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7 Class #9 Post Colonial Development Note

7 Class #9 Post Colonial Development Note






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7 Class #9 Post Colonial Development Note 7 Class #9 Post Colonial Development Note Presentation Transcript

  • Post/neo-colonial Challenges 06/04/09
  • Upcoming Events
    • Quiz today
    • Sunday (speaking on Friday) Goshit; Guest Speaker on military rule in the post colonial Nigeria July 18 th
    • July 23 rd Quiz Canceled
    • July 28 th Final Paper due (note change)
    • July 30 th Take Home Final Distributed
    • August 1 Turn in Take Home final, in class assessment, and last day of class
  • A Legacy of Development or Underdevelopment?
    • Development
    • Infrastructure for extraction and settlers built and remained e.g.. S.A., Kenya
    • Colonialism as modernization and path to development
    • Western Medicine
    • Western Education
    • Western business practices, natural and social sciences
    • Common languages across continent
    • Diminished Slave Trade
    • Christianity brings literacy in local languages
    • New systems of governance and administration
    • Underdevelopment
    • Introduction of cash crops degrades Africa’s soil and environment
    • Colonial limitations on extraction industries destroys local industry
    • Indigenous Knowledge destroyed
    • Societies divided across imposed boundaries
    • Africans left with “foreign” institutions and separated from local ways
    • Imposition of Racism on Africa (Rhodesia, South Africa)
    • Extraction industries created dependency
  • Post/Neo-Colonial Challenges
    • Independence movements
    • Africa vs. Apartheid
    • Post/neo-Colonial governance
    • Sacred colonial borders
    • Development and post-colonialism
    • Contemporary Africa’s Post colonial assessment
  • Independence movements
    • Origins.
    • Independence through political protest
    • Independence through cooperation and mutual expediency
    • Independence through armed rebellion in settler colonies and settler states
    • Independence through both International pressure and insurgency
    • Independence of Portuguese colonies
    • Succession from an independent African state
  • Origins
    • Pan-Africansim
      • Africans in U.S. and Europe connect with U.S. civil rights leaders and West Indian Nationalists
      • Influenced by WEB Dubois and Marcus Garvey
    • Push from mission educated intellectuals
    • Organization of African Unity
    • Independence also came from uncoordinated resistance in each colony after WWII
    • Return of WWII veterans
  • Origins: Pan-Africanist Leaders
    • Kwame Nkrumah- in Gold Coast (Ghana)
      • Goal to create United States of Africa through OAU
        • Several attempts to unite from Casabblanca group
        • Monrovia group wanted to preserve order and not unite
    • Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria)
    • Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya)
    • Julius Nyerere (Tankanyika->Tanzania)
    • OAU worked toward independence of all of Africa despite eventual failures and collapse
  • Independence through political protest
    • Gold Coast->Ghana
      • Led by Kwame Nkrumah in 1947 after return from U.S.
      • Organized UGCC (133) through non-violent passive resistance with goal of self govt
      • Nkrumah imprisoned and formed CPP to orgnaize for self govt
      • 1951 British grant Self Govt and full independence in 1957
    • Does Nigeria follow this model?
  • Nigeria’s divided model of independence
    • Independence pushed for by intellectuals from the Christian South while Islamic north indifferent partly due to indirect rule
    • After independence northerners dominate govt despite their inactivity in independence
    • Southerners benefited during colonialism from education and take most govt jobs and country divided after independence
  • Independence through cooperation and mutual expediency
    • After WWII European powers drained financially and could not afford colonization
    • France and Belgium unload its colonies maintaining economic not political control
    • Cote d’Ivoire
      • Elite IC push for early independence to not be grouped with the poorer Shaelian regions of French West Africa
      • France agrees to early independence but maintains economic interests
  • Independence through armed rebellion in settler colonies and settler states
    • Kenya
      • Gikuyu after losing best land form political then militant forms of resistance
        • Land and Freedom Army (Mau Mau)
      • Insurrection fails, but British deem it too costly to maintain colony for settlers and Kenya granted independence afterwards
        • Gikuyu loyalists not freedom fighters given land and govt power
        • Role of Kenyatta’s reconciliation?
        • Some settlers given key positions in govt and today in business
      • Roots of current political crisis in Kenya
        • Displaced never get land and buy land where they squated on white owned farms
        • Rift Valley land clashes, later politics of tribal division and alliances, neo colonialism with who gained power
  • Independence through armed rebellion in settler colonies and settler states
    • Rhodesia->Zimbabwe
      • Mugabe’s ZANU PF defeat Smith’s white minority govt in 1980
      • Like Kenya land issues not addressed and at the root of current violence
      • Like Kenya settler violence extreme, but lasted longer and backed by settlers and not the British Empire.
  • Independence through International pressure and insurgency
    • After WW1 Namibia given “trust” territory status to S.A.
    • 1949 S.A. annexed Namibia and implemented apartheid policies there
    • 1966 SWAPO begins insurgency against S.A. occupation and UN declares occupation illegal
    • In 1989 combination of international pressure and insurgency S.A. agreed to hold election in Namibia and allow for independence
  • Independence of Portuguese colonies
    • Portugal: the first to gain and last to give up colonies
    • Portugal a poor European country propped up its colonial holdings through S.A. support
    • Armed struggle in most cases and international embarrassment
    • As in apa
    • rtheid struggle, African Diaspora and OAU supported struggle
    • In Cape Verde struggle supported and financed exclusively from new Diaspora in U.S.
  • Indigenous Africa vs. Apartheid
    • While much of Africa achieved independence in 1960s southern Africa under white rule including South Africa’s Apartheid and Smith’s Rhodesia
    • Commitment of OAU, African Diaspora and govts like Tanzania to ANC’s fight against apartheid
    • 1980 White ruled Rhodesia becomes Zimbabwe
    • 1989 Namibia declared independent and Mandela released
    • 1994 multiracial elections and successful reconciliation in S.A.
    • Truth and Reconciliation commission
    • End of Apartheid's legacy trickles democracy into neighboring states except Zimbabwe and crime
  • Sacred colonial borders even in independence
    • Borders largely intact from Colonialism yet unnatural in terms of ethnicity, politics, and physical Geography
    • Leaders want to maintain power and fear letting part of a country go they lose their grip on power
    • Agreement from leaders not to touch African borders, because if one goes they all go
  • Succession
    • Succession has occurred along colonial boundaries
      • Eritrea broke from Ethiopia under Italy’s colonial boundary in 1991, 1993
      • Unofficial Succession of Somaliland and Puntland from Somalia along Italian/British border
    • Succession failed without colonial borders
      • Biafra from Nigeria
      • Katanga from Zaire (DRC)
      • Forced succession of S.A.’s Bantustans
    • Will Southern Sudan achieve succession
      • CPA promotes referendum vote on independence 2011
  • Unification
    • Most Attempts at unification have failed
      • Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau
      • OAU Casablanca group
      • Continental unity a contested concept of OAU and “born again OAU”: AU
    • Tanganyika and Zanzibar did unite to form Tanzania
      • Zanzibar given autonomy, vice President, and its language became the official state language of country
      • Some problems remain in union with Zanzibar
  • Unity and Division within the state
    • Promote African unity within the state
        • Tanzania
          • Ujamaa
          • Unifying language
          • Taking away Chieftain powers
        • Ghana
    • States and Majimboism
      • Nigeria: State Creation
      • Kenya: attempted Majimboism
  • Post/neo-Colonial governance
    • Newly independent states inherited laws, and institutions of colonial power with all of its imperfections
    • Western and Soviet backed neo-colonial rulers accumulate personal wealth at the expense of people
    • Anti-colonial resistance used as the excuse to do the same
    • Post-neo/colonial human rights challenges
  • Inherited laws, and institutions of colonial power with all of its imperfections
    • African governments run on former colonial state with state model suited toward taking from the people instead of providing for the people
      • In IC and Kenya settler businesses remain and some hold key positions in govt
      • Zaire independence features foreigners in officer corps
    • Former colonizers often run the economic affairs of new state with puppet African leaders in power
  • Neo-colonialism and Soviet imperialism
    • Zaire (DRC)’s Mobutu and Kenya’s Moi propped up by former colonizer and USA during Cold War
    • Ethiopia’s Dreg govt Mengestu supported by Soviet imperialism
    • Cold War fought in Africa over Mozambique, Angola, and Namibia
    • Present day neo-colonialism over economic control as well as war on terror
      • British criticism over Kenya’s Anglo-Leasing Scandal
      • Continued French intervention in its former colonies
      • USA’s previous support for Ethiopia’s Meles
  • What about the colonizers and China?
    • Good or Bad
      • HR consequences where government is not responsive
      • Or autonomy and a chance for a fair shake?
  • Anti-imperialist resistance causing HR Woes
    • Sudan’s cry against imperialism as justification for restrictions on peace keepers in Darfur
    • Mugabe’s Zimbabwe as the anti-colonial state as it takes from the people
    • Africa’s Asian population as scapegoats
      • Expulsion of Asians from Uganda under Amin
      • Riots against Indians, Lebanese, and Arabs throughout the continent
  • Human Rights of “independent” Africa
    • State designed to be served (extract wealth) rather than to serve
    • Police often designed to maintain established order rather than fight crime
    • Presence of military governments
      • Sometimes provide stability but others chaos
    • Violations of first generation rights violated in various states through disappearances, arbitrary arrest ext and consolidation of civil institutions in authoritarian govts
    • Labor, Health, Indigenous peoples’ rights also at stake in post colonial Africa from state and economic forces
      • AIDS as a HR issue
    • More Democratization emerging after 1990s although economic democratization in reverse
  • Is Human Rights itself the appropriate term?
    • Justice or Human rights?
    • Duties
    • African Court of Human Rights
    • Human Rights coming from former colonizers perspective
    • Why has the ICC only gone after Africans?
  • Development and post-colonialism
    • Independence occurs in post Marshal Plan and Rostow optimism and the height of the Cold War
    • Capitalist Development Paths
    • Popular Socialist paths
    • Afro-Marxist paths
    • But SAPs of 1990s reordered development plans, lack of control over commodity prices, and inconsistent infrastructure limit post-colonial development
  • Post-Colonial optimism
    • Optimism from both East, West, and South
      • East (Warsaw pact) saw independent Africa as part of the master plan for Communism
      • West particularly USA excited because of new markets to be opened and spread its way of life
        • Educational airlifts
        • Micro-Peace Corps and macro-support from model based economic consultation
      • South (continent) to taste the fruits of Africa’s wealth
        • Paid students
        • Educated elite guaranteed a job weather you work or not In some cases
        • Life is great for a while
  • Capitalist Development Paths
    • Economic mode prior to independence
      • Most sectors controlled by Europeans although Indians, Arabs and some Africans allowed to participate in small capitalist ventures
    • Commonly referred to as “liberal/free market”
    • After Independence pattern continued with foreign and domestic investment as development strategy in some countries
      • Kenya
      • Cote’d’Ivoire
    • In some cases capitalist ventures become part of state and other cases regulation inhibits business
  • Popular Socialist paths
    • Several countries believed that capitalism was incompatible with Africa’s communal lifestyle
    • Popular (African) socialism as alternative by
      • Ghana’s Pan Africanist socialism
      • Tanzania’s Ujamaa
    • Emphasis on rural development and eliminating disparities between classes
    • Ended due to coups, SAPS, and inability to finance itself
  • Afro-Marxist paths
    • With Support of Warsaw Pact massive state driven Marxist projects from a command and control economy
    • State Farms and Factories modeled on Soviet system
      • Ethiopia’s Mengistu Dreg govt
      • Angola
    • Propped up by Soviets and Warsaw pact
    • When Soviet Union collapsed, economic liberalization made a condition of aid and loans
  • Limits to Africa’s post colonial development
    • Vampire states failed economies in some cases
    • Investment misguided
    • SAPS had many negative effects
    • infrastructure not present or declined
    • Mismanagement of Swiss bank accounts enriches Europe not Africa
    • Inconsistent support from West and East
    • No control of commodity prices
    • Unpredicted civil wars
  • Assessment of post/neo-development era
    • Advances
    • Increasing democratization and first gen. HR in Africa since 1990s
    • End of Apartheid and formal Colonialism
    • Success of individual Africans primarily in new Diaspora
    • Success of African enterprises
    • Health advances (Polio)
    • Models conflict transformation
    • Rediscovery of IK
    • Strength of People’s creative survival strategies
    • Declines
    • Increase in civil wars (sl, Liberia, Somalia, Rwanda)
    • Infrastructure
    • Education and human capital
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Collapse of alternative development strategies
    • Increase indebtedness means a loss of economic independence