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  • 1. Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 1 US Government – Spring/Fall 2014 Power Point Presentation #8
  • 2. COURSE LECTURE TOPICS • • • • • • • • • • Bureaucratic Power Iron Triangles Presidential Control Of The Bureaucracy Congress And Its Members Congress Versus The Executive Branch Supreme Court Legitimacy Factor In Law Making Federal Court Structure Elite Propaganda & Cinemocracy Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense”
  • 3. BUREAUCRATIC ELITE THE BUREAUCRATIC ELITE Bureaucratic Power comes from technological advances, information explosions, and societal growth and complexity. 1. The Washington Bureaucratic Elite is a major base of power in American society. 2. Iron Triangles are three major power bases coming together to decide an issue outcome. 3. Revolving Doors are public-private sector power trades of knowledge, experience, and contacts. 4. The Power of Regulatory Commissions derives from independence and oversight responsibilities. 5. Fiscal Responsibility is the power to establish national priorities within the boundaries of available resources.
  • 4. HOW THE PEOPLE VIEW SPECIAL INTERESTS
  • 5. HOW THE PEOPLE VIEW SPECIAL INTERESTS
  • 6. AMERICAN MILITARY POWER The United States possesses the most advanced military hardware known to man. Here is a sample of our overwhelming firepower. Students will be asked the following question following this video presentation: “What prevents the United States from utilizing its full military capacity?
  • 7. THE FINAL OPTION
  • 8. PRESIDENTS & BUREAUCRACIES Presidential Control of the Bureaucracy is a power delegated by the Constitution. 1. Appointments allow the president to manage programs and enforce policy using loyal officials. 2. Reorganization allows the president to prioritize his policy initiatives. 3. The Budget with Congress allows the president to make a policy statement about the role of government.
  • 9. MASSES & PARTIES Activists are most likely to participate in campaign activities. These are the most partisan among typical voters. Two of the most common activities aside from voting is donating personal labor and financial resources. Political pandering refers to how parties cater to their core base of activists. Those found in the Republican Party tend to be more conservative than the average Republican voter. Democratic activists on the other hand tend to be more liberal than the average Democratic voter.
  • 10. COLD WAR MANIPULATION Propaganda is a necessary tool. “Make Mine Freedom” is a 1948 Cold War-era cartoon that uses humor to tout the dangers of Communism and the benefits of capitalism. Various points made in this presentation touch on John Locke’s “Second Treatise Of Government”. Can you pick them out?
  • 11. MAKE MINE FREEDOM
  • 12. COLD WAR MANIPULATION Elite manipulation has existed in our country even prior to the days of our founding. Masses are susceptible to manipulation as they are highly emotional. Elites utilize symbolism to pull these emotional heartstrings at will. Enjoy this 1952 government sponsored film vilifying communism.
  • 13. COMMUNISM
  • 14. COLD WAR MANIPULATION The “Kitchen Debate” was held in Moscow on July 24, 1959. VicePresident Richard Nixon debates Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev in a make-believe kitchen. The day before, Vice-President Richard Nixon had flown to Moscow in a "cultural exchange" program between the two countries. The stated goal of the exchange was to promote understanding about the cultures of the two superpowers. Both men were focusing on promoting their respective systems to the non-aligned countries.
  • 15. THE KITCHEN DEBATE
  • 16. CONGRESS Congress is a less representative branch than the Founding Fathers intended. 1. Members of Congress are political entrepreneurs recruited from the upper classes of their home constituencies. 2. Members of Congress represent the elites of their districts and responsibly vote on their behalf with strong regularity. 3. Members of Congress have a reputation for using incumbency advantages and consistently raising money to seek reelection. 4. Leadership procedures and structures in Congress appear to form interlocking conglomerates of policy responders, iron triangle members, and status quo protectors.
  • 17. CONGRESS VS. THE PRESIDENT The Constitution gives Congress an Invitation to Struggle with the President. 1. Congress responds to policy proposals initiated by the president. 2. Congress and the president have engaged in highly publicized budgetary battles. 3. Congress has used investigations and impeachment in an attempt to control the president’s actions for perhaps purely political reasons.
  • 18. MANIPULATION EXAMPLE How can we protect ourselves against the threats of germs and toxins? Cold War America gears up to fend off threats from unconventional bioweapons. This is another example of how propaganda is utilized to foster fear within society. Enjoy this example.
  • 19. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE
  • 20. COURTS – 1 Judicial decision making by the Supreme Court involves most important policy questions. 1. Judicial review gives the federal court system power to say whether actions of the two political branches are constitutional or unconstitutional. 2. Jurisdiction gives the Court the opportunity to hear and decide a case and seek compliance with its ruling. 3. Judicial philosophy gives justices the tools to make wise decisions about constitutional issues. 4. Politics is a useful decision making aid when a case does not present a liberal-conservative dimension.
  • 21. COURTS – 2 1. The backgrounds of all Supreme Court justices generally reflect ties with the upper social strata that rule the nation. 2. The style of judicial policy making contributes to the power of the Supreme Court. 3. The hierarchical structure of the federal court system and the Supreme Court contribute to their influence in the political system. 4. The Court as ruler of the nation is an appropriate description for an institution that resolves key conflicts in society and is not even elected.
  • 22. PROPAGANDA Governmental elites may believe that their national policies are so concrete that it is necessary to utilize various forms of propaganda to incite specific reactions from its citizens. Various forms of propaganda have been utilized to drum up mass support to better assure elite legitimacy. Cinemocracy, the relationship between motion pictures and government is one way governmental elites sell their agenda. Enjoy this classic cartoon, “The Ducktators”.
  • 23. THE DUCKTATORS
  • 24. THOMAS PAINE’S “COMMON SENSE” – 1 Arguments against British rule in Common Sense: • It is ridiculous and against natural law for an island to rule a continent. • Europe is unlikely to see peace for long and whenever a war breaks out between England and a foreign power, the trade of America would go to ruin due to the economic connection. • It is no longer a "British nation"; it is composed of influences from all of Europe. • Even if Britain was originally the "mother country" of America, that makes her current actions all the more horrendous, for no true mother would harm her children so deplorably.
  • 25. THOMAS PAINE’S “COMMON SENSE” – 2 • Remaining a part of Britain will drag America into unnecessary European wars, and keep it from the international commerce at which America excels. • That government is best that governs least. Society represents all that is good about humanity, government represents all that is bad about it. • The distance between the two nations makes the lag in communication time about a year for something to go round trip. If there was something wrong in the government, it would take a year before the colonies would hear back.
  • 26. THOMAS PAINE’S “COMMON SENSE” – 3 • The New World was discovered shortly after the Reformation. This was evidence for the Puritans that God wanted to give them America as a safe haven free from the persecution of British rule. • Criticizes the English Constitution, saying that the right for the House of Commons to "check" the king is ridiculous, as the king is given the right to rule by God, therefore, he needs no "checking".