Grammar book part 2


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Grammar book part 2

  1. 1. Grammar BookBy: Tabitha Cruickshank
  2. 2. Table of Contents• Present tense• Stem changers• Irregular ‘yo’• Saber vs. conocer• Reflexives• ‘Se’ impersonal• Verbs like ‘gustar’• -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir• Imperfect – Irregular – Trigger words• Preterite – Irregular car/gar/zar; spock; cucaracha; snake/snakey – Trigger• Comparatives/superlatives• Future – Irregular – Trigger words
  3. 3. PresentARYo oTu as ER/IREl, ella, ud. a Yo oNosotros amos Tu esVosotros aís El, ella, ud. eEllos, ellas, uds. an Nosotros emos/imos Vosotros éis/ís Ellos, ellas, uds. en
  4. 4. Stem ChangersStem changers are verbs that change in every form EXCEPT the nosotros and vosotros forms. O > UE E>I Contar Repetir Cuento Repito Cuentas Repites Cuenta Repite Contamos Repetimos Contáis Repetís Cuentan Repiten E > IE O > UE Cerrar Dormir Cierro Duermo Cierras Duermes Cierra Duerme Cerramos Dormimos Cerráis Dormís Cierran Duermen
  5. 5. Irregular “yo” Irregular “yo” verbs are verbs that change in the yo form such as go, zco, and other verbs like ser and ir. -go verbs Other verbs Poner – to put Ser – to be Pongo SoyDecir (e<i) – to say -zco verbs Estar – to be Digo Conocer - Estoy Tener – to have Conozco Ir – to go Tengo Producir Voy Traer – to bring Produzco Ver – to see Traigo Conducir Hacer – to do Conduzco Saber – to know Hago Se Oir – to hear Dar - Oigo Doy
  6. 6. Saber vs. ConocerTo know “Saber” is used to express knowledge about a fact or different information. Juan sabe donde está María. Juan knows where Maria is. “Conocer” is used to say if a person is acquainted with another. Yo no conozco a María. I dont know (am not acquainted with) Maria.
  7. 7. ReflexivesIn Spanish, when you talk about an action being performed on yourself, you show the reflexive nature of the action with a reflexive verb.Reflexive verbs indicate that the subject of the sentence has performedan action on itself. In other words, in a reflexive sentence the subject is the same as the object. If a verb is reflexive, it ends in „se‟. Lavarse – to wash oneself Rascarse – to scratch oneself Llamarse – to call oneselfWhen conjugating, move the „se‟ to the front of the verb and change itto the corresponding pronoun: me, te, se, nos, or se. Then conjugate the verb. Me lavo Se lava Os laváis Te lavas Nos lavamos Se lavan
  8. 8. Se impersonal We use the se impersonal verbs when making a general assumptionabout people in general. Se is placed in front of the verb in impersonal and use the singular verb.How does one say ¿Cómo se dice "icecream" in "helado" en italiano? Italian? Plural impersonal does not use se in front of the verb. They say that Dicen que la pizzavegetarian pizza is vegetariana es healthy. saludosa.
  9. 9. Verbs like gustarThese verbs are taken and congugated into either the „el/ella/usted‟form or the „ellos/ellas/ustedes‟ form along with the correct pronoun. Me gustan los libros. Pronouns --The books are Me pleasing to me Te Or Se --I like the books Nos Se Parecer – to appear to be Doler – to be painful Aburrir – to bore Picar – to itch Fascinar – to be fascinating too Encantar – to love something Bastar – to be sufficient Quedar – to be left over Importar – to be important to Faltar – to be lacking something Molestar – to be a bother to Discutar – to hate something
  10. 10. -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/gir-uir/-guir AtribuirConcluirConstruirContribuir -ger/-gir Destruir *Change the G>J in the yo form. In theDistribuir other forms, use G. Excluir Coger – to catch Exigir – to demand Incluir Cojo Exijo Instruir Coges Exiges -cer/-cir Coge Exige Atribuir Cogemos ExigemosConcluir Cogéis ExigisConstruir Cogen ExigenContribuir DestruirDistribuir Excluir Incluir Instruir
  11. 11. ImperfectImperfect tense is used to represent things that happened in the past that occurred repeatedly or occurred over a period of time. It‟s like a movie in the past. AR HABLAR ER/IR VIVIR aba hablaba ía vivía abas hablabas ías vivías aba hablaba ía vivíaábamos hablábamos íamos vivíamos abais hablabais IR íais vivíais aban hablaban iba ían vivían ibas VER iba SERveía veíamos íbamos era éramosveías veíais ibais eras eraisveía veían iban era eran a menudo, a veces, cada día, cada año, con frecuencia, de vezcuando, en aquella época, frecuentemente, generalmente, muchasveces, mucho, nunca, por un rato, siempre, tantas veces, todas las semanas, todos los dias, todo el tiempo, and varias veces
  12. 12. Preterite Trigger Word Translation The preterite tense Ayer Yesterday allows you to refer to The day before specific past actions Anteayer yesterday performed (1) at a Anoche Last nightfixed point in time, (2) La Semana Pasada Last week a specific number of El Mes Pasado Last month times, (3) during an enclosed amount of El Año Pasado Last year time. El Fin De Semana Pasado Last weekendElla trabajó por dos Form -AR -ER, -IR horas.She worked for two Yo -é -í hours. Tú -aste -iste Ella/Él/Ud. -ó -ióEllos vendieron el Nosotros -amos -imos coche. Vosotros -asteis -isteisThey sold the car. Ellos/Ellas/ -aron -ieron Uds.
  13. 13. -car, -gar, -zar There are three spelling changes in Spanish whichaffect verbs in the preterite as Verb Translation Preterite Yo Formwell as in other tenses. In the Pagar To pay (for) Yo pagué preterite , these changes To water (a plant) Regar Yo regué occur only in the first person singular yo form. Jugar To play (a game) Yo jugué Verbs ending in –car: the c Buscar To look for; Yo busqué changes to qu before the search letter e Ex: Yo practiqué. (I Aparcar To park Yo aparqué practiced.) Tocar To touch; play Yo toquéVerbs ending in –gar: Insert a (an instrument) u before the e Ex: Yo llegué. (I arrived.) Organizar To organize Yo organicé Verbs ending in –zar: the z Simbolizar To symbolize Yo simbolicéchanges to c before the letter Autorizar To authorize Yo autoricé e Ex: Yo empecé. (I began.)
  14. 14. Spock Ir: To go Ex: Ser Ser: To be Fui al cine.Dar: To give I went to the movies.Ver: To see Ella dio un regalo a Hacer: To su abuela. do; make She gave a gift to her grandmother. Ir Ser Dar Ver Hacer Yo Fui Fui Di Vi Hice Tú Fuiste Fuiste Diste Viste Hiciste Ella/Él/Ud. Fue Fue Dio Vio Hizo Nosotros Fuimos Fuimos Dimos Vimos Hicimos Ellos/Ellas/ Fueron Fueron Dieron Vieron Hicieron Uds.
  15. 15. CucarachaVerbs Stem Change Form EndingAndar Anduv- Yo -eEstar Estuv- Tú -istePoder Pud- Ella/Él/Ud. -oPoner Pus- Nosotros -imosQuerer Quis- Vosotros -isteisSaber Sup- Ellos/Ellas/Uds. -ieronTener Tuv-Venir Vin-Form Ending Verbs Stem ChangeYo -e Decir Dij-Tú -iste Traer Traj-Ella/Él/Ud. -oNosotros -imos Conducir Conduj-Vosotros -isteis Producir Produj-Ellos/Ellas/ -eronUds. Traducir Traduj-
  16. 16. Snake/snakey Snakey verbs are verbs that are irregular in the preterite tense that change –yendo and –yeron.Form Ending Form Ending Form EndingYo Oí Yo Leí Yo CayíTú Oíste Tú Leíste Tú CaísteElla/Él/Ud. Oyó Ella/Él/Ud. Leyó Ella/Él/Ud. CayóNosotros Oímos Nosotros Leímos Nosotros CaímosEllos/Ellas/Uds. Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Leyeron Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Cayeron Oyeron
  17. 17. Comparatives/superlatives Comparatives are Superlatives are usedused to compare two when you want to things. You can use compare two or more the word “than” or things. There is onlysometimes the word one superlative, so the “but”. word used is “the”. You are taller than You are taller than everyone in your she. class.Tu eres más alto que Tu eres el más alto en ella. tus clase.
  18. 18. Table of Contents1. Preterite vs. Imperfect2. Future3. Conditional4. Por5. Para6. Por vs. Para7. Commands8. Present perfect
  19. 19. Preterite vs. Imperfect The preterite tense allows you to refer to specific Imperfect tense is used to represent things that past actions performed (1) at a fixed point in happened in the past that occurred repeatedly ortime, (2) a specific number of times, (3) during an occurred over a period of time. It‟s like a movie in enclosed amount of time. the past.Form -AR -ER, -IR Form AR ER/IRYo -é -í Yo -aba -íaTú -aste -iste Tu -abas -íasElla/Él/Ud. -ó -ió El/Ella/Usted -aba -íaNosotros -amos -imos Nosotras/Nosotros -ábamos -íamosVosotros -asteis -isteis Vosotros/Vosotras -abais -íaisEllos/Ellas/ -aron -ieronUds. Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes -aban -ían Trigger Word Translation Ayer Yesterday The day before VER IR SER Anteayer yesterday veía veíamos iba era éramos Anoche Last night veías veíais ibas eras erais La Semana Pasada Last week veía veían iba era eran El Mes Pasado Last month íbamos El Año Pasado Last year ibais El Fin De Semana Pasado Last weekend iban
  20. 20. Future tense with irregulars The future tense is Form Ending used to tell what "will" Yo -éhappen, or what "shall" Tú -ás happen. However, the future Ella/Él/Ud. -á tense is NOT used to Nosotros -emos express a willingness Ellos/Ellas/Uds -án to do something. .Verb Stem Verb Stem Change Change Ex: Using the verb hablar, to speak.Decir Dir- Venir Vendr- Yo  HabléHacer Har- Poder Podr- Tu  HablásPoner Pondr- Querer Querr- Ella  Hablá Nosotros  HablemosSalir Saldr- Saber Sabr- Ellos  HablánTener Tendr- Valer Valdr-
  21. 21. Conditional with irregulars The conditional is used to express probability, possibility, and is translated as would, could, must have or probably. Hablar Hablaría Hablarías ía Hablaría ías Hablaríamos ía Hablaríais íamos Hablarían íais íanvenir valer tener salir decir caberyo vendría yo valdría yo tendría yo saldría yo diría yo cabríasaber querer poder haber poner haceryo sabría yo querría yo podría yo habría yo pondría yo haría
  22. 22. Por Duration of an action For, during, in Exchange or substitution For, in exchange for Por aquíPor eso
  23. 23. Describes the purpose + noun For, used for Para Destination Toward, in the direction of Recipient of something For Deadline or a specific time in the future By, for Comparison with others or an opinion For, considering Purpose or goal + infinitive In order to In the employ of For
  24. 24. CommandsCommands are used when telling someone what to do. Informal commands are used when talking to a friend or a child. Formal commands are used when you want to be polite or show respect. •Start with the „yo‟ form of present indicative If the „yo‟ form is irregular in •Drop the „-o‟ ending present tense, it carries over to •Add on the following the command form as well. endings: -AR verbs: -e (Ud.) –en Tener – Tengan (Uds.) Traer – Traiga-ER and IR verbs: -a (Ud.) – Venir -- Venga an (Uds.)
  25. 25. Present PerfectThe present perfect is created by taking the verbs „has‟ or „have‟ and combining them with the past participle. Two verbs are required: the main verb and the „have‟ or „has‟. The past participial is created by dropping the infinitive ending and adding –ado or –ido. He --(yo) He comido. I have eaten. Has --(tú) Has comido. You have eaten. Ha --(él) Ha comido. He has eaten. Hemos --(nosotros) Hemos comido. Habéis We have eaten. --(vosotros) Habéis comido. Han You-all have eaten. --(ellos) Han comido. They have eaten.
  26. 26. Double Object PronounsDO Pronouns English me me te you (familiar) lo, la him, her, it, you (formal) nos us os you-all (familiar) los, las them, you-all (formal) le lo = se lo le la = se la le los = se los le las = se las les lo = se lo les la = se la les los = se los les las = se las
  27. 27. Adverbs Most Spanish adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. This ending corresponds to -ly in English.Adjective Fem. Form Adverb claro clara claramenteconstante constante constantemente Muy  very difícil difícil difícilmente Nunca  never Peor  worse Poco  little Bastante  quite Demasiado  too Mal  badly Mucho  a lot Siempre  always
  28. 28. Subjunctive The subjunctive case expresses attitudes as uncertain or hypothetical. Put it in the yoform, drop the o Hable Coma Escribaand then add the Hables Comas Escribas opposite vowel. Hable Coma Escriba Hablemos Comamos Escribamos Habléis Comáis Escribáis Hablen Coman Escriban 1. Dar dé esté vaya haya sepa sea 2. Estar des estés vayas hayas sepas seas 3. Ir dé esté vaya haya sepa sea 4. Haber demos estemos vayamos hayamos sepamos seamos 5. Saber deis estéis vayáis hayáis sepáis seáis 6. Ser den estén vayan hayan sepan sean
  29. 29. Se impersonalTo form the impersonal se, verbs are always 3rd person singular and are commonly followed by a direct object. Se necesita que la gente proteja la Tierra. Impersonal Se Formula (Its necessary that people protect the Earth.)se + 3rd person singular Se habla español aquí. (Spanish is spoken here.) Se dice que va a llover mañana. (Its said it is going to rain tomorrow.) Se prohibe fumar. (Smoking is prohibited.) No se permite hacer fotos aquí. (Photographs are not permitted.)
  30. 30. Progressive w/ ir, andar and seguir Seguir/Andar/Ir + present participle = to still do something or to go on doing it ella anda buscando trabajo = shes going around looking for workella va adaptándose a su puesto = She is slowly but surly adjusting to her job Él sigue buscando trabajo = He is still looking for work