DATA ANALYSIS1. Describe the trends that occurred in the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate with cold stimulus. How might these responses be useful in a “fight or flight” situation?- When the levels fluctuate it stimulates thesenses therefore pushing the body onedirection or another.
2. As a vital sign, blood pressure is an indicator ofgeneral health. A high blood pressure (140/90 orhigher) increases the risk of cardiovasculardisease and strokes. Collect the systolic anddiastolic pressures for the class and calculate theaverage for each. Rate the class average bloodpressure using the follow scale: class average isabove high. 143/84 Blood Pressure Category 140/90 or higher High 120-139/80-89 Pre-hypertension 119/79 or below Normal
3. How long after immersion did yourheart rate reach its maximum value?Explain the physiologic mechanism thatled to this change in heart rate.- About 15 seconds. The nerves felt thechange n temp, and the loss of body heat,started pumping more blood to generatemore heat to compensate for the loss whilstthe foot is in the ice water.
4. Describe the changes in heart rate thatoccurred after the maximum value. How canyou explain the minimum heart rate value?How would you explain the heart ratevariations seen in the remainder of theexperiment?- The heart rate receded to its baseline state.The minimum heart rate value is taken whenthe body is stress free and at a physical restpoint, therefore using the least amount of bloodpossible. More activity = larger blood flow.
5. How long after the maximum heart ratedid it take to arrive at your rebound heartrate? What can you say about the relativespeed of physiologic response to astimulus vs. the speed of mechanismsthat are designed to maintainhomeostasis?- 140 seconds. Takes time to slow down thereaction that was already flowing, similar tostopping a fully loaded train traveling at 60mph. It can’t stop on a dime.
• 6. If the heart rate is too slow there is inadequate blood pressure to maintain perfusion to the brain. This can lead to loss of consciousness (fainting). Keeping in mind the autonomic nervous system responses that you observed in this experiment, explain the sequence of events that results in a severely frightened person fainting.• - Person becomes frightened, heart rate drops, blood levels drop, little blood reaches brain, brain restarts, if you will, and boots back up to speed to reach an adequate blood flow level.
Lab 2 Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise
DATA Table 1- Baseline Blood PressureSystolic Diastolic Mean Pulse (bpm)pressure pressure arterial(mm Hg) (mm Hg) pressure (mm Hg)123 mm Hg 75 mm Hg 99 mm Hg 79 bpm
Table 2- Blood Pressure After ExerciseSystolic Diastolic Mean Pulsepressure pressure arterial (bpm)(mm Hg) (mm Hg) pressure (mm Hg)135 mm Hg 57 mm Hg 61 mm Hg 92 bpm
Table 3- Heart RateCondition GoodResting heart rate (bpm) 92Maximum heart rate 75(bpm)Recovery time (s) 2 minutes
DATA ANALYSIS1. Describe the trends that occurred in thesystolic pressure, diastolic pressure, meanarterial pressure and pulse with exercise.Assume that the stroke volume increased from75 mL/beat to 100 mL/beat. Use this informationand the change in pulse with exercise tocalculate the change in cardiac output (strokevolume heart rate) that occurred per minute.• 75 * 92= 6900• 100*92= 9200• 2300 cardiac output/minute
2. Pulse pressure is the difference betweensystolic pressure (peak pressure during activecontraction of the ventricles) and diastolicpressure (the pressure that is maintained evenwhile the left ventricle is relaxing). Describe thechange in pulse pressure seen with exercise.Which component of the blood pressure is mostresponsible for this change?- The systolic pressure went up by 8 mm Hg whilethe diastolic pressure went down by 18 mm Hg. Thepulse pressure went up by 14 bpm after exercise.The component of the blood pressure that is mostresponsible is the contraction of the heart gotstronger thus making the pressure to go up.
3. A change in pulse pressure can be seen in avariety of medical conditions. What would youexpect to happen to the pulse pressure in thefollowing examples? (a) In atherosclerosis there is a hardening of thearterial walls.- The Systolic pressure will drop because the aortic valvecannot supply enough pressure. (b) A damaged aortic valve does not seal properlyand allows blood to flow back into the ventricleduring diastole.- Pulse pressure increases when the aortic valve is leaky.This is because systolic pressure increases, the ventriclepumps out more blood so the ventricle gets filled fromthe atrium as well as by the leak and diastolic pressurefalls due to the leak.
4. Normal resting heart rates range from55−100 beats per minute. What wasyour/the subject’s resting heart rate?How much did your/the subject’s heartrate increase above resting rate withexercise? What percent increase wasthis?• Resting heart rate-78• Resting rate with exercise- 92• 92-78=14
5. How does your/the subject’s maximumheart rate compare with other students inyour group/class? Is this what youexpected?- Some people’s heart rate increased by alarger percentage than other people. Yes, itis what we expected because not everyonehas the same heart rate to begin with.
6. Recovery time has been shown tocorrelate with degree of physical fitness.How does your/the subject’s recoveryrate compare to that of your classmates?Is this what you expected?- For those people that do not exerciseregularly take a longer time to recover whilethose who exercise regularly don’t take asmuch time to recover.
7. Congestive heart failure is a condition inwhich the strength of contraction with eachbeat may be significantly reduced. Forexample, the ventricle may pump only halfthe usual volume of blood with each beat.Would you expect a person with congestiveheart failure to have a faster or slower heartrate at rest? With exercise?- I would expect it to be faster since it ispumping half the blood with each beat with andwithout exercise.
8. Medications are available which canslow the heart or speed it up. If a patientcomplains of feeling poorly and has aheart rate of 120 beats per minute,should you administer a medicine toslow the rate?- Yes because then the patient won’t feel soworn out all the time.