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3 Cultural Diversity And Culture Change Class#4
 

3 Cultural Diversity And Culture Change Class#4

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    3 Cultural Diversity And Culture Change Class#4 3 Cultural Diversity And Culture Change Class#4 Presentation Transcript

    • Cultural Diversity and Culture Change in Africa 06/04/09
    • Cultural Diversity in Africa
      • Africa as one vs. Africa as many
      • Africa is not a country and African states are often not a nation
      • Ethnicity vs. Tribe
      • Ethnicity vs. Caste: Rwanda/Burundi
      • Language: Few dominant with a multitude of languages
      • Ghai, Allah, Christo: Africa’s Triple Heritage
      • Social Class: WaBenzi au Wananichi
      06/04/09
    • African Unity vs. Diversity
      • Scholars like Jacques Maquet depict Africanity: as several characteristics shared P41
      • Other view of fragmented Africa with diverse exotic and mysterious incompatible differences
      • Neither view right where some similarities mainly out of shared colonial experience and differences out of differing cultures, experiences, and geographies
      • Previous scholars characterize Africa though orientalist view
    • Africa is not a country and African states are often not a nation
      • Some western views on Africa put continent as “one country”, although some pan-African attempts have tried to make this so
      • At the same time many nations (ethnic groups) exist within the African state with their loyalties at the sub state level instead of at the state level
      • Africa has a few nation-state fits, Somalia, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Botswana, although the nation spills across the state border and other internal state divisions might exist
      • Most states such as Cameroon, Tanzania, and Nigeria have hundreds of ethnic groups
      • In Nigeria and Kenya a few large ethnic groups dominate the smaller tribes in politics
    • Ethnicity vs. Tribe
      • Ethnicity is a group sharing a loyalty and perceived common origin either real or socially constructed.
      • Ethnicity replaced “Tribe” and ethnic problems replaced “Tribalism” with tribe connotation primitive feuding
        • In some cases ethnicity referred to as ethnic nation
      • Some “tribes” colonial (Igbo in Nigeria) or even post-colonial (Kalenjin, Kenya) social constructions
      • “ Tribalism” essential in justifying colonialism and using divide and rule during colonialism
      • Ethnic labeling and ethnic loyalty for advancement
    • Ethnicity vs. Caste: Rwanda/Burundi
      • Tutsi ruling class and Hutu peasant class in feudal system but share same culture/language
      • Belgium/German colonialism turn caste into ethnicity
      • Post colonial gov’t continue social construction
      • Hutu and Tutsi in exile create “mythico-history” (Malkki)
      • Socially constructed ethnicity creates multi-state war and genocide
    • Language: Few dominant with a multitude of languages
      • 2000 African Languages although in decline
        • Niger-Congo group (map 49)
          • 800-1000 in Bantu subgroup
        • Afro-Asiatic
        • Nilo-Saharan
        • Khoisan
      • Growth of Lingua Francas
        • Swahili, Hausa, Arabic, Malinke (Senegal),
      • pidgins,
        • Creole (English w other colonial and African tongues spoken in Liberia and Sierra Leone)
      • Official post-colonial languages (English and French are expanding, but Spanish and Portuguese in decline in Africa.
    • African identity is complex, multilayered and multilingual 06/04/09 African (multilingual) Nigerian (English, Yoruba, Igbo) Igbo (Igbo) Member of Asaba hometown association (Igbo) University graduate (English) western educated professional (English, maybe French too) Non-indigene “settler” in Ibadan (Yoruba)
    • Ghai, Allah, Christo: Africa’s Triple Heritage
      • Religion often central to African life
      • Indigenous religions although in some cases Islam and Christianity is the indigenous religion
        • Ethiopia (Christianity)
        • Swahili coast (Islam)
        • Syncretism: where Christianity and Islam mix with indigenous religious practice
    • Allah, Christo and Africa
      • Islam
        • spread through missionary activity and trade
        • Very diverse faith within Africa (Sufi in Senegal, Taha in Sudan)
        • Often accommodated local culture
        • Sometimes seen as African but sometimes seen as connected to extremism (Shira)
      • Christianity
        • spread through missionary activity and colonialism
        • Also diverse practices (Zionism)
        • Often does not accommodate local culture
        • Sometimes seen as colonial
    • Islam and Christianity: Tensions and Accommodations
      • Both religions spread through colonialism as both colonial resistance and colonial penetration
      • Tensions over Shria in Nigeria and Sudan
      • Historic cooperation, but often U.S. war on terror creeping into Africa, ie 3 terror attacks in Kenya where historic cooperation between Christians and Moslems
    • Social Class: WaBenzi au Wananichi
      • Wide gap between rich and poor
      • Sometimes due to remnants of colonialism with local elite handling former colonizer’s job
      • State Bourgeoisie
      • Widening gap due to SAPs
      • Urban-rural class connections
        • Big man in village from urban wealth
        • Growing urban poor pushed to city
        • HTAs
    • Other social classes
      • Petty capitalist often middle class sometimes Indian or Lebanese
      • Lower status employees
      • Informal sector poor
      • unemployed
    • Cultural Change and Re-constructing Culture
      • Culture is being contested
      • Culture is a social construct
      • Culture’s debate who they are and cannot easily be described with attributes
      • “ Timeless” traditions are recent constructions: Maasai
      • “ Civil Society’ and “NGOs”: Africa’s most recent cultural construction
      • African Culture through Art
      06/04/09
    • Culture is contested
      • Various factions in a society
        • Age sets
        • Genders
        • ‘ innovators”
        • traditionalists
      06/04/09
    • Culture is a social construct
      • Africa is a European social construction
        • Once referred to as Ethiopia or the Sudan (Arabic for land of the Blacks)
        • Africa only referred to north Africa, the former Roman province prior to the European naming of the continent
      06/04/09
    • Culture Box
      • Previously culture seen as attributes that describe a people
      • Currently scholars describe how culture is contested by factions within a society asserting their view on society
        • Young innovators
        • Traditionalist
        • Men
        • Women
        • Individual and groups
    • “ Timeless” traditions
      • Previously African cultures seen as static unchanging
      • Historically societies constantly forming and evolving
        • Pre-Colonial
        • Colonial
        • Post colonial
      • “ Timeless” Maasai did not emerge until 18 th or 19 th century and only in recent history did they abandon farming for their “timeless” pastoral life
    • “ Civil Society’ and “NGOs
      • Space between “culture” and the “state”
      • Non-governmental Organizations
        • Health needs
        • Social needs
        • Cultural needs
        • Rights needs
      • Religious organizations
      • Non-party political opposition
    • African Culture through Art
      • Literature in colonial languages
      • Literature in African languages: Swahili, Kikuyu, Yoruba and Igob
        • Ngugi Wa Thiongo
        • Chinua Achebe
      • Visual and performing arts representing Africa’s cultures
      • http://www.uiowa.edu/%7Eafricart/Burkina_mask_catalogue/index.htm
      • Often art for ceremony and purpose, not art for art sake