Risk Assessment and Environment Management

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Risk Assessment
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Risk Assessment and Environment Management

  1. 1. RISK ASSESSMENT AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT<br />Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  2. 2. History of Comparative Risk Assessment<br />First used in the U.S. in 1987<br /><ul><li>“Unfinished Business” evaluated 31 problems and changed USEPA priorities
  3. 3. Many projects completed for regions, states, and cities</li></ul>Used outside the U.S. by USAID and USEPA<br /><ul><li>First assessment was in Bangkok, 1990
  4. 4. Assessments completed for about 10 cities and regions</li></ul>Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  5. 5. Environmental Management<br />Comparative Health Risk Assessment is used to set priorities for environmental management.<br />Identify and evaluate <br />risks, set priorities<br />among problems.<br />Risk Assessment<br />Develop and<br />implement solutions for<br />high priority problems<br />Risk Management<br />Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  6. 6. Environmental Risks<br />Environmental damage may have three types of negative effects.<br /> Public Health--illness, injuries, deaths<br />Ecological--loss of species and habitat<br />Quality of Life--economic and social costs<br />Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  7. 7. Types of “Risk Assessment” <br />Health Risk Assessment:<br /> evaluates the potential public health impacts of an environmental condition <br />Comparative Health Risk Assessment:<br />evaluates and compares the potential health impacts of several environmental conditions<br />Comparative Risk Assessment:<br />evaluates and compares the potential health, ecological, and quality-of-life impacts of several environmental conditions <br />Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  8. 8. Steps in Risk Assessment<br /><ul><li>Health risk assessment is quantitative, based on experimental and observational data.</li></ul>Hazard Identification--<br />identify health risks associated with exposure<br />Dose-Response Assessment--<br />model the relationship between dose and effects<br />Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  9. 9. Steps in Risk Assessment<br />Exposure Assessment--<br />estimate a group’s exposure (amount, duration)<br />Risk Characterization--<br />estimate the probability and severity of effects<br />Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  10. 10. Example:Health Risk Assessment<br />Health Risk Assessment in Bangkok:<br />Population: 5.9 million<br />Airborne particulates: 90 - 200 g/m3<br />Health effects (per year):<br /><ul><li> 9 - 51 million restricted activity days
  11. 11. 300 - 1400 deaths </li></ul>Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  12. 12. Example:Health Risk Assessment<br />Health Risk Assessment in Quito, Ecuador:<br /> Population: 1.1 million<br /> Pesticides in food:<br /> 44.3 g/day intake of heptachlor<br /> 11.0 g/day intake of aldrin<br /> Health Effects:<br /> 0.3 to 9.1 x 10-3 lifetime cancer risk<br /> Up to 150 excess cancer cases/year<br />Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  13. 13. CRA Methodology<br />Four Phases of Comparative Risk Assessment<br /><ul><li>Planning
  14. 14. Determine scope of the study
  15. 15. Select and organize the team
  16. 16. Identify data types and sources
  17. 17. Data Collection and Analysis
  18. 18. Identify and gather data
  19. 19. Analyze data to estimate risks</li></ul>Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  20. 20. CRA Methodology<br />Four Phases of Comparative Risk Assessment<br /><ul><li>Priority Setting
  21. 21. Interpret and compare risks
  22. 22. Debate and agree on priorities
  23. 23. Reporting
  24. 24. Prepare report as input to risk management planning</li></ul>Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />
  25. 25. Technical Analysis<br />Identify and evaluate health impacts of manyenvironmental conditions<br /><ul><li>water and food
  26. 26. sanitation, drainage, and wastewater
  27. 27. ambient and indoor air, gases and particles
  28. 28. solid and hazardous wastes
  29. 29. occupational injuries and exposures
  30. 30. infectious, vector-borne, and pollutant-related diseases </li></ul>Nano Science & Technology Consortium<br />

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