IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT<br />
What is solid waste?<br />Solid waste is defined as any garbage, refuse, sludge from waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other materials, including solid, liquid, semisolid, contained gaseous resulting from industrials, commercials, mining and agricultural operations from community activities<br />
Characteristics of wastes<br /><ul><li>Corrosive: these are wastes that include acids or bases that are capable of corroding mental containers, e.g. tanks
Ignitability: this is waste that can create fires under certain condition, e.g. waste oils and solvents
Reactive: these are unstable in nature, they cause explosions, toxic fumes when heated.
Toxicity: waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorb.</li></li></ul><li>Types of waste<br /><ul><li>Non Hazardous waste: refuse, garbage, sludge, municipal trash.
Hazardous waste: solvents acid, heavy metals, pesticides, and chemical sludges
Radioactive: high and low-level radioactive waste
Mixed waste: Radioactive organic liquids, radio active heavy metals. ” </li></li></ul><li>Waste Treatment<br />Incineration<br />Solidification<br />Waste treatment<br />Heat <br />treatment <br />Chemical treatment<br />
Waste Disposal<br /><ul><li>Landfills: waste is placed into or onto the land in disposal facilities.
Underground injection wells: waste are injected under pressure into a steel and concrete-encased shafts placed deep in the earth.
Waste piles: is accumulations of insoluble solid, non flowing hazard waste. Piles serves as temporary or final disposal.</li></li></ul><li>Waste Disposal<br /><ul><li>Land treatment: is a process in which solid waste, such as sludge from wastes is applied onto or incorporated into the soil surface.
Waste are disposed in flowing rivers in less developed countries. </li></li></ul><li>Causal of Increase in Solid Waste<br /><ul><li>Population growth
Modernization, technological advancement and increase in global population created rising in demand for food and other essentials. This has resulted to rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. 158 million tons of municipal solid waste is produced annually in U.S</li></li></ul><li>Sources of Human Exposures<br />Exposures occurs through<br /><ul><li>Ingestion of contaminated water or food
Direct dumping of untreated waste in seas, rivers and lakes results in the plants and animals that feed on it</li></li></ul><li>Impacts of solid waste on health<br /><ul><li>Chemical poisoning through chemical inhalation
Uncollected waste can obstruct the storm water runoff resulting in flood
Increase in hospitalization of diabetic residents living near hazard waste sites.
Mercury toxicity from eating fish with high levels of mercury.</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Solid Waste on Animals and Aquatics life<br /><ul><li>Increase in mercury level in fish due to disposal of mercury in the rivers.