escape a Vietnamese POW camp after five years. Hungry, they raid a whorehouse looking for supplies to help them get out of the country -- and run right into a group of Russian soldiers. After agreeing to the pleas of the call girls to take them along on their journey to freedom, the group of refugees fights their way through the unforgiving jungle where they discover an abandoned plane that may just be their salvation...if they can get it working. 82 min. DVD 4397 Casualties of War (1989) Director: Brian DePalma; featuring Michael J. Fox, Sean Penn, Don Harvey, John C. Reilly, John Leguizamo, Thuy Thu Le. Based on the true story of a squad of soldiers caught in the moral quagmire of wartime Vietnam. Witness to the gang rape and murder of a Vietnamese civilian, Private Ericksson is forced to stand alone against his fellow soldiers and commanding officer Sergeant Meserve in this devastating and unforgettable tale of one man's quest for sanity and justice amidst the chaos of war. Based upon the book by Daniel Lang. 120 min. 999:2689 Good Morning, Vietnam (1987) Directed by Barry Levinson; featuring: Robin Williams, Forest Whitaker, Tung Thanh Tran, Chintara Sukapatana, Bruno Kirby, Robert Wuhl, Noble Willingham, J.T. Walsh, Richard Edson, Juney Smith, Richard Portnow, Floyd Vivino. Imported by the Army for an early morning radio show in Vietnam, irreverent, nonconformist disc jockey Adrian Cronauer blasts the formerly staid, sanitized airwaves with a constant barrage of rapid-fire humor and the hottest hits from back home. The G.I.'s love him, but the brass is up in arms! 121 min.999:2601 24
  • Green Berets (1968) John Wayne leads his elite Special Forces troops, the toughest fighting force on earth, hand-picked and trained for anti-guerilla warfare in Vietnam, against a deadly and determined enemy. The film combines rugged action with spectacular special effects. 142 min. 999:1157 The Hanoi Hilton (1987) Directed by Lionel Chetwynd. Cast: Michael Moriarty, Jeffrey Jones, Paul Le Mat, Stephen Davies, Lawrence Pressman, Aki Aleong, Gloria Carlin, John Diehl, Rick Fitts, David Soul. Based on true events, this drama focuses on the sufferings, torture and brutal treatment American P.O.W.s had to deal with daily while in North Vietnam's Hoa Lo Prison, the most infamous prisoner of war camp in Hanoi. The film focuses on the resistance the prisoners gave to their captors and the strong bonds formed by the Americans during their captivity. Produced as a tribute to all Americans who served in the Vietnam War. 126 min. 999:3217 Platoon (1986) Director: Oliver Stone. A young soldier in Vietnam (Sheen) discovers that his enemies are not just the Viet Cong, but fear, physical exhaustion, and anger within himself and others. Based on the first-hand experiences of director Oliver Stone. Oscar nominees Berenger and Dafoe portray sergeants Barnes and Elias; one hard and callous, the other tough yet compassionate. The two sergeants draw a fine line between the war they wage against the enemy and each other, dangerously dividing the loyalties of the platoon. 120 min. DVD 455; VHS 999:805 Three Seasons (1999) Directed by Tony Bui. Tells the stories of several people living in or visiting post-war Vietnam, including James Hager (Harvey Keitel), an ex-G.I. searching for the daughter he left behind in the war. 110 min. 999:2389 Vietnam Movies, The Way It Really Was. Examines how Hollywood once viewed the Vietnam War and how filmmakers see it today. Looks at the new wave of movies that try to tell the story the way it really was by examining such films as "Platoon" and "Hanoi Hilton." Includes interviews with filmmakers, vietnam veterans and war correspondents. A segment from the television program: Nightline, December 19, 1986. 24 min. Video/C 5771 The War at Home (1996) Directed by Emilio Estevez. Cast: Kathy Bates, Martin Sheen, Kimberly Williams, Emilio Estevez, Carla Gugino, Lane Smith. Estevez plays a returning Vietnam War hero whose haunting experiences leave him unable to adjust to the quiet reality of small town America. At odds with his domineering father, his desperately cheerful mother and free-spirited sister, tensions at home soon escalate, finally reaching the breaking point one fateful Thanksgiving Day. 123 min. 999:3212 We Were Soldiers (2002) Directed by Randall Wallace. Cast: Mel Gibson, Madeleine Stowe, Greg Kinnear, Sam Elliott, Chris Klein, Keri Russell, Barry Pepper, Don Duong, Ryan Hurst. Lt. Col. Hal Moore is the commander of the First Battalion, Seventh Cavalry. As part of the Pleiku Campaign of late 1965, Moore is assigned to action at Landing Zone X-Ray in the Ia Drang Valley, an area known to be overrun by North Vietnamese troops and nicknamed "The Valley of Death." Moore soon finds himself and his men contained to an area about the size of a football field, surrounded by more than 2,000 enemy troops and engaged in the first major battle of the war. Heroism becomes the order of the day as the men refuse to yield, in spite of heavy losses of life. 138 min. DVD 1317 *** For More Films See the website: http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/Warfilm.html#misc *** Propaganda: http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/propaganda.html 25
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  • This Comic continues in this website: http://www.authentichistory.com/images/1960s/treasure_chest/v17_02_03.html 27
  • Other political cartoons on HUAC and McCarthyism: http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/fire.html 28
  • How Women were used in Anti-Communist Propaganda 29
  • More Anti-Communism Propaganda: http://www.tagg.org/rants/commies/commypix.htm 30