Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 1
US Government – Summer 2014
Power Point # 14
COURSE LECTURE TOPICS
• American Federalism
• Powers Flow To The National Elite
• Five Patterns Of Federalism
• Redefining Federalism Patterns
• California Political History
• Pressure Groups In The Golden State
• Protecting Interests From Sacramento
• Citizen Use Of Media For Manipulation
• Progressive Movements
• Civil Rights Movement
Comedy serves as the
best medium for
promoting a message.
Is this the case with this
cartoon? If this is the
case then can you
identify the message?
AMERICAN FEDERALISM: STATES AND COMMUNITIES
American federalism involves the distribution of power
between the national government and the state governments.
• Constitution originally defined federalism in terms of powers
• Powers are delegated to the national government.
• There is national supremacy.
• Powers are reserved to the states.
• Powers are denied to both government levels.
• States have a role in national government composition.
FLOW OF POWER
Powers flowed to the national elite.
1. Necessary and proper or implied powers gave Congress
2. Commerce power of Congress was broadly defined.
3. Power went to the national government through grants of
money to states.
American federalism evolved into different arrangements of
government power and different state structures.
1. There have been five patterns of federalism.
2. Congress and the Supreme Court have redefined the
3. There have been four patterns of elite structures in the states.
4. Old community economic elites have been replaced by new
community political elites.
The Constitution divides power between two separate authorities,
the nation and the states, each of which can directly enforce its
own laws on individuals through its own courts. There are more
than 86,000 separate governments in the US, of which more than
60,000 have the power to levy taxes. The Constitution endows
states with all governmental powers not vested specifically in the
national government or reserved to the people. All other
governmental jurisdictions are subdivisions of states. States may
create, alter, or abolish these other units of government by
amending state laws or constitutions.
FEDERALISM DIVISION OF POWER – 1
American federalism does not allow the central government the
constitutional authority to determine, alter, or abolish the power of
the states. The American system shares authority and power
constitutionally and practically. The Constitution defined
federalism in terms of delegated powers (powers exercised by the
national government) and the national supremacy clause, the
powers reserved to the states, powers denied by the Constitution
to both levels of government, and provisions giving the states a
role in the composition of the national government.
FEDERALISM DIVISION OF POWER – 2
POWERS TO CONGRESS
The Constitution lists eighteen grants of power to Congress,
the last of which is the power “to make all laws which shall
be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the
foregoing powers and all other powers” of the federal
government. This is the “necessary and proper” clause.
When coupled with the assertion of “national supremacy”
in Article VI, these ensure a powerful national government.
The states retained considerable governing power. The Tenth
Amendment states that “the powers not delegated to the United
States . . . are reserved to the states respectively, or to the
people.” The states generally retain control over property and
contract law, criminal and family law, education, and social-
welfare activities. The states control the organization and
powers of their own local governments. Finally, the states, like
the federal government, retain the power to tax and spend.
The Constitution denies some powers to both national and
state government, namely, the powers to abridge individual
rights. The first eight amendments apply to the national
government, and since the Fourteenth Amendment 1866,
provided that the states must also adhere to fundamental
guarantees of individual liberty. The Constitution denies the
states some powers to promote national unity: to coin money,
to make treaties with foreign nations, to interfere with the
“obligations of contracts,” to levy taxes on imports and exports,
and to engage in war, among others.
THE STATE’S ROLE
The states are the basic units in the organizational scheme
of the national government. The House of Representatives
apportions members to the states by population, and state
legislatures draw up their districts. Each state elects two
U.S. senators, regardless of its population. The president is
chosen by the electoral votes of the states. Finally, three-
fourths of the states must ratify amendments to the
POWER FLOWS TO THE ELITE
Governmental power has centralized in Washington. This
has come from the broad interpretation of the “necessary and
proper” clause to obscure the notion of “delegated powers”
and allow the national government to do anything not
specifically prohibited by the Constitution, the victory of the
national government in the Civil War, demonstrating that
states could not successfully resist federal power by force of
arms, the establishment of a national system of civil rights
based on the Fourteenth Amendment, the growth of federal
power under the interstate commerce clause as a national
industrial economy emerged, and the growth of federal
grants-in-aid to state and local governments as a major
source of revenues for these governments and a major
source of federal intervention into state and local affairs.
The pattern of federal-state relations during the nation’s first
hundred years has been described as dual federalism. The
states and the nation divided most governmental functions.
The national government concentrated its attention on the
delegated powers while the states decided the important
domestic policy issues. This separation of policy
responsibilities is like a layer cake, with local governments at
the base, state governments in the middle, and the national
government at the top.
The development of a national economy, the income tax, two
world wars and the Great Depression all combined to end the
strict distinction between national and state concerns. The new
pattern of federal–state relations was labeled cooperative
federalism. Both the nation and the states exercised
responsibilities for welfare, health, highways, education, and
criminal justice. This merging of policy responsibilities is
compared to a marble cake. Congress generally
acknowledged that it had no direct constitutional authority to
regulate public health, safety, or welfare. Congress relied
primarily on its powers to tax and spend for the general welfare
in providing financial assistance to state and local
governments to achieve shared goals. Congress did not
usually legislate directly on local matters.
It became increasingly difficult to maintain the fiction that the
national government was merely assisting the states in
performing their domestic responsibility. By the time of
Johnson and the Great Society in 1964, the federal
government clearly set forth national goals. Virtually all
problems confronting America were declared to be national
problems. Congress legislated directly on any matter it chose.
The Supreme Court no longer concerned itself with the
reserved powers of the states; the Tenth Amendment lost most
of its meaning. The pattern of federal–state relations became
known as centralized federalism.
The term new federalism refers to efforts to return power and
responsibility to states and communities. Nixon first used the
term in the 1970s to describe his general-revenue-sharing
proposal with the direct allocation of federal tax revenues to
state and local governments to use for general purposes with no
strings attached. Later, the term referred to a series of proposals
by Reagan to reduce state and local dependency on federal
revenues and return powers to states and communities through
the consolidation of categorical grants into block grants. These
block grants provide greater flexibility in the use of federal funds
and allow state and local officials to exercise more power over
programs within their jurisdictions. These efforts succeeded for a
time in slowing the growth of federal grant money to the states
and in reducing state and local reliance on federal funds.
Despite the attempts at the new federalism, the flow of power
toward federal government continued. The Supreme Court ended
all pretense of constitutional protection of state power in its 1985
Garcia decision. Before this case it was generally believed that
the states were constitutionally protected from direct
congressional coercion in matters traditionally “reserved” to the
states. In this case, the Supreme Court upheld a federal law
requiring state and local governments to obey federal wage and
hour rules. The Court declared that there were no constitutionally
protected state powers and that the only protection given the
states is in congressional and presidential elections. This
weakened view of American federalism has been labeled
Federal mandates are direct orders to state and local
governments to perform a particular activity or service to
comply with federal laws and performance of their
functions. Federal mandates occur in a wide variety of
areas, for example the Age Discrimination Act (1986), the
Safe Drinking Water Act (1986), the Clean Air Act (1990),
the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), the National
Voter Registration Act (1993 and the No Child Left Behind
Act (2001). Many of these mandates impose heavy costs
on state and local governments. When no federal monies
are provided to cover these costs, the mandates are said
to be unfunded mandates.
ELITES RESPONDING TO MASS PROTEST
Protest movements and organizations are used to achieve
civil rights and feminist goals.
1. Slavery and segregation were ended by protest against them.
2. Women rights were granted by protest against their denial.
Equality of opportunity and equality of results are goals used
to petition the government.
1. The Supreme Court said segregation was unconstitutional in
Brown v. Topeka (1954).
2. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
3. Presidents ordered, Congress passed, and the Supreme Court
supported affirmative action programs.
4. Congress passed the Civil Rights and Women’s Equity of 1991
Barriers to equality of opportunity and equality of
• There are mass opinions against affirmative action.
• The Supreme Court is indecisive about affirmative action.
• A dual labor market and earnings gaps hurt women and
• A glass ceiling prevents women from achieving many elite
PRESIDENTIAL USE OF FORCE
LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL INTEGRATION
Each branch of the federal government
may “check” the other. The Executive
Branch, or the President, may choose
to “check” the Judicial Branch by
refusing to use force in order to
enforce a judicial ruling by the
Supreme Court. The 1954 Brown
decision was made meaningful when
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
decided to use military force in 1957 to
secure the enforcement of a federal
court order to desegregate Little
Rock’s Central High School.
PRESIDENTIAL USE OF FORCE
LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL INTEGRATION
GOVERNOR WALLACE RESISTING
Governor George Wallace of Alabama is best
known for a line used in his inaugural speech
given on January 14, 1963, “In the name of the
greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I
draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet
before the feet of tyranny, and I say segregation
now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.”
To stop desegregation by the enrollment of black
students, he stood in from of Foster Auditorium at
the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. He
only stood aside after being confronted by federal
marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas
Katzenbach, and the Alabama National Guard.
Enjoy this example of presidential use of force.
HOW ELITES MAKE DECISIONS
Public Policy Making is the Power Domain of the Elite.
• There is an elite preference in the policy process.
• Elites achieve policy goals through foundations, policy-planning
organizations, the media, and other elites in government.
• Agenda setting is the result of decisions and non decisions by
the same institutional structures.
Republicanism and Federalism are Elite Protection Against
Mass Threats to the Status Quo.
• Early elites like James Madison recommended a republican
and federal government to regulate agenda setting.
• Today elites use the republican, federal government to realize
their preferences in the policy process.
What was to be a peaceful march for
Civil Rights instead became a
bloody clash in 1965 in Selma,
Alabama. A voter registration protest
resulted in a violent clash with police
at the Edmund Pettus bridge. Known
thereafter as “Bloody Sunday” this
confrontation helped to foster
national attention and passage of
the Voting Rights Act .
PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENTS – 1
PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENTS – 2
This is the famous march on
Washington DC where Dr. Martin
Luther King Jr. made his famous
“I Have A Dream” speech. Many
of you have watched just the
speech in past classes or at
home. What makes this video
interesting is that it is not clipped.
This was shown to the nation in
its entirety. Enjoy the video.
PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENTS – 3
Producer Richard D. Heffner of the
NBC Sunday television program
"The Open Mind" interviews King
and former federal Judge J.
Waties Waring, who wrote the sole
dissenting decision against school
segregation in Briggs v. Elliott.
NAACP youth secretary Herbert
Wright helped enlist King for this
NBC Negro History Week program
on "The New Negro." Heffner's
first question followed a brief
introduction of his two guests.
HOW THE MASSES PERCEIVE THE PARTIES
Activists are most likely to participate
in campaign activities. These are the
most partisan among typical voters.
Two of the most common activities
aside from voting is donating personal
labor and financial resources. Political
pandering refers to how parties cater
to their core base of activists. Those
found in the Republican Party tend to
be more conservative than the
average Republican voter.
Democratic activists on the other
hand tend to be more liberal than the
average Democratic voter.
HOW THE MASSES VIEW THE PARTIES
Let us now see how Hollywood views the parties from the perspective of the
average Joe or Jane. Our example comes from the movie “Bulworth” starring
Warren Beatty. Two scenes are shown to demonstrate pandering as seen from the
perspective of Hollywood. What are your thoughts after watching these clips? Do
they coincide with your personal belief systems in any way?
Hollywood + ReligionRace Based Politics
OBAMA & APPLE
Constituents have witnessed influential campaign advertisements
that are authored by the average person. The clip on the left was
created from an Obama supporter with commonly available computer
equipment who manipulated the famous 1984 Apple commercial that
introduced the world to Macintosh.
CULTURAL CONFLICT - NEW COLD WAR?
• Tensions between civilizations are supplanting the
political and ideological rivalries persistent during the
• Samuel Huntington argue, "the values that are most
important in the West are least important worldwide.”
• World politics will be directed in the future by
conflicts that according to Kishore Mahbubani
will be between "the West and the Rest".
• Samuel P. Huntington adds "...and the
responses of non-Western civilizations to
Western power and values.”
CONFLICT, VIOLENCE, AND WAR
1. Non-Western civilizations isolate themselves from the
Western-dominated global community.
2. "Band-Wagoning" can lead non-Western countries to
join with the West and accept its values and
3. Non-Western countries can attempt to "balance" the
West by developing an alternative economic and
military power and ally with one another to effective
counter Western dominance.
CAUSES OF WAR
• Natural Resources
• States try to rally support from states that
share a similar culture.
• Replaces political ideology and traditional
balance of power as the principal basis for
cooperation and coalitions.
REDEFINING CIVILIZATION IDENTITY
Samuel Huntington’s Three Requirements For Torn
Countries To Redefine Its Civilization Identity:
• The Country’s economic and political elites have to
enthusiastically endorse the transition.
• Its public has to endorse whatever new definition is
• Dominant groups in the recipient civilization have to
embrace the convert.
WEST VS. THE REST
• Samuel P. Huntington stresses that civilization-
consciousness is increasing and that global politics will
be focused on "the West and the Rest".
• This applies to conflicts between the Western powers,
especially the United States, against "others".
• The first conflict(s) will be between the West and
several Islamic-Confucian states.
• Samuel Huntington made these arguments in the
article “The Clash of Civilizations (1993)”.
AMERICAN MILITARY POWER
• The main reasons for the US to maintain such a high
military expenditure are:
• US commitments on a global basis. US military forces
must be able to project power to regions located
thousands of miles away.
• US forces require high technology in order to defeat its
enemies with limited casualties.
• US maintains a much more expensive all-volunteer
Human beings are the ultimate weapon. Biological
weapon development is presented in this PBS Special
“The Living Weapon. All slides from this point
incorporate information from the PBS website
dedicated to “The Living Weapon”:
Chapter 1: (2:37)
"Teaser" introduction for The Living Weapon
on American Experience.
Chapter 2: (3:15)
In December 1942, the U.S.
government holds a secret meeting at
the National Academy of Sciences to
discuss a biological warfare program.
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS – ETHICS (1)
Chapter 3: (4:16)
During the summer of 1942, the British
conduct secret anthrax tests on the
Scottish island of Gruinard.
Chapter 4: (5:11)
American scientists begin secret biological
warfare research at Camp Detrick in
Chapter 5: (4:00)
New weapons of mass destruction are
deployed during World War II.
Chapter 6: (10:32)
Surprising news of German and
Japanese biowarfare research emerge
at the end of World War II.
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS – ETHICS (2)
Chapter 7: (5:59)
The U.S. biological weapons program
escalates during the Cold War.
Chapter 8: (10:05)
In 1954, American scientists begin testing
biological agents on human subjects.
Chapter 9: (5:13)
The U.S. biological weapons program
comes under public scrutiny.
Chapter 10: (1:38)
The United States ratifies international
agreements leading to the end of the U.S.
biological weapons program.
BIOLOGICAN WEAPONS – ETHICS (3)
Title Unknown (Botulism) (9:43)
This experiment was conducted to determine
whether primates would make suitable research
subjects in a study of botulism. Researchers inject
a monkey with botulisum toxin to determine if he
will exhibit the same effects as human victims.
Operation Cover Up (9:04)
This film questions how long military
personnel would be able to remain in
protective suits and gas masks in the event
of an operation within a biological or
chemical weapons area.
Incapacitation by Enterotoxin (5:40)
The film shows the effect of enterotoxin, a
form of food poisoning, when delivered as
an aerosol spray to monkeys.
BIOLOGICAN WEAPONS – ETHICS (4)
• Foreign policies are the strategies
governments use to guide their actions in
the international arena.
–Spell out the objectives state leaders
have decided to pursue in a given
relationship or situation.
–Foreign policy process: How policies
are arrived at and implemented.
MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (1)
• Range of views on foreign policy issues
held by the citizens of a state.
• Has a greater influence on foreign policy in
democracies than in authoritarian
–Journalists as gatekeepers
PUBLIC INFLUENCES POLICY (1)
• In democracies, public opinion generally
has less effect on foreign policy than on
–Foreign policy elite
–Rally ’round the flag syndrome
–Diversionary foreign policy
PUBLIC INFLUENCES POLICY (2)
• Comparative foreign policy.
–Study of foreign policy in various states
in order to discover whether similar
types of societies or governments
consistently have similar types of foreign
• Foreign policy outcomes result from
multiple forces at various levels of
MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (2)
• Conduit through which interest groups and public opinion
can wield influence.
– Presidential systems; separate elections.
• Legislatures play a direct role in making foreign
• Different rules apply, however, to the use of military
– Rally ’round the flag.
– May challenge the president if they have power
of the “purse”.
• Parliamentary systems; political parties are
• Often parliamentary executives do not need
to submit treaties or policies for formal
approval by the legislature.
• Call elections; new executive
• Legislatures play a key role in designing
and implementing foreign policy.