Flow changes in the 3S basin of the Mekong

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  • Large storage requirement for relatively small gain amount of energy
  • Flow changes in the 3S basin of the Mekong

    1. 1. Assessment of Flow Changes from LOGOOperations of 41 Dams in the Sekong, Sesan and Srepok Rivers of the Mekong Basin Dr. Thanapon Piman and Dr. Tom CochraneUniversity of CanterburyDepartment of Civil and Natural Resources EngineeringAsia 2012: Water Resources and Renewable Energy Development in Asia27 Mar 2012, Chiang Mai, Thailand 1
    2. 2. 3S Basin within the Mekong Basin A transboundary river basin in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Viet Nam Hydropower development is accelerating: Energy demands Significant flow contribution to the Mekong river (17-20%) An important contribution of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services: fish, habitats, and migration routes About 500,000 people are highly depend on natural resources and ecosystem services 2
    3. 3. Objectives To assess how existing and future hydropower development and operation in the 3S rivers can change flow regimes To compare changes in flows and water levels in the Mekong River  Mekong tributaries vs. Mainstream dams: which will cause greater impact? To provide strategic options for dam development and operations in the 3S basin 3
    4. 4. Simulated scenarios Levels of hydropower development2) Baseline scenario (BL) No dams5) Definite future scenario (DF) Existing and under construction dams8) Development in main tributaries scenario (DMT) DF plus proposed dams in main tributaries• Development in main and sub tributaries scenario (DMST) DMT plus proposed dams in sub tributaries or All dams 4
    5. 5. Simulated scenariosLao PDR Lao PDR Lao PDR DF DMT DMST 5
    6. 6. Simulated scenarios 6
    7. 7. Simulated Dam Operation Scenarios1. Seasonal Variation: Max. energy2. Full supply: Ecologically friendly3. Low Supply: Flood control 7
    8. 8. Hydrologic modelling SWAT model (ARCSWAT and SWAT 2005) Set up and calibration by MRC (2010) Simulation period 1986-2006 Divided into 118 subbasins 8
    9. 9. Reservoir operation modelling Hec Ressim model (Version 3.0) Set up by UC (2011) Simulation period 1986-2006 41 dams are modelled Muskingum Cunge 8 points routing 9
    10. 10. Seasonal flow changes 10
    11. 11. Flow duration curves 11
    12. 12. Impact of operation rules 12
    13. 13. Mekong mainstream dams Manwan 1995 Xiaowan 2010 Dochushan 2003 Jinghong 2007 Source: MRC 2010 13
    14. 14. 3S dams vs. mainstream dams 14
    15. 15. Changes in flows and WL on mainstream “Potential downstream impact on Tonle Sap and Mekong delta”Stung Treng Kratie 15
    16. 16. Changes in Mekong mainstream WL 16
    17. 17. Changes in Mekong mainstream flows 17
    18. 18. Conclusions 7,000 6,000 Present 5,0001) and Future Flow 4,000 3,000 2,000 m w F 3 o s ) ( / l 1,000 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec2) 3S dams Chinese dams LMB mainstream dams 18
    19. 19. Conclusions3) Site selection, dam operation and cooperation/coordination are important4) Further study needs;  Intra-daily flow fluctuation  Sediment flows and dam trapping  Ecosystem and biodiversity impacts  Social and economic impacts  Climate change 19
    20. 20. ConclusionsMaximize MaximizeHydropower BasinBenefits Benefits ??? 20
    21. 21. Acknowledgements Mekong River Commission: data and information The Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund: a joint initiative of Conservation International, l’Agence Française de Développement, the Global Environment Facility, the Government of Japan, the MacArthur Foundation and the World Bank. A fundamental goal is to ensure civil society is engaged in biodiversity conservation. 21

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