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  • 1. Let’s makeusers happy
  • 2. Daniel PuiuSoftware Developer &User Experience Enthusiastdaniel.puiu@gmail.com
  • 3. Agenda1. What is usability?2. Usability measurements3. User centered analysis4. Design principles5. Usability testing6. Conclusions
  • 4. Usability is themeasure of quality ofthe user experiencewhen interacting withsomething.What is usability?
  • 5. 1. Easy and quick to learn2. Easy and efficient to use3. Error tolerant4. Easy to remember5. Subjective satisfactionUsability is a combination of factors
  • 6. Your software is usable when users ...don’t think too much when using an applicationdon’t feel the need to use help windowseasily find the information they are looking forfeel comfortable when navigation trough the applicationdon’t feel stupidWhen your software is usable?
  • 7. ISO 9241-11 (part 11 - 1998)This part deals with the extent to which a product can be used by specified users toachieve specified goals with effectiveness (task completion by users), efficiency(task in time) and satisfaction (responded by user in term of experience) in aspecified context of use (users, tasks, equipments & environments).ISO 9241-210 (ex ISO 13407)Provides requirements and recommendations for human-centered designprinciples and activities throughout the life cycle of computer-based interactivesystems. It is intended to be used by those managing design processes, and isconcerned with ways in which both hardware and software components ofinteractive systems can enhance human–system interaction.International standards
  • 8. Usability may save lives …http://harryzzz.blogspot.ro/2010_07_01_archive.html
  • 9. Usability may save money …“Im not here to enter into a relationship.I just want to buy something.”https://www.facebook.com/HodanGlobal
  • 10. it may make you smile
  • 11. Book recommendationDon’t make me thinkSteve Krug
  • 12. Increase salesIncrease trafficIncrease of registered usersMarket share increaseCreates a positive brandUsability benefits for …public websitesintranetsdevelopmentDecrease training budget for usersProductivity increaseIncrease user satisfaction at workReduces development timeDecrease maintenance costsRemove re-design costsDecrease documentation and training time
  • 13. BeforeConversion rate 10%Annual revenue 200.000 €improved conversion rateannual revenue annual ROIannualrevenue current conversion rateCalculating increased conversion rateAfterConversion rate 15%Annual revenue 200.000 * (15/10) = 300.000Annual ROI 300.000 – 200.000 = 100.000 €The formulaExample: Increase conversion rate by 5%
  • 14. annual ROIusersnumberCalculating increased productivityAssumptionsEmployees 500Loaded salary 20.000€ (or €0.008/second)Use 10 tasks/dayIncreased efficiency 6 seconds/taskAnnual ROI 500 x 10 x 230 x 6 x 0.008 = 20.125 €The formulauses/daydays/yearincreasedefficiencyloadedsalaryExample: Reorganize intranet to increase efficiency by 6 seconds/task
  • 15. Calculating less reliance on call centersAssumptionsCalls per year 25.000Average call length 4 minutes (or 0.07 hours)Loaded salary 8.000€ (or 4.3 €/hour)Saving for reduced number of calls (25.000 x 0.3) x 0.07 x 4.3 = 2.250 €Saving for reduced call time 18750 x (0.07 x 0.5) x 4.3 = 2.800 €Example: Reduce number of calls with 30%; Reduce length of call by 2 minutesannual ROInumberof callsReduced number of callsprojectedreductionaveragecall lengthaveragesalary/minuteannual ROInumberof callsaveragecall lengthprojectedreductionaveragesalary/minuteReduced call length
  • 16. 90sHardwarewas the KING00sSoftwarewas the KING10sInteractionwill be the KINGFrom past to future
  • 17. User centeredanalysis
  • 18. I’ll go up and findout what they needand the rest of youjust start coding!Traditional project life cyclehttp://blogs.msdn.com/b/devschool/archive/2012/09/10/design-principles-why-use-paper-and-pencil-or-similar-on-slate.aspxProjectplanningRequirementsdefinitionsDesignDevelopmentIntegrationTestInstallationAcceptanceMaintenance
  • 19. Help deskTrainingMaintenanceImplementationDetail designHigh level designUser/taskanalysisInvestment in ResourcesProjectLifeCycleLess user centered design = more hidden costs
  • 20. Investment in ResourcesProjectLifeCycleMore user centered design = less hidden costsHelp deskTrainingMaintenanceImplementationDetail designHigh level designUser/task analysis
  • 21. Get smart early!TimeProbabilityBegin EndHighLow
  • 22. Mental models
  • 23. SimplicityFamiliarityAvailabilityFlexibilityFeedbackSafetyAffordanceHow to apply mental models in software?
  • 24. SimplicityFamiliarityAvailabilityFlexibilityFeedbackSafetyAffordanceHow to apply mental models in software?
  • 25. SimplicityFamiliarityAvailabilityFlexibilityFeedbackSafetyAffordanceHow to apply mental models in software?
  • 26. SimplicityFamiliarityAvailabilityFlexibilityFeedbackSafetyAffordanceHow to apply mental models in software?
  • 27. SimplicityFamiliarityAvailabilityFlexibilityFeedbackSafetyAffordanceHow to apply mental models in software?
  • 28. SimplicityFamiliarityAvailabilityFlexibilityFeedbackSafetyAffordanceHow to apply mental models in software?
  • 29. SimplicityFamiliarityAvailabilityFlexibilityFeedbackSafetyAffordanceHow to apply mental models in software?http://www.meetup.com/Tabara-de-Testare-Iasi/events/115763802/Register
  • 30. Interviews“Everyone has a story,make yours worthtelling”, Patrick Rickettshttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/-HTtRjPqHn2U/UDTdBhB_v7I/AAAAAAAAALk/LkbZEFEQmOw/s1600/job-interview.jpg
  • 31. User observation“First rule of usability?Don’t listen to users” byJacob Nielsenhttp://www.newswire.ca/en/story/970075/brunswick-mine-earns-prestigious-john-t-ryan-safety-award-for-the-safest-metal-mine-in-canada
  • 32. Focus groupshttp://rosemedicalcenter.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/focus-group.jpg
  • 33. Surveysbecause knowledge is everything1. design 2. collect 3. analyze
  • 34. •User group X can do the task faster than group Y•Tasks A,B,C are easy for user group X and Y but tasks Dand E are difficult for user group Y•User groups X and Y face the same problem but usergroup Z does not face this problem•Tasks D and B are the most time-consuming tasks, D is afrequent task and should be optimizedAnalysis of user data
  • 35. SystemAdministratorCustomerCustomer ServiceRepresentativeTaskprofilesTaskimportanceTask frequencyEnvironmentalprofilesLocationWorkspaceLightingHardwareSoftwareUserprofilesAge/genderEducationLanguagesComputerexperienceDomainexpertiseIntersect profiles with user groups
  • 36. EnvironmentWorks in centralized roomBusy environment, people, radiosClimate control, but dusty, mal dustOperators, supervisors, visitorsGood lighting conditionsTechnology21” monitors, multiple (3-4)Good internet connectionLooks like a control roomSomeone in the chair 24/72-way radiosDemographics37 years oldBeen at mine since 2000 (13 years)Enjoys what he doesFirm and fairMinimal computer experienceDevelop personasMake Mircea loveyour system!Do you think thatMircea has timefor this wizard?
  • 37. Card sortinghttp://www.localhiddenvariable.com/ciid/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/dsc03416.jpg
  • 38. Closed card sortingFitness HappinessDiet HealthWeight Loss NutritionWorkout PlansDisease RisksFor VegetariansLiving GreenLowering StressWorkoutsFinance TipsMeal PlansRecipesSkin CareFitness HappinessDiet HealthWeight LossNutritionWorkout PlansDisease RisksLiving GreenLowering StressWorkoutsFinance TipsMeal PlansRecipesSkin CareFor Vegetarianshttp://sixrevisions.com/usabilityaccessibility/card-sorting/
  • 39. Open card sortingTourAbout UsAffiliatesDeveloperOverviewSubscriptionPlansDownloadTrialSupportAPI InfoTestimonialsPricingTourAbout UsAffiliatesDeveloperOverviewSubscriptionPlansDownloadTrialSupportAPI InfoTestimonialsPricinghttp://sixrevisions.com/usabilityaccessibility/card-sorting/
  • 40. Book recommendationDesign InterfacesJenifer Tidwell
  • 41. DesignPrinciples
  • 42. Developers spend a lot of time worrying what makesthings easy for themselves, like unit testing, continuousintegration but we should spend more time worryingwhat makes things easy for our usersSoftware exits because users exist, not because wedevelop it, so it’s worth a lot to make their jobs easierDevelopers gains success by making something possibleinstead of making something easy.About developers
  • 43. If you are not looking forsomething, very oftenyou wont see it!Inattentional Blindness
  • 44. … 5 buttons are executedfor 80% of user actions… 4 applications are usedin 80% of user’s timePareto rule (80/20 rule)
  • 45. Hick’s Law
  • 46. Gestalt principlesSimilarity Proximity
  • 47. Gestalt principlesContinuity and Closure Figure and ground
  • 48. 0123456Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4Series 1Series 2Series 3Gestalt principles in software design
  • 49. Why the Register button is on thebottom-right?Question
  • 50. For typical rectangular screens the eye scansfrom top left to bottom rightGuttenberg DiagramPrimary Optical Area Strong Follow AreaWeak Follow Area Terminal AreaAxis of orientation
  • 51. Guttenberg Diagram in software designhttp://51bits.com/articles/design-by-gutenberg/
  • 52. Why do we use gradients?Why do we use rounded corners?Questions
  • 53. Naturalnesshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/aidanmorgan/7530821574/sizes/h/in/photostream/
  • 54. Contour bias
  • 55. Contour bias & Naturalenesin software design
  • 56. Savanna preferencehttp://www.billycanu.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/jungle2.jpeg http://hd-wallpapers.com/download/green-plains-of-wales_1920x1080_273-hd.jpg
  • 57. Desire lineshttp://fotografiskskole.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/olifantenpaadje3.jpg
  • 58. 123456
  • 59. Book recommendationUniversal Principles of DesignWilliam Lidwel, Kritina Holden, Jill Butler
  • 60. UsabilityTesting
  • 61. Usability testinghttp://www.statesman.com/news/lifestyles/school-of-information-professor-teaches-students-t/nTCj8/
  • 62. Circle five words that describe your impression of the design.Friendly GoodCool ConfidentSecure Up-To-DateHelpful High-TechCluttered StableReputable AnnoyingConfusing TrustworthyEasy-To-Use ComfortableEvaluate brand message
  • 63. Where would you goto read about?1. Women’s medicalprocedures2. Home care3. Wight loss surgery4. Local centersEvaluate content organization
  • 64. 1. Can you please tell mewhat is the price forCanon 1000D?2. Can you please find thedifferences betweenNokia S500 and NokiaS600?3. Please add on order forDell Latitude 400.Evaluate navigation design
  • 65. Circle everythingthat you believe tobe a hyperlink.Evaluate affordance
  • 66. Prototype Testing
  • 67. Eye trackinghttp://www.webusability.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/DSCN7857.JPG
  • 68. http://www.doublejumpmedia.com/blog/2009/05/eye-tracking-and-usability-testing-with-city-university-london/Heat Maps1. how often do users look at key areas2. how long users looked at key areas
  • 69. http://www.doublejumpmedia.com/blog/2009/05/eye-tracking-and-usability-testing-with-city-university-london/Gaze Plot Visualization1. exact locations or points where users gazed2. how long user looked at those points3. the path or order of users viewing
  • 70. Remote testing – Moderate testinghttp://www.techsmith.com/morae.html
  • 71. Remote testing – User testinghttp://www.loop11.com/
  • 72. Remote testing – Heat mapshttps://usabilla.com/
  • 73. Remote testing – User feedbackhttp://verifyapp.com/
  • 74. Remote testing – Peer reviewshttp://www.conceptfeedback.com/
  • 75. Remote testing – Screen Recordinghttp://openhallway.com/
  • 76. Web log analysis
  • 77. Page titleNewsformSignupformContent bodyNav.barA-B TestingVersion A 50 signupsPage titleNewsformSignupformContent bodyNav.barVersion B 75 signupsrandomlydistributed
  • 78. A B15.2 Conversion rate 20.9 Conversion rateTextMagic.com – Homepage A/B testhttp://www.abtests.com/test/275002/homepage-for-textmagic-homepage-ab-test
  • 79. Book recomandationA Practical Guide to Usability TestingJoseph S. Dumas, Janice C. Redish
  • 80. In the end ...
  • 81. The inconvenient truth about SEOhttp://www.smashingmagazine.com/2012/12/11/seo-the-inconvenient-truth/Your primary objectiveshould be better content,not higher rankings
  • 82. Mint.com – no ad campaign“Take a complicated process, make it easy, and you will win!”http://www.ebusinessblog.org/554/user-experience-success-mint-com-has-made-doing-the-bills-a-joint-effort/
  • 83. Usability vs. User experiencehttp://roomoramablog.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/transfagarasan-romania.jpghttp://www.consulting.ait.asia/images/news/detail/freeway.jpg
  • 84. Sketchbook vs. PaperThat was EASY!Whoa. That wasAWESOME!http://www.fingerpainted.it/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/iPad_SketchBookPro_Photo.jpghttp://static.squarespace.com/static/50271a61c4aab6c54f9af5ee/5028140ee4b0195d2ee37559/5028140ee4b0195d2ee37e7e/1334450945277/1000w
  • 85. let’s get rid of theuser’s frustration …
  • 86. and let’s makeusers happy!
  • 87. http://www.humanfactors.comhttp://www.uxbooth.comhttp://www.smashingmagazine.comhttp://www.uxmatters.comhttp://www.usabilityfirst.comhttp://www.upassoc.orghttp://www.uie.com/brainsparkshttp://uxmovement.comhttp://uxdesign.roResources