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  • 1. Information Systems: Creating Business Value by Mark Huber, Craig Piercy, and Patrick McKeown Field Guide C: The Details of Networking
  • 2. What We Will Cover:
    • Network Architecture
    • Network Layer Model
    • Local Area Networks
    • The Internet: A Network of Networks
    • The World Wide Web
  • 3. Student ROI (Return on Investment)
    • Your investment of time and effort in this course will result in your being able to answer these questions:
    • What is the client/server architecture, and how does it work?
    • How does the network layer model describe a wide area network?
    • How are local area networks configured?
    • How does the Internet work?
    • What makes the World Wide Web valuable to knowledge workers?
  • 4. Client/Server Computing
    • The most common network architecture is the client/server architecture. 1
    1 R. T. Watson, Organizational Memory, 5 th ed. (New York: John Wiley, 2006, p. 360
  • 5. Client/Server
    • Processing is shared among multiple small computers known as clients that are connected via a network to a host computer known as a server .
    • Clients - typically PCs, a type of high-powered small computer built for specialized applications called a workstation , or a network computer.
    • Server - typically dedicated to a specific type of processing, such as providing files with a file server, responding to database queries with a database server, or handling high-speed processing with an application server.
    • Because both the client and the server are capable of processing, processing is shared between the two computers depending on the capability of each.
  • 6. Three-Tiered Architecture
  • 7. Types of Servers Server Type Purpose File Provides both software and data files to users Database Handles queries to a large database and returns matching records Application Handles high speed processing Web Handles requests for Web pages Mail Sends and receives e-mail for entire organization Fax Sends and receives faxes for entire organization
  • 8. Servers on a Network
  • 9. Client/Server Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Computing burden can be shared among servers and clients Programming relationship between clients and servers is more complex Servers can be specialized to one particular type of task System upgrades require that all clients and servers be upgraded regardless of location Upgrading system can be done in small steps Loss of client does not stop other clients from accessing server
  • 10. Peer-to-Peer Networks
    • It is possible to set up a peer-to-peer network, where each computer in the network is on the same level as other computers, and each computer is equally responsible for overseeing the functions of the network.
    • Any two computers in a peer-to-peer network may communicate directly with one another, or they may communicate through intermediate peer computers.
    • Peer-to-peer networks may be easier to setup, but are not as efficient as client/server networks.
  • 11. Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks
  • 12. Network Layer Model
  • 13. Application Software Layer
    • Application software is the software on each computer on the network that the user sees and uses to send and receive messages and data between computers.
      • Web browsers, e- mail, etc.
    • Application layer protocols: simple mail transfer protocol ( SMTP ) for e-mail, hypertext transfer protocol ( HTTP ), Electronic data interchange ( EDI )
    • The message may also be encrypted .
  • 14. Network Connection Layer
    • The message from the application software layer is formatted according to whatever protocol will actually be used to send it over the network.
    • Commonly used protocols:
      • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
      • Ansi X 12 or EDIFACT for EDI.
  • 15. Converting Data into Packets
    • IP Address – a unique identifier given to each device directly connected to the network
    • Consists of four groups of numbers in the range 0 to 255 separated by periods or decimal points.
    • The message is divided into smaller digital units called packets, each of which contains a specific number of bytes.
  • 16. Packet Switching
    • The physical layer sends packets over telephone lines, or other media, using packet switching.
    • Packet switching - individual packets are routed through the network based on the destination address contained in each packet. With packet switching, the same data path can be shared among many computers in the network, and if a computer on the network is inoperable, the packet finds another way to reach its destination.
    • A router is a special type of computer that has the sole purpose of accepting packets and determining the best way to send them to the destination computer--that is, the router specializes in switching the packets.
    • The sequence order allows the receiving computer to reconstruct the message.
  • 17. Sending Data Between Computers on the Internet
  • 18. Data Components Layer
    • Twisted pair - consists of twisted pairs of copper wires and is similar to the wiring used in much of the existing telephone system.
    • Coaxial cable - used to transmit cable television signals into your home. It is also widely used in networks.
    • Fiber optic cable - consists of hundreds of glass fiber strands that can transmit a large number of signals at extremely high rates of speed.
    • Microwaves - high-frequency radio transmissions that can be sent between two stations
    • Wireless – several technologies that allow data to be transmitted without wires
  • 19. Copper Wire Compared to Fiber Optics
  • 20. Data Component Media 2 2 Source: Jerry Fitzgerald and Alan Dennis, Business Data Communications and Networking , 8th ed., p. 85, New York: John Wiley, 2005. Media Cost Error Rates Speed Twisted Pair Low Low Low-high Coaxial Cable Moderate Low Low-high Fiber Optics High Very Low High - very High Radio Low Moderate Low Infrared Low Moderate Low Microwave Moderate Low- Moderate Moderate Satellite Moderate Low- Moderate Moderate
  • 21. Data Rate and Bandwidth Issues
    • The data rate is measured in bits per second (bps).
    • A digital subscriber line (DSL) transmits computer data in a digital form along the same telephone line that is used for analog voice communications.
    • T-carrier circuits are dedicated digital lines that are leased from a telecommunications company to carry data between specific points.
    • The term bandwidth is often used in relationship to data rate and is a measure of how fast data flows on a transmission path.
      • Baseband - only a single digital signal is carried through the media
      • Broadband - variety of different analog signals are being transmitted..
  • 22. Baseband Compared to Broadband
  • 23. Maximum Data Rates Transmission Method Maximum Data Rate Comments Standard telephone service 56 Kbps Available everywhere Digital Subscriber line (DSL) 6 Mbps in; 640 Kbps out Becoming more available. Does not slow down as more people sign up. Cable As high as 55 Mbps but averages between 200 Kbps and 2 Mbps Cable must support two-way communication; available in many locations but slows down as more people use it in a specific location T-1 to T-4 1.544 Mbps - 274 Mbps Leased lines used for commercial telecommunication
  • 24. Local Area Networks
    • Local Area Networks (LAN) – a network connected over a small geographic area. LANs are popular for
      • Sharing information
      • Sharing resources
      • Sharing software
      • Sharing hardware
    • Most LANs are client/server networks
    • LANs can also be implemented through peer-to-peer networks
  • 25. LAN Terminology
    • Ethernet protocol – technology standards for connecting computers into a LAN.
    • A bus network uses a a main cable, called a bus , to connect all clients and servers on the network.
    • A gateway is the combination of hardware and software that connects two dissimilar computer networks.
    • A bridge connects two similar networks.
  • 26. Wireless LANs
    • Wireless LANs (WLANs) – replaces cabling with wireless transmissions that use radio frequencies to transmit information between individual computers
    • The individual computers do not communicate directly with each other; instead they communicate with a wireless network hub or router, which is also used to bridge the wireless network to traditional ethernet or provide a shared Internet connection.
    • Wi-Fi (for Wireless Fidelity) – also called IEEE 802.11b standard, the current popular standard for wireless networking supports data rate of 11 megabits/second, with a typical range through open air of about 220-1100 yards (200-1000 meters).
  • 27. Laptops Connected to a Wireless LAN
  • 28. Bluetooth and PANs
    • Personal Area Network (PAN) - a technology that enables wireless devices such as mobile telephones, computers, and PDAs to communicate over a short distance—less than 33 feet (10 meters).
    • Bluetooth - embeds a low-cost transceiver chip in each device, making it possible for wireless devices to be totally synchronized without the user having to initiate any operation.
    • The overall goal of Bluetooth might be stated as enabling pervasive connectivity between personal technology devices without the use of cabling.
  • 29. The Internet: Network of Networks
    • Originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s as a way of sharing information and resources among universities and research institutions, the Internet began its dramatic growth in 1991.
    • Today, the Internet is growing so fast that no one can say exactly how many people are using it, with estimates ranging as high as over 1.10 billion in 2005.
    • A primary reason for the explosive growth of the Internet is the tremendous amount of data, information, and resources that people can access.
  • 30. What is the Internet?
    • The Internet is a network of networks.
    • To connect to the Internet, your computer will usually first connect to a LAN through a network interface card (NIC) or to an ISP through a modem and telephone line.
    • The LAN, mainframe, or ISP is, in turn, connected to a regional network via a high-speed (T-1) telephone line. The regional network in turn links into the backbone of the Internet.
    • With each network, there is at least one host computer that is connected to the Internet with full two-way access to other computers on the Internet and with a unique Internet address.
    • Each host computer that connects to the Internet uses the TCP/IP protocol for assigning addresses and uses packet switching for exchanging information.
  • 31. Connecting to the Internet
  • 32. Addresses
    • An e-mail address is composed of two parts: the user name and the server address .
    • The user name is assigned to a person or organization that is connected to a server, and it is separated from the server address by the at symbol (@).
    • Server address (a.k.a. domain name) – the IP address of the email host. The right-most part of the address is known as the top level domain .
    • Server addresses are easy-to-remember versions of the numeric IP addresses.
  • 33. Top Level Domains Type of Organization Designation Example Commercial company .com www.ebay.com (eBay Auctions) Educational institution .edu www.uga.edu (The University of Georgia) Nonprofit organization .org www.redcross.org (The Red Cross) Network provider .net www.netscape.net (Netscape) Government .gov www.ustreas.gov (U.S. Treasury Department) Military .mil www.usmc.mil (The U.S. Marine Corps) Aerospace organizations* .aero www.ba.aero (British Airways) Businesses* .biz www.webmaster-resource.biz (Webmaster-Resource.biz, an e-commerce company) Cooperatives* .coop www.credit-cooperatif.coop (Crédit Coopératif Group in France) Various* .info www.lanka.info (Information on Sri Lanka) Museums* .museum mhp.moscow.museum (Moscow House of Photography in Russia) Various* .name www.yourname.name Professionals* .pro www.broadway.pro (Broadway theater shows)
  • 34. Internet Operations Internet Operations Purpose E-mail Asynchronously exchange electronic messages with other Internet users FTP Download files (software, documents, or data) from or upload files to a server located on the Internet Newsgroups Participate in a wide variety of online discussion groups Telnet Work on a computer elsewhere on the Internet Internet Relay Chat Synchronously exchange electronic messages with other Internet users World Wide Web Transfer text, images, video, and sound to your computer; search for information on Internet
  • 35. Use of an FTP client
  • 36. Using Telnet
  • 37. Newsgroups
  • 38. The World Wide Web
    • The Web is a body of software and a set of protocols and conventions based on hypertext and multimedia that make the Internet easy to use and browse.
    • Hypertext is a method of linking related information in which there is no hierarchy or menu system.
    • Multimedia is an interactive combination of text, graphics, animation, images, audio, and video displayed by and under the control of a computer.
  • 39. Using a Browser
    • The Web is a special type of client/server network. To access the Web, the client computer uses software called a browser that initiates activity by sending a request to a Web server for certain information. The Web server responds by retrieving the information from its disk and then transmitting it to the client.
    • Browser – application layer software used for sending requests and displaying the results
    • Hypertext markup language (HTML) - tags in World Wide Web documents that are part of a special publishing language
    • Documents on the Web are referred to as Web pages, and their location is a Web site .
  • 40. A Web Page and Source Code
  • 41. Web Pages vs. Physical Pages Characteristics Web Page Physical Page Form Electronic Ink on paper Amount of information Can extend beyond single screen Restricted to single piece of paper Types of information Can include text, images, audio, and video information Restricted to text and images Links to other pages Can be linked to other pages through hypertext Can be linked only through a separate index Creation Can be created with HTML and saved to a server Can be created using word processor and printer
  • 42. Web Addresses
  • 43. Internet Protocols Protocol Purpose http Retrieve Web pages file Retrieve files from local hard disk telnet Log on to a remote computer connected to the Internet ftp Download or upload files from an Internet FTP server mailto Send outgoing e-mail news Display news group
  • 44. Wireless Networks
    • The fastest growing trend in networks is wireless networks, both WANs and LANs.
    • Primary advantage: devices connected to the network can go virtually anywhere
    • In the case of wireless WANs, a mobile telephone client is the most popular method of connecting to the Internet and Web.
    • A number of mobile telephone companies have collaborated to create a special protocol, called Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) , just so their telephones can connect to the Internet.
    • Short Message Service (SMS ) is a service for sending text messages up to 160 characters long to mobile telephones.
    • Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) protocol is the most widely used standard mobile telephone protocol in the world, with the exception of the United States where it is gaining ground.
  • 45. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein.