6 Class #8 Africas Colonial Legacy On Development


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6 Class #8 Africas Colonial Legacy On Development

  1. 1. Today’s Class <ul><li>Africa's colonial legacy on development </li></ul>06/04/09
  2. 2. Upcoming Events <ul><li>July 16 th Decide whether to cancel quiz </li></ul><ul><li>July 18 th Dr. Sunday Goshit on Military regimes in Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>July 23 rd Quiz #4 </li></ul><ul><li>July 25 th Development Proposal Due </li></ul><ul><li>July 30 th Take Home Final Distributed </li></ul><ul><li>August 1 Take Home Final Due and last class </li></ul>06/04/09
  3. 3. 06/04/09
  4. 4. Africa’s Colonial Legacy <ul><li>Events leading up to the Berlin Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Scramble for Africa: The Berlin Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial Economic Policies </li></ul><ul><li>A Legacy of Development or Underdevelopment? </li></ul>06/04/09
  5. 5. Events leading up to the Berlin Conference <ul><li>Inland Africa virtually unknown to West at beginning of 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>British abolish slave trade 1807 and slavery in 1834 while U.S.A. and Brazil end slavery in 1860-80s. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in slave trade weakened coastal African slave trading states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms of trade in other commodities forced independent traders to be middlemen for large trading companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European explorers report inland findings to excited merchants and industrialists about commerce opportunities in interior </li></ul>06/04/09
  6. 6. Events Leading up the Berlin Conference: “Civilizing Mission” <ul><li>Missionaries on “Civilizing Mission” push to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>combat slave trade , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start schools , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support development of commerce , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but primarily spread the gospel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early mission work central to belief that colonialism was charitable undertaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bible and the Gun” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember “White Man’s Burden” </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  7. 7. Scramble for Africa: The Berlin Conference <ul><li>By 1880 90% of Africa ruled by Africans, but in two decades only Liberia? And Ethiopia remain independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to 1880 only a few remnants of “slave castles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Pre-Berlin Holdings: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French; Senegal: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British; Gambia, Sierra Leone, S.A.: and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese; Angola and Mozambique </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  8. 8. Scramble for Africa: The Berlin Conference <ul><li>Berlin Conference 1884-1885 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European powers carve up the map of African to keep peace among themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Annexations would not be recognized unless effectively occupied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scramble continues with French through west Africa; British with “Cape to Cairo”; Portuguese move inland from their established coastal territory; Italians move to Somalia and Eritrea; and Ethiopia expands its empire while defeating Italians; Spanish in Equatorial Guinea; and King Leopold’s country to Belgium </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  9. 9. Scramble for Africa: The Berlin Conference <ul><li>Scramble begins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French expand in upper Niger region; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Leopold in the Congo basin; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British from “Cape to Cairo”; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans into Togo, Cameroon, Tanganyika and South West Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scramble made possible by advances in Gatlin Gun </li></ul>06/04/09
  10. 10. Scandal in the Scramble <ul><li>African indigenous resistance, ie Maji Maji War </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries divided ethnic groups and traditional political units ie Kanen-Borno by Germans, French, and British </li></ul><ul><li>Uncivilized Colonial behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British concentration camps in Boer War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genocides by Germans in SW Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King Leopold’s “heart of darkness” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human game hunting in Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1950s Concentration camps in the Mau Mau War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflict between the missionaries and the playboys </li></ul><ul><li>Scramble Altered by WWI </li></ul>06/04/09
  11. 11. Colonial Governance <ul><li>Colonial Governance reflected orders from euro-metropole </li></ul><ul><li>Different by colonizer </li></ul><ul><li>Direct vs. Indirect rule </li></ul><ul><li>White Settler interests vs. home country interests </li></ul><ul><li>Control of indigenous population at the expense of good governance </li></ul>06/04/09
  12. 12. Colonial Governance reflected orders from euro-metropole <ul><li>Colonial plans developed in London, Paris, Brussels, Rome, and Lisbon without local knowledge of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Job of local colonial administrator to interpret and implement those plans in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial governance designed to maintain law and order and development of interest to metropole </li></ul><ul><li>No plans for eventual African independence </li></ul>06/04/09
  13. 13. Governance differed by colonizer sometimes by Geography <ul><li>French, Belgians and Portuguese sponsored “assimilated” status to local ruling class </li></ul><ul><li>British kept governance at a distance from people although did implement some indirect rule especially in northern Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>Germans even more distant with German direct rule with policies against Africans speaking German in some colonies </li></ul>06/04/09
  14. 14. Direct vs. Indirect rule <ul><li>Some colonies develop direct rule, but most developed “Indirect Rule” </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local elites or traditional rulers rule on behalf colonial gov’t to European needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often indirect rule excuse for little development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where “cheifs” did not exist they were appointed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gikuyu and Ibgo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tax collectors and other “popular tasks” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Wahiriu </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  15. 15. Almost Indirect rule <ul><li>French and Portuguese establish “assimilated class” from Slave and lower caste groups </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes exacerbated class inequality e.g. Rwanda/Burundi </li></ul><ul><li>Liberia: a republic ruled indirectly through colonization of America’s Diaspora </li></ul>06/04/09
  16. 16. Colonization or Occupation <ul><li>Colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of settlement from the mother country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Kenya, S.A., Rhodesia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by administrative functions, military, economic exploitation, but not wide scale settlement from “mother” country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Nigeria, Gambia, Ghana </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  17. 17. White Settler interests vs. mother country interests <ul><li>At times colonial gov’t served the settlers when it coincided with colonial interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial segregation for settler privilege </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inducing and controlling labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on commerce for non-whites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other times “Colonial State” protected “natives” against exploitation from settlers to ensure stability and often food security </li></ul><ul><li>Settler rebellion in Rhodesia and settler legislature in Kenya </li></ul>06/04/09
  18. 18. Control of indigenous population at the expense of good governance <ul><li>Governance meant to control territory not provide for common good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Police meant to destroy threats to power and promote public safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial officers get rich grabbing resources, land, and money while providing little in the way of development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption the norm (Leopold’s fiefdom, stories of Nairobi city council) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often principle function of gov’t was collection of taxes </li></ul>06/04/09
  19. 19. Colonial Economic Policies <ul><li>Destruction of local industry and economy through restrictions in certain types of commerce ie Kano Nigeria textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated African extraction industry into global economy with profit depending on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of the most desirable land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to overseas markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap African labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creation of extraction infrastructure with outward leading roads, rails, and ports </li></ul>06/04/09
  20. 20. Colonial Economic Policies: continued <ul><li>Hut Tax and Cash incentives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where labor could not be subtly persuaded through taxation, forced labor occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where there was little white settlement e.g. Ghana, Nigeria, cash crop production encouraged or coerced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive: cash in hand for wealth and purchase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative: need cash to pay hut tax </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  21. 21. Migrant Labor <ul><li>Hut tax in place even where economy not providing cash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions known as “Labor reserve” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. northern Uganda, western Kenya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrant labor goes to mines, white owned farms, cash crop farms, some urban employment but…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pass laws, Kipande </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  22. 22. Forced Labor <ul><li>Congo Free State </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya and Rhodesia: What choice do squatters have? </li></ul><ul><li>Liberia and rubber </li></ul><ul><li>Mazrui: “Forced labor practices of slavery and colonialism destroyed African concept as work as a process of self-fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Labor seen as retrograde to civilization by many Africa’s through colonial situation </li></ul>06/04/09
  23. 23. Colonial cultural under-development <ul><li>Racist notions trickle down to cultural projects of education and missions encouraging Africans to forget their own heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of achievements such as Zimbabwe or Gedhi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European assimilation project through boarding schools creating “colonized” minds and self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative reactions toward “mother tongues” and local customs </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished opportunities for African dev. practices </li></ul>06/04/09
  24. 24. A Legacy of Development or Underdevelopment? <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure for extraction and settlers built and remained e.g S.A., Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism as modernization and path to development </li></ul><ul><li>Western Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Western Education </li></ul><ul><li>Western business practices, natural and social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Common languages across continent </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>New systems of governance and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Underdevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of cash crops degrades Africa’s soil and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial limitations on extraction industries destroys local industry </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Knowledge destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Societies divided across imposed boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Africans left with “foreign” institutions and languages and separated from local ways </li></ul><ul><li>Imposition of Racism on Africa e.g. S.A., Rodesia </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction industries created dependency </li></ul>06/04/09
  25. 25. Remember Walter Rodney on colonialism <ul><li>Rodney: Colonialism as a system for underdeveloping Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Africans restricted from certain industries by colonialism and forced to work as labor in primary extraction industries </li></ul><ul><li>Profits from colonialism reinvested in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial educational process fosters underdevelopment of Africa’s intellectual resources and indoctrinated Africans to work for European development at the expense of local development </li></ul><ul><li>Labor taken away from African development to be wasted on European extraction of wealth from continent </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial enterprises destroy local industries </li></ul>06/04/09