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  1. Information Systems: Creating Business Value by Mark Huber, Craig Piercy, and Patrick McKeown Field Guide A: Details of IT Hardware
  2. What We Will Cover: <ul><li>Evaluating Hardware Devices </li></ul><ul><li>The Electronics of Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Input Hardware Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Output Hardware Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware Storage </li></ul>
  3. Student ROI (Return on Investment) <ul><li>Your investment of time and effort in this course will result in your being able to answer these questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What factors should knowledge workers consider, to optimize their use of an IT device? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the electronic components of IT hardware allow the transmission and storage of data? </li></ul><ul><li>What elements affect the processing capability of hardware? </li></ul><ul><li>How does internal memory work to enable processing of data into information? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the type of input hardware help to make knowledge work more productive? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should knowledge workers keep current about new developments in output hardware? </li></ul>
  4. Review of Hardware <ul><li>Recall: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware is the physical component of IT </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware consists of the electro-mechanical devices with which we can work with information </li></ul>
  5. Evaluating Hardware Devices <ul><li>Criteria of choice – the characteristics that we use to differentiate between various options. For most hardware devices these can include: </li></ul><ul><li>Cost – We want the device to be within our budget and provide the most value. </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility – We need hardware that works correctly with the other devices in the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Data and Information Needs –We want our IT devices to work with data and information in a specific way. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy –We want our devices to handle data and instructions to be accurate. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed - We want to work as quickly and efficiently as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Portability – Many times we want our devices to be portable. (Actually, we want our ability to work with information to be portable.) </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of other criteria? </li></ul>
  6. Transistors <ul><li>The primary component of computing hardware is the transistor. </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors are electronic switches that can be on or off. </li></ul><ul><li>We can assign meaning to the state of a transistor, for example: </li></ul><ul><li>On = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Off = 0 </li></ul>
  7. Binary Numbers <ul><li>A convenient number system that uses only the digits 1 and 0 is the binary number system. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic unit of the binary number system is a bit ( b inary dig it ). </li></ul><ul><li>8 bits = 1 byte = 1 character </li></ul>
  8. Relating Binary and Decimal Values <ul><li>234 10 = 200 10 + 30 10 + 4 10 = 2*10 2 + 2*10 1 + 2*10 0 </li></ul><ul><li>11101010 2 = 1*2 7 + 1*2 6 + 1*2 5 + 0*2 4 + </li></ul><ul><li>1*2 3 + 0*2 2 + 1*2 1 + 0*2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>= 128 10 + 64 10 + 32 10 + 0 10 + 8 10 + 0 10 + 2 10 + 0 10 </li></ul><ul><li>= 234 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Converting decimal numbers to binary is also straightforward (an example is given in Table A-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Using binary to encode data is at the heart of everything that goes on in a computer. </li></ul>
  9. Character Encoding <ul><li>Binary codes represent letters and numbers through character encoding. </li></ul><ul><li>Character encoding permits a specific combination of bits to represent each character. </li></ul>
  10. Encoding Schemes <ul><li>EBCDIC: original code used for mainframes. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard ASCII: original code for personal computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Unicode: used for all personal computers today. </li></ul>
  11. Comparison of Encoding Schemes Character EBCDIC ASCII Unicode A 1000 0001 0110 0001 0000 0000 0110 0001 A 1100 0001 0100 0001 0000 0000 0100 0001 Esc 0010 0111 0001 1011 0000 0000 0001 1011 % 0110 1100 0010 0101 0000 0000 0010 0101 2 1111 0010 0011 0010 0000 0000 0011 0010  Not available Not available 0000 0011 1100 0000 ⅔ Not available Not available 0010 0001 0101 0011
  12. Machine Instructions <ul><li>Hardware devices, such as a computer or PDA, execute instructions as a sequence of binary strings known as machine instructions . </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence used to represent a specific instruction is assigned in a similar manner as that used to assign binary sequences to character data (e.g., the ASCII code). </li></ul>
  13. Important Powers of Two <ul><li>Because computers use the binary number system, all measures are in powers of two. </li></ul>Power of 2 Decimal Value Description 2 3 8 Number of bits in a byte 2 8 256 The number of characters that a byte can code 2 10 1024 1 kilobyte (KB) 2 20 1,048,576 1 megabyte (MB) 2 30 1,073,741,824 1 gigabyte (GB)
  14. Processing Hardware <ul><li>The microprocessor that contains the components that make up the central processing unit (CPU). </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU works with memory to control the execution instructions and the processing of all data. </li></ul><ul><li>The performance of the CPU is key in determining the processing capability of IT devices. </li></ul>
  15. Key CPU Components <ul><li>Control Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) </li></ul><ul><li>Floating Point Unit (FPU) </li></ul><ul><li>Cache Memory and Registers </li></ul><ul><li>Clock </li></ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction Set </li></ul>
  16. CPU Functions <ul><li>Fetch – Obtain and write the next part of an instruction to the proper location of the instruction cache. </li></ul><ul><li>Decode – Send current instructions from the instruction cache to the decode unit . </li></ul><ul><li>Execute – Start processing of calculations within the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and control the flow of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Store – Write instruction results to the memory location. </li></ul>
  17. Data and Instruction Flow in CPU
  18. CPU Performance <ul><li>Three basic characteristics can be used to differentiate microprocessors: </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction Set : A set of machine language instructions that the microprocessor can execute. </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth (bus size) : The number of bits that can be processed by the CPU in a single instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Clock Speed : Expressed in megahertz (MHz) or millions of cycle per second, the clock speed controls how many instructions per second the CPU can execute. </li></ul>
  19. Internal Memory - ROM <ul><li>Read Only Memory (ROM) – permanent memory that contains instructions and data that cannot be altered. </li></ul><ul><li>The main purpose of ROM is to hold instructions that are used to control the computer’s startup processes (booting up). </li></ul><ul><li>This small set of instructions is known as the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System). </li></ul>
  20. Internal Memory - RAM <ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM) – the main short-term memory in a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to RAM is much faster than access to secondary storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory capacity is measured in terms of the bytes that may be stored. (kilobytes – KB; megabytes – MB, gigabytes – GB, terabytes - TB) </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the CPU address bus determines the maximum number of memory locations that may be addressed. </li></ul>
  21. Types of RAM <ul><li>Dynamic RAM (DRAM) – The majority of RAM. Data in an array of chips that has to be electronically refreshed several hundred times a second. If the array loses its charge, all data held there is erased. </li></ul><ul><li>Static RAM (SRAM) - Faster and less volatile than DRAM, but much more expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral RAM - often found in the peripheral components (like printers or video cards) of your information system. </li></ul>
  22. Dynamic RAM
  23. Input Hardware Components <ul><li>Input hardware: </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as the interface for entering data and information. </li></ul><ul><li>Converts data and information into binary form. </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria of choice: matches data type, accurate, efficient, ergonomic, reliable, good value. </li></ul>
  24. Types of Input Hardware <ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing devices: mouse, light pen, joystick, touch pad, trackball </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning devices: flatbed scanner, barcode reader, OCR, MICR, biometric scanner </li></ul><ul><li>Audio input: microphone </li></ul><ul><li>Optical input: digital camera, webcam </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors </li></ul>
  25. Keyboard Data Entry
  26. Input Devices
  27. Bar Code Readers <ul><li>Bar code reader: A device that reads a printed horizontal strip of vertical bars. The bar widths and spaces between the bars vary in a standard way to represent a group of decimal digits using the Universal Product Code (UPC). </li></ul>
  28. Output Hardware Components <ul><li>Output hardware: </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as the interface for receiving data and information </li></ul><ul><li>Converts data and information from binary form into more useful form for humans </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria of choice: high quality, matches intended use, accurate, efficient, ergonomic, reliable, good value </li></ul>Display System
  29. Types of Output Hardware <ul><li>Display devices: CRT, LCD, Touch-screen </li></ul><ul><li>Printers: laser, inkjet, thermal, dot-matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Plotters: flatbed, drum, electrostatic </li></ul><ul><li>Audio output: speakers, MIDI </li></ul><ul><li>Optical input: digital camera, webcam </li></ul><ul><li>Actuators </li></ul>
  30. Technology of LCD Monitors <ul><li>At the heart of a LCD monitor is a piece of liquid crystal material, placed between a pair of transparent electrodes. This combination of materials takes advantage of four facts from physics: </li></ul><ul><li>Light can be polarized. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid crystals can transmit and change polarized light. </li></ul><ul><li>Electric current can change the structure of liquid crystals. </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent materials can conduct electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>A liquid crystal can change the phase of the light that passes through it. Moreover, applying a proper voltage controls the phase change. </li></ul><ul><li>A LCD display consists of an array of cells (pixels) that can be controlled individually to create the image and can be passive-matrix or active-matrix. </li></ul>
  31. Output Devices
  32. Touch Screen Devices <ul><li>A touch screen monitor is a computer display screen that is sensitive to human touch or a special pen. </li></ul><ul><li>Kiosks, such as ATMs and self-service checkout lanes, PDAs, and newer tablet PCs frequently use touch screens. </li></ul>
  33. Storage Devices <ul><li>Storage - various non-volatile media and devices used for storing large amounts of data and instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage capacity is measured in terms of the bytes. (kilobytes – KB; megabytes – MB, gigabytes – GB, terabytes - TB) </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria of choice: capacity, access speed, portability </li></ul>
  34. Types of Storage Devices <ul><li>Hard Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Removable Magnetic Storage: Diskette, High Capacity Diskettes, Tape </li></ul><ul><li>Removable Optical Storage: CD-ROM, -R, -RW; DVD, DVD-R </li></ul><ul><li>Other: USB Flash Drives, Hard Disk Cards, Magnetic strips, smart cards </li></ul>
  35. Storage Devices
  36. Other Hardware Considerations <ul><li>Power – power supply, surge suppressor, UPS </li></ul><ul><li>Cables and connectors – parallel, serial, USB </li></ul><ul><li>Slots and Cards </li></ul>
  37. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein.

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