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  • 1. Grammar Book
    By: Tabitha Cruickshank
  • 2. Table of Contents
    Present tense
    Stem changers
    Irregular ‘yo’
    Saber vs. conocer
    Reflexives
    ‘Se’ impersonal
    Present tense w/ dipthongs
    -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir
    Verbs like…
    Hace + _____ + que + present
    Ser vs. estar
  • 3. Present
    AR
    Yo o
    Tu as
    El, ella, ud. a
    Nosotros amos
    Vosotros aís
    Ellos, ellas, uds. an
    ER/IR
    Yo o
    Tu es
    El, ella, ud. e
    Nosotros emos/imos
    Vosotros éis/ís
    Ellos, ellas, uds. en
  • 4. Stem Changers
    Stem changers are verbs that change in every form EXCEPT the nosotros and vosotros forms.
    E > I
    Repetir
    Repito
    Repites
    Repite
    Repetimos
    Repetís
    Repiten
    O > UE
    Contar
    Cuento
    Cuentas
    Cuenta
    Contamos
    Contáis
    Cuentan
    E > IE
    Cerrar
    Cierro
    Cierras
    Cierra
    Cerramos
    Cerráis
    Cierran
    O > UE
    Dormir
    Duermo
    Duermes
    Duerme
    Dormimos
    Dormís
    Duermen
  • 5. Irregular “yo”
    Irregular “yo” verbs are verbs that change in the yo form such as go, zco, and other verbs like ser and ir.
    -go verbs
    Poner – to put
    Pongo
    Decir (e<i) – to say
    Digo
    Tener – to have
    Tengo
    Traer – to bring
    Traigo
    Hacer – to do
    Hago
    Oir – to hear
    Oigo
    -zco verbs
    Conocer -
    Conozco
    Producir
    Produzco
    Conducir
    Conduzco
    Other verbs
    Ser – to be
    Soy
    Estar – to be
    Estoy
    Ir – to go
    Voy
    Ver – to see
    Saber – to know
    Se
    Dar -
    Doy
  • 6. Saber vs. Conocer
  • 7. Reflexives
    In Spanish, when you talk about an action being performed on yourself, you show the reflexive nature of the action with a reflexive verb. Reflexive verbs indicate that the subject of the sentence has performed an action on itself. In other words, in a reflexive sentence the subject is the same as the object.
  • 8. Se impersonal
  • 9. Presente tense w/ dipthongs
    A dipthong is a weak vowel like i, y, or u and a strong vowel like a, e, or o and the accent is placed on the weak vowel.
  • 10. -uir/-guir,  -cer/-cir,  -ger/gir
    -uir/-guir
    Atribuir
    Concluir
    Construir
    Contribuir
    Destruir
    Distribuir
    Excluir
    Incluir
    Instruir
    -ger/-gir
    *Change the G>J in the yo form. In the other forms, use G.
    Coger – to catch Exigir – to demand
    Cojo Exijo
    Coges Exiges
    Coge Exige
    Cogemos Exigemos
    Cogéis Exigis
    Cogen Exigen
    -cer/-cir
    Atribuir
    Concluir
    Construir
    Contribuir
    Destruir
    Distribuir
    Excluir
    Incluir
    Instruir
  • 11. verbs like...
  • 12. hace + ____ + que + present tense
  • 13. Ser vs. Estar