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Presentation on different modes of data communication
 

Presentation on different modes of data communication

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    Presentation on different modes of data communication Presentation on different modes of data communication Presentation Transcript

    • Presentation Topic:The Different Modes Of Data Communication Presented by: Simranjeet Kaur (94972346431)Simranjeet Singh (94972346433) Sunil Singh (94972346445)Tafadzwa Gonera (94972346447)
    • Contents• Introduction the data communication• Protocol models of data communication• Communication channels• Wired communication• Wireless communication• Conclusion
    • Definition of data communication• It is the physical transfer of data (a digital bit stream) over a point to point to multipoint communication channel.• Examples of such: optical fibre, copper wires, wireless communication channels ,etc.• Data is represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as voltage, microwave, etc.
    • Protocol models• The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI Model) is a way of subdividing a communications system into smaller parts called layers• A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it
    • TCP/IP Model• It is a description framework for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA• The TCP/IP model, or Internet Protocol Suite describes a set of general design guidelines and implementations of specific networking protocols
    • Definition of communication channel• It refers to either a physical transmission such as a wire or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel• A channel is way to convey a message• Modes of transmission are: simplex, half duplex or full duplex• Types of transmission are: parallel and serial
    • Wired communication• A type of LAN technology which is based on a special type of cable which is used to transfer data• The maximum data transfer rate of this technology is 10Mbps• The cables used to configure the network are special. Examples are Ethernet and wired LAN
    • Coaxial cables• It is an armored cable with sheathed plastic that contains two concentric conductors or wires• It is used primarily for TV standard-definition connection• It is used to implement computer networks like Ethernet• It is also used to connect radio networks
    • A diagram of a coaxial cable:
    • Advantages• It has sufficient frequency to support multiple channels• Each of the multiple channels offers substantial capacity• Inner conductor is in a Faraday shield, therefore noise immunity is reduced
    • Disadvantages• Signal leakage• Imperfect shield of coaxial cable can causes visible or audible interference• External current sources like switched-mode power supplies create a voltage across the inductance• Common mode current occurs when stray currents in the shield flow in the same direction as the current
    • Fiber optic cables• The fiber optical consists of several thin fibers of glass or plastic of 50 to 125 micrometers of diameter• They are used in fiber optic communications which permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwiths
    • A diagram of fiber optic cable:
    • Advantages• Data transmission is incredibly fast• Fiber optic cables are not susceptible to RF (Radio Frequency) interference• Fiber optic cables can transmit data over exceptionally long distances with much data loss• Wiretapping is more difficult compared to electrical connections
    • Disadvantages• Fiber optic cabling can cost more than double what a typical broadband connection costs• Fiber optic connections are not available in many areas. Currently, this is one of the biggest disadvantages
    • Twisted pair cables• Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors (the forward and return conductors of a single) are twisted together to cancel electromagnetic interference• Unshielded twisted pairs (UTPs) are mainly used in Ethernet and telephone systems• They are also used for indoor applications
    • A diagram of twisted pair cable:
    • Advantages• It is thin, flexible cable that is easy to string between walls• More wires can be run through the same wiring ducts.• UTP costs less per meter/foot than any other type of LAN cable
    • Disadvantages• UTPs susceptibility to electromagnetic interference greatly depends on the pair twisting schemes• In video applications that send information across multiple parallel signal wires, twisted pair cabling can introduce signaling delays known as skew which results in color defects and ghosting
    • Wireless communication• Wireless communication uses radio frequencies (RF) or infrared (IR) waves to transmit data between devices on LAN• Key components are a wireless hub, or access point used for signal distribution• Wireless signals are electromagnetic waves that can travel through a vacuum of outer space
    • Bluetooth• It is a proprietary open wireless technology standard for accessing data over short distances• Bluetooth uses short wavelength radio transmission to create PANs• Range of data transfer is power dependent i.e. 100m,10m and 1m but ranges may vary
    • Uses• Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands free headset• Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space• Wireless communication with PC IO devices• Transfer of files, contact details, calendar appointment and reminders between devices
    • Advantages• It has a high level of compatibility among devices• It will connect to devices that are not of the same model• It almost always avoids interference from other wireless devices• It is doesn’t a line of sight connection it provides ranges of up to 100meters
    • Disadvantages• Infrared has data rates of up to 4 Mbps while Bluetooth only offers 1 Mbps• The greater range and radio frequency (RF) of Bluetooth makes it susceptible to interception and attack
    • WiMAX• Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is a telecommunications protocol that provides fixed and mobile internet access• It provides up to 40 Mbps with IEEE 802.16m expected to offer up to I Gbps• It’s a standards based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access
    • Uses• Provides portable mobile broadband connectivity across cities and countries• Provides a wireless alternative to cable and DSL for last mile broadband access• Provides data, telecommunication (VoIP) and IPTV services• Provides a source internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan
    • Advantages• A single station can serve hundreds of users• Much faster deployment of new users comparing to wired networks• Speed of 10Mbps at 10kilometers within line- of-site• It is standardized, and the same frequency equipment should work together
    • Infrared• (IR) Infrared Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 0.7 and 300 micrometers, which equates to a frequency range between approximately 1 and 430THz• IR wavelengths are longer than that visible light, but shorter than that of terahertz radiation microwaves
    • Uses• It is employed in short range communication among computer peripherals and PDAs• It is used for remote controls to command appliances
    • Advantages• Low power requirements: therefore ideal for laptops, PDAs and cellphones• Low circuitry cost• Installation is easy because no proprietary hardware is needed• Higher security• High noise immunity
    • Disadvantages• Performance drops off with longer distances• It is weather sensitive: data transmission is poor is direct sunlight, rain, fog, dust ,etc.• Data rate transmission is lower than typical wired transmission• Data transmission is possible in the line of sight: transmitters and receivers should be aligned
    • Wi-Fi• Wi-Fi is a wireless technology that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed internet and network connections• Wi-Fi alliance defines Wi-Fi as any “wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the IEEE 802.11 standards”• The cornerstone of any wireless network is an access point (AP)
    • Advantages• Wi-Fi allows the deployment of LANs without wires for client devices• Deployment of WLANs reduces the costs of network deployment and expansion• Wi-Fi is becoming widespread and easily accessible in the corporate infrastructures• Different brands of access points and client network interfaces can interoperate
    • Advantages• Wi-Fi Alliance are backwards compatible• Current version Wi-Fi protected access encryption is considered secure• Powers saving mechanisms such as WMM power save improve battery operation
    • Disadvantages• Spectrum assignments and operational limitations are not consistent worldwide• The most common wireless encryption- standard, Wired Equivalent Privacy is not secure• Mobile use of Wi-Fi over wider range is limited• Congestion
    • Conclusion• Wired technology is more secure, reliable, cheaper and has higher data transmission rates over wireless technology but one huge advantage that has made wireless technology popular is mobility.
    • The End