Health and Safety

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Health and Safety

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Health and Safety

  1. 1. IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT<br />
  2. 2. What is solid waste?<br />Solid waste is defined as any garbage, refuse, sludge from waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other materials, including solid, liquid, semisolid, contained gaseous resulting from industrials, commercials, mining and agricultural operations from community activities<br />
  3. 3. What is solid waste?<br />
  4. 4. Characteristics of wastes<br /><ul><li>Corrosive: these are wastes that include acids or bases that are capable of corroding mental containers, e.g. tanks
  5. 5. Ignitability: this is waste that can create fires under certain condition, e.g. waste oils and solvents
  6. 6. Reactive: these are unstable in nature, they cause explosions, toxic fumes when heated.
  7. 7. Toxicity: waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorb.</li></li></ul><li>Types of waste<br /><ul><li>Non Hazardous waste: refuse, garbage, sludge, municipal trash.
  8. 8. Hazardous waste: solvents acid, heavy metals, pesticides, and chemical sludges
  9. 9. Radioactive: high and low-level radioactive waste
  10. 10. Mixed waste: Radioactive organic liquids, radio active heavy metals. ” </li></li></ul><li>Waste Treatment<br />Incineration<br />Solidification<br />Waste treatment<br />Heat <br />treatment <br />Chemical treatment<br />
  11. 11. Waste Disposal<br /><ul><li>Landfills: waste is placed into or onto the land in disposal facilities.
  12. 12. Underground injection wells: waste are injected under pressure into a steel and concrete-encased shafts placed deep in the earth.
  13. 13. Waste piles: is accumulations of insoluble solid, non flowing hazard waste. Piles serves as temporary or final disposal.</li></li></ul><li>Waste Disposal<br /><ul><li>Land treatment: is a process in which solid waste, such as sludge from wastes is applied onto or incorporated into the soil surface.
  14. 14. Waste are disposed in flowing rivers in less developed countries. </li></li></ul><li>Causal of Increase in Solid Waste<br /><ul><li>Population growth
  15. 15. Increase in industrials manufacturing
  16. 16. Urbanization
  17. 17. Modernization
  18. 18. Modernization, technological advancement and increase in global population created rising in demand for food and other essentials. This has resulted to rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. 158 million tons of municipal solid waste is produced annually in U.S</li></li></ul><li>Sources of Human Exposures<br />Exposures occurs through<br /><ul><li>Ingestion of contaminated water or food
  19. 19. Contact with disease vectors
  20. 20. Inhalation
  21. 21. Dermal</li></li></ul><li>Points of contact<br /><ul><li>Soil adsorption, storage and biodegrading
  22. 22. Plant uptake
  23. 23. Ventilation
  24. 24. Runoff
  25. 25. Leaching
  26. 26. Insects, birds, rats, flies and animals
  27. 27. Direct dumping of untreated waste in seas, rivers and lakes results in the plants and animals that feed on it</li></li></ul><li>Impacts of solid waste on health<br /><ul><li>Chemical poisoning through chemical inhalation
  28. 28. Uncollected waste can obstruct the storm water runoff resulting in flood
  29. 29. Low birth weight
  30. 30. Cancer
  31. 31. Congenital malformations
  32. 32. Neurological disease
  33. 33. Nausea and vomiting
  34. 34. Increase in hospitalization of diabetic residents living near hazard waste sites.
  35. 35. Mercury toxicity from eating fish with high levels of mercury.</li></li></ul><li>Effects of Solid Waste on Animals and Aquatics life<br /><ul><li>Increase in mercury level in fish due to disposal of mercury in the rivers.
  36. 36. Plastic found in oceans ingested by birds
  37. 37. Resulted in high algal population in rivers and sea.
  38. 38. Degrades water and soil quality</li></li></ul><li>Impacts of solid waste on Environment<br /><ul><li>Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane, a potent greenhouse gas
  39. 39. Change in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradable
  40. 40. Littering, due to waste pollutions, illegal dumping, Leaching: is a process by which solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them. </li>

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