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1. 1. IP Addressing/Subnetting Simplified Brian Sterck May 6, 2005
2. 2. Class A Subnetting Options
3. 3. Class B Subnetting Options
4. 4. Class C Subnetting Options
5. 5. Brain Benders
6. 6. More Tools…
7. 7. Practical Example
8. 8. Do we have enough addresses? <ul><li>How many addresses have been allocated? </li></ul><ul><li>How many are needed? </li></ul>
9. 9. Address Allocation <ul><li>Total Address Needed: </li></ul><ul><li>LANs = 14+10+19+23+6+17+14 = 103 </li></ul><ul><li>WANs = 4+4+4+4+4+4 = 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 103 + 24 = 127 </li></ul>
10. 10. Understanding IP Requirements <ul><li>Subnetworks on the LAN/WAN need to be issued using perfect powers of 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 2 = 4 </li></ul><ul><li>2 3 = 8 </li></ul><ul><li>2 4 = 16 </li></ul><ul><li>2 5 = 32 </li></ul><ul><li>2 6 = 64 </li></ul><ul><li>2 7 = 128 </li></ul>
11. 11. Scaling Subnets <ul><li>With a requirement of 23 nodes… </li></ul><ul><li>The next perfect power of 2 that meets this need = 32 </li></ul><ul><li>2 5 = 32 5 host bits needed </li></ul><ul><li>Last Octet is then represented as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.B.C. NNN HHHHH N=Network H=Host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11111111.11111111.11111111. 111 00000 </li></ul></ul>
12. 12. Subnetting Examples <ul><li>SubnetMask SubnetMask # Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>255.255.255.0 /24 256 (254) </li></ul><ul><li>255.255.255.128 /25 128 (126) </li></ul><ul><li>255.255.255.192 /26 64 (62) </li></ul><ul><li>255.255.255.224 /27 32 (30) </li></ul><ul><li>255.255.255.240 /28 16 (14) </li></ul><ul><li>255.255.255.248 /29 8 (6) </li></ul><ul><li>255.255.255.252 /30 4 (2) </li></ul>
13. 13. Practical Example
14. 14. Address Allocation <ul><li>Total Addresses Needed: </li></ul><ul><li>LANs = 16+16+32+32+8+32+16 = 152 </li></ul><ul><li>= /28 + /28 + /27 + /27 + /29 + /27 + /28 = 152 </li></ul><ul><li>WANs = 4+4+4+4+4+4 = 24 </li></ul><ul><li>= /30 + /30 + /30 + /30 + /30 + /30 = 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 103 + 52 = 157 </li></ul>
15. 15. Reference Points <ul><li>Use numbers, symbols, letters to represent each LAN / WAN link </li></ul><ul><li>Use some consistent method for assignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of Subnetwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone or Distribution Point </li></ul></ul>
16. 16. Assign Reference Points
17. 17. Subnetting Options
18. 18. Subnetting Options (cont.)
19. 19. VLSM and Routing Protocols <ul><li>Does your routing protocol support varying the length of the subnet mask from one interface to another? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you re-subnet a subnet differently from one interface to another and still advertise that subnetwork via RIPv1, RIPv2, OSPF, EIGRP, ISIS, BGP? </li></ul>
20. 20. Routing Protocols <ul><li>Supporting VLSM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RIP version 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EIGRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSPF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISIS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not Supporting VLSM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IGRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RIP version 1 </li></ul></ul>
21. 21. Which Routing Protocols will advertise all Networks correctly?
22. 22. Non-VLSM capable Routing Protocols will work just fine!
23. 24. Problem! <ul><li>The 192.168.20.0 /24 network gives us: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>254 Nodes Available for Assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>13 Subnetworks Required </li></ul><ul><li>Network Demands range from 4 – 32 nodes per LAN / WAN segment </li></ul>
24. 25. Start Subnetting
25. 26. Subnetting
26. 27. Subnetting
27. 28. Box Diagram Alternate