10 Maendeleo Ya Mijini Na Shamba Urban And Rural Development

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  • 10 Maendeleo Ya Mijini Na Shamba Urban And Rural Development

    1. 1. Maendeleo ya Mjini na Shambani: Development Challenges of Urban and Rural Africa 06/04/09
    2. 2. Relationships between Urban and rural African realms <ul><li>Rural to Urban connections within the family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban homes support rural homes with income and access to medicine and other social services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural Homes integral to urban food security and acculturation of children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rural/Urban Development relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor migration remittance strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rural Strategies in modern cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swaziland’s cities empty on weekends </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    3. 3. Origins of Africa’s cities <ul><li>Indigenous Origins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palace towns of west Africa (Timbuktu, Great Zimbabwe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade Towns ie Swahili City States (Mombassa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic influenced “quartered” cities (P243) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes built on Indigenous city with city left intact Kano, Nigeria and Mombasa, Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others rebuilt with European style (French) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities built from Scratch in British/Boer settler colonies, (Nairobi, and “Outcast Capetown”, J.Westren 1981) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-colonial Origin: Abuja, Nigeria </li></ul>06/04/09
    4. 4. Origins of Africa’s Cities 06/04/09
    5. 5. Rapid urban growth in post-colonial period <ul><li>Restrictions on movement to the colonial and Apartheid city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kipande (labor registration system in east Africa) and pass laws in Apartheid S.A. and southern Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforced segregation along ethnic African, Asian and European lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1960 only 1 city of < 1million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Johannesburg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today 30 cities <1M </li></ul><ul><li>Today Africa is fastest urbanizing region in world </li></ul>06/04/09
    6. 6. Africa’s rapid urban growth <ul><li>Although it has the world’s fastest urban growth rates, the majority of Africans remain rural </li></ul><ul><li>At independence only Lagos, Ibadan, Kinshasa, and Dakar had more than 300,000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now 30 “million plus” cities South of Sahara </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Despite growth rates Africa’s cities are not among the world’s largest </li></ul><ul><li>Africa has the least number of urban dwellers globally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/world/06/urbanisation/html/urbanisation.stm </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    7. 7. Characteristics of urban Africa <ul><li>Primate cities-Dominant population, and political and economic power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nairobi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kampala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Khartoum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinshasa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presence of Shock cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lagos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes Cities grow in population rather than development with push factors greater than pull factors </li></ul>06/04/09
    8. 8. Economic vitality of urban Africa varies <ul><li>Stagnating Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freetown, Mogadishu, Luanda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declined yet making comeback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kampala, Accra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biashara Beehives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nairobi, Abidjan, Lagos, and Douala </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disparities exist within Africa’s cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muthiaga and Mathare </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    9. 9. 06/04/09
    10. 10. Structure of African urban economies <ul><li>Primary industries (extraction) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Production (Processing) </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary Activities (services and sales) </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary activities (Govt and admin services) </li></ul><ul><li>The “fifth sector”: Jua Kali Sector </li></ul>06/04/09
    11. 11. The “fifth sector”: Jua Kali Sector <ul><li>Up to 90% in Jua Kali Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Often overlooked by social scientists in development studies </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale yet labor intensive manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Petty trading </li></ul><ul><li>Kumi Kumi brewing </li></ul><ul><li>Matatus, Daladalas, Mammy Wagons </li></ul><ul><li>Day laborers in construction </li></ul><ul><li>House girls </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Mitumba (Second Hand clothes selling) </li></ul>06/04/09
    12. 12. Expansion of both Jua Kali and “job seeker” sector <ul><li>Informal economy grows after being “SAP”ed by IMF/WB </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of informal economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No social benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No tax collected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to organized crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban planning issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat to formal small businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hawker evictions </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
    13. 13. Access to Services <ul><li>If you are poor you actually pay more </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richer get relatively affordable piped water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor walk to public pump with a Jeri Can and still pay more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor women responsible for getting water </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    14. 14. Access to Services <ul><li>Cooking and household energy needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich have electricity or piped gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor have to use expensive charcoal and pay to have batteries charged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Garbage and waste removal services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich often given municipal waste removal with flush toilets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban poor improvise yet still pay fines and fees </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    15. 15. Access to Services <ul><li>Opportunity more expensive for poor </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich pay dearly for security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor at constant risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich often have connections and access to health schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor pay out of pocket </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are mobile phones becoming an equalizing technology? </li></ul>06/04/09
    16. 16. Housing <ul><li>Urban Africa’s Dual Face </li></ul><ul><li>Elite Housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial then governing elite with some privately made wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Class Housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some still govt provided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public housing schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ SAP”ed away </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Income housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barracks housing for workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family slums (Kiberia, Mathare) </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    17. 17. Squatting, renting or owning <ul><li>Poor squat or rent or both at the same time in the slums </li></ul><ul><li>Rich tend to own, but often rent in the city </li></ul><ul><li>Most purchase in cash although housing finance schemes becoming more common especially for rich </li></ul><ul><li>Poor don’t benefit from past housing subsidies </li></ul>06/04/09
    18. 18. Africa’s Dual face <ul><li>Rural vs. Urban </li></ul><ul><li>Rich vs. Poor </li></ul><ul><li>Western vs. Indigenous </li></ul>06/04/09
    19. 19. An urban bias to development? <ul><li>Education pushes people toward “white collar” non-Agrarian life </li></ul><ul><li>Best services e.g. health care in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Govt, Supranational orgs, and NGOs base themselves in primate cities </li></ul><ul><li>Access to electricity, internet, and other modern amenities </li></ul><ul><li>Brody’s Swaziland exception </li></ul>06/04/09
    20. 20. Rural Development <ul><li>Rural life serves not only for food production but as a way of life and acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Food Production </li></ul><ul><li>Development and Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Food Security/insecurity in both urban and rural settings </li></ul>06/04/09
    21. 21. Indigenous Food Production: Fishing, Hunting, and Gathering <ul><li>At most basic level Fishing, Hunting and Gathering done by few societies in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>!Kung San of Kalahari </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mbuti (Pygmies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But these practices conducted to supplement diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing: Fante (Ghana) and Luo (E.A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush meat: Throughout W.A. and Wazungu and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplemental herbs and medicine </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    22. 22. Indigenous Food Production: Crop Farming <ul><li>Most common form of labor and food production </li></ul><ul><li>Often gendered </li></ul><ul><li>Remember soil types and Bionomes from physical Geography P86 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting Cultivation on Forest edge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush fallow with intercropping and today alley cropping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent cultivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rich volcanic soil of east/central Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of fertilizer </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
    23. 23. Livestock Production <ul><li>Nomadic Pastorlism most common form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somali, Masaai, Dinka, Nuer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle seen as consumable capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuer use cattle as currency lifeblood that connects families (Hutchinson, 1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in most areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In true form in Amhara region of Ethiopia </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    24. 24. Conflicts in Food production <ul><li>Pastoralist Vs. Permanent Cultivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darfur: “Arab” Pastoralists vs. “African” Farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pastoralist vs. Pastoralist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle raiding among Turkana, Dinka, Nuer, Karamojong in northern Uganda, Kenya, and southern Sudan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture vs. wildlife conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nyandarua District, Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White Settler vs. Indigenous land user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya, Zimbabwe, S.A., Namibia, and others </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    25. 25. Conflicts and Human Rights between indigenous food production groups <ul><li>While these conflicts are not new the scale of these conflicts is at new heights. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in group structure due to processes of colonialism, neo/post-colonialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of Guns and small arms from current conflicts and cold war proxy wars? </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    26. 26. Colonial Changes to food production <ul><li>Introduction of cash crop mono-cropping that robbed nutrients from soil, although it was initially seen as positive (cotton) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Pastures for Pastoralists to ranching </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of mechanized farming </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of farm labor due to urban migration and work on white farms to pay taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of land due to colonial practices </li></ul>06/04/09
    27. 27. Post-Colonial Ag development <ul><li>Neglect of AG sector after colonialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban bias of services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban food subsidies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imports and “Rendile” situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State Farms (Ujamaa) </li></ul><ul><li>Land reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya (root of rift valley clashes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zimbabwe (slow reform then today) </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    28. 28. World Bank’s Integrated Agricultural Development Projects IADP <ul><li>Focused on innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid seeds, “green revolution”, chemical fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supposed to bring higher yields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also improved local services and infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built on diffusion model from “progressive” farmer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rich benefited and bought up land of poor </li></ul><ul><li>Brought debt because of loan finance </li></ul>06/04/09
    29. 29. Food in/security: challenges of farm and city <ul><li>Abnormal food shortage (famine) </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic under-nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical or social problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger in the land of plenty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban insecurity sometimes alleviated by rural family sources of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Food Aid displacing impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenyan horticulture masked by aid </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    30. 30. Famine <ul><li>Crop failures </li></ul><ul><li>Drought (Zambia and Swaziland) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil wars </li></ul><ul><li>Border closures </li></ul><ul><li>Famine becomes more deadly as indigenous systems erode </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia and Malawi established grain reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced to sell because of SAPs </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    31. 31. Chronic undernutrition <ul><li>Found even in food exporters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya and S.A. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affects differ by class and gender </li></ul><ul><li>“ trapped” without fertilizer and seed </li></ul><ul><li>Crops that give poor yeilds </li></ul><ul><li>Crops that give poor nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Affects both rural and urban because of interdependence of rural and urban household </li></ul>06/04/09
    32. 32. Why food insecurity? <ul><li>Population growth and environment yet Machokos example shows environment more carefully managed with more people </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of small farmer to adapt? </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong policies </li></ul><ul><li>As Ag commodities dependency increases and no longer a crop problem but money problem </li></ul>06/04/09
    33. 33. Vicious Cycle and Food for urban and rural households <ul><li>Remember the urban/rural inter-dependence on food </li></ul><ul><li>Urban rural exchange of services for food security </li></ul><ul><li>Urban rural exchange of western culture for indigenous acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>All these are effected by vicious cycle (AIDS, POVERTY, INSECURITY) </li></ul>06/04/09
    34. 34. New HIV infections AIDS illness and deaths Family impoverishment Family stress/collapse Hunger School drop-out Child Vulnerability Abuse/ exploitation Trans-generational Transmission of Poverty

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