Political Science 7 – International Relations - Power Point #9
Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 7 Modern World Governments – Spring 2013 Supplemental Power Point Material #9
LECTURE HIGHLIGHTS• Globalization• Withering Away Of The State: Yes Or No?• Technology Allowing Globalization• Technology Benefits America• Internet Versus The State• Liberalism As Primary Motivator• Transition• Stability & Instability
WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE? (1)NO HIGHER AUTHORITY : There is no higher authoritythan the nation-state. They cannot willingly cede either inpart or in full their authority to international riles andagreements. Every state retains the right to withdraw fromany agreement regardless of any consequence. This resultsin an international system consisting of both law and powerpolitics that continuously mix. Economic activity hasextended from within national territories to the global andtransnational economic system. National governments arebecoming “glorified local territories” whose task if to providethose public services that businesses desire.
WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE? (2)The agenda is twofold for national governments seek topromote the competitiveness of local firms while at thesame time attract foreign investment. One waygovernments achieve this is through infrastructureinvestments in those areas that support business,including transportation, communication, etc.Globalization has so far only encompassed westerncountries, Israel and certain Asian countries like Japan,South Korea and China. Most of the world has been leftout, including Africa, Latin America, Russia, Middle Eastand swaths of Asia. Globalization benefits “northernlatitude” countries most.
WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE? (3)Money markets may be the only truly global sectorthat touches most countries, with finance capitalallowed to move freely between OECD(Organization for Economic Co-operation andDevelopment) countries and most other countries.Modern capitalism’s development and survival inadvanced countries was advanced solely becauseit catered to its middle class by maintaining itsvoracity of consumption. This required ever-expanding levels of output to maintain increasedaccess to goods and services.
WITHERING AWAY OF THE STATE? (4)Globalization in the sense that increasedcompetition has required increased efficiency hasforced countries to reduce or in some casesseverely curtail its social welfare programs andeven encourage the reduction of wages, all in theeffort for its labor markets to remain competitive inthe face of foreign competition. This in turn presentsprosperous countries with the danger of damagingthe prosperity of its middle class if it continues toundermine needed social foundations.
GLOBALIZATION REMAINS CONSTANT Globalization will remain constant for two reasons: 1. First, there is no other alternative to globalization for it has shown to be the best model even when confronted with its primary competitor, the “Asian development model”. 2. Technology has allowed communication to spread across the entire globe, which empower individuals to function more independent of government controls over communication.
TECHNOLOGY & GLOBALIZATION (1)Science is on the cusp of new technologicalinnovations in the life sciences and biotechnology.Technology has allowed mankind to realizeglobalization. Liberalism and its market-basedorder continue to be the primary motivator fortechnological innovation that in turn has renderedprevious norms obsolete. One can argue that thisconstant drive may in time render internationalstrife, conflict and other assorted calamitiesobsolete.
TECHNOLOGY & GLOBALIZATION (2)Within a few generations, advancements inbiotechnology will succeed in abolishing humanlimitations, thus accomplishing what socialengineers have so far failed to do. Lifeexpectancy and issues pertaining to quality of lifewill have been solved, thus ushering a new post-human history. Interdependence is not a newdevelopment. What are new are the everdecreasing costs associated with communicatingover long distances.
TECHNOLOGY & GLOBALIZATION (3)The highest data transmission rate possible in1980 was one page of information sent overcopper wire. In 2004, it was possible to transmitover 90,000 volumes per second over a singlethin strand of optical fiber. It takes time forsocieties to become accustomed to technologicalinnovations as they adapt to new ways ofbecoming ever more productive. When the costfor transnational flows of information includingfunds was expensive and tedious, only largebureaucracies like multinational corporationscould participate.
TECHNOLOGY & GLOBALIZATION (4)As data transmission costs decreased, allowingindividuals to participate, it has brought about theadvancement of Non Governmental Institutions(NGOs) and loose networks of domesticconstituents to direct the agendas of politicalleaders in most countries. The informationrevolution has not dramatically weakened militaryforce and security, the two other conditions ofcomplex interdependence. Military relationsoutflank most other issues that states face, whilesecurity remains the fundamental concern incomparison to other foreign policy issues.
TECHNOLOGY BENEFITS AMERICA (1)There are several reasons why the informationrevolution helps not only small actors, but alsothose that already command power.First, information aspects of power retain barriersfor its creation. There may be significanteconomic costs as well as legitimacy issuespertaining to information-related aspects of powerlike those produced by American entertainmentindustries.
TECHNOLOGY BENEFITS AMERICA (2)Second, it may be cheap to broadcast information,but there may be costs associated with itscollection and production. Intelligence informationis a good example, as is commercial informationthat may pertain to new technologies orproduction techniques.
TECHNOLOGY BENEFITS AMERICA (3)Third, norms are likely to be established by thosewho are the first to create information, therebybecoming the standard bearers. Two goodexamples is the use of the English language andhow top-level domains on the Internet have beenaccorded to pioneering actors. Fourth, militarypower remains prevalent, as does the informationavailable to states as some military analysts havereferred to as the “revolution in military affairs”.
TECHNOLOGY BENEFITS AMERICA (4)In terms of access to intelligence that nation-states likethe United States has readily available through spacebased sensors, direct broadcasting, high-speedcomputers, etc., allows it to process hordes ofinformation so rapidly that it can dominate cyberspaceso it can easily dominate battlespace. It allows the US tohave access to information that no other potentialenemy would be privy to.
INTERNET VERSUS THE STATEWill the Internet overcome state power? Even if abillion people have access to the Internet, amajority of the world’s people will not. Three-quarters of the world’s population does not evenown a telephone. Most of the world’s populationdoes not have access to computers, let alone themeans of accessing the data network.
LIBERALISM TRIUMPHS ALLLiberal democracy is preferred for its competitionrepresented worse alternatives. This also led to theacceptance of liberalism as the best choice available atthe time, thus delaying a needed debate regardingwhether a better regime is possible. Postmodernistassumptions about the legitimacy of liberal democracyare pessimistic. Postmodernists would not be able tobring forth any adequate arguments regarding betteralternatives to liberal democracy, as they are unwillingto acknowledge its overall success. To validate thefuture success of liberal democracy does require adebate about potential successors.
GLOBALIZATION (1)Globalization is a process that seems to create a moreunified world united in a single economic system.Globalization continues to be cited as a cause for thewithering away of the state. Technology has allowedmankind to realize globalization. Liberalism and itsmarket-based order continue to be the primary motivatorfor technological innovation that in turn has renderedprevious norms obsolete. One can argue that thisconstant drive may in time render international strife,conflict and other assorted calamities obsolete. Liberalswould argue that globalization is a trend toward thetransformation of world politics with states no longerremaining sealed units.
GLOBALIZATION (2)Globalization may be seen as a homogenizationprocess that equalizes prices, products, wages, wealth,rates of interest and profit margins. It is a movementthat can spark resistance both within the United Statesas well as around the world. This can come fromreligious fundamentalists, labor unions and other typesof special interest groups. Globalization has so far onlyencompassed western countries, Israel and certainAsian countries like Japan, South Korea and China.Most of the world has been left out, including Africa,Latin America, Russia, Middle East and swaths of Asia.
GLOBALIZATION (3)This political piece exploresthe effects of globalization.One can argue thatglobalization has extendedpeople’s buying power.Dollars can be stretched mustfurther thanks to lower laborcosts found in distant lands.“Big Box-Mart” argues thatcheap goods does present aserious side effect. Does themessage relate to yourpersonal belief about ourpresent global economy?
WORLD ECONOMIC SYSTEM (1)Capitalism is a dynamic system containing entrepreneurialclasses that pursue their own interests with such vigor that acrises of overproduction occurs, thus causing downturns inthe world economy. The system is contradictory on manyfronts:•It requires constant expansion – but this has reached itslimits.•Its dynamic nature requires outsourcing of costs – but thistoo is reaching its limits.•Further slow proletarianization of the working poor.Capitalists are against this for it increases labor costs aswell as political risks.
WORLD ECONOMIC SYSTEM (2)Liberalism has therefore accrued so much debt onstates in order to maintain loyalty to the system thatthe money owing public may overturn the entiresystem. This disintegration of sovereignty hassiphoned state power as they are facing increaseddifficulty in performing traditional functions. Globalfactors are increasingly impinging on all state madedecisions.
TRIAD STATES MOST POWERFUL (1)States remain a powerful player in contrast to thosewho argue that the global economy is void of orderor influence by nation-states. The global economyis not one that is ungovernable or controlled solelyby “footloose transnational companies”. Fewcompanies are transnational for nearly allcompanies maintain home roots in at least onecountry. Most of these corporations are actuallymultinational that operate from a base of operationsthat is located in one of the three blocs of the Triad.
TRIAD STATES MOST POWERFUL (2)Multinational corporations benefit from having theirhome base in a major industrialized country of theTriad. These companies are provided a widebarrage of public assistance that include researchand development assistance, standards set bypublic agencies, protections from commercial lawthat include patents and trademarks, and beinglocated in key districts related to their business.
TRIAD STATES MOST POWERFUL (3)Multinational corporations benefit from beinglocated in a major industrialized country, whilebenefiting from trade and producing productsand/or services through subsidiaries and affiliateslocated outside their base of operation.Multinational corporations produced an average of40% of world output in 1990, but the share of theirrespective subsidiaries and affiliates averagedaround 7%.
TRIAD STATES MOST POWERFUL (4)It is highly unlikely that economicglobalization would result in the formation ofone large state. The problem with this is thateconomic markets and interests cannotperform those functions of government thatare depended upon. Interdependenteconomies are a better description of today’sinternational political economy.
TRIAD STATES MOST POWERFUL (5)Three major blocs of wealth and power dominatethe world economy: the Triad of Europe, Japan andNorth America. The concentration of world capitalremains concentrated in the three main blocs. Twoof these three blocs are centered on nation-states,Japan and the United States, while the third is theEuropean Union, an association of wealthy nation-states pooling their sovereignty in commoneconomic institutions. There is a misconception thatcapital from the Triad is fleeing into Third Worldinvestments.
TRANSITIONAL EFFECTS (1)Competition among spheres of interest producesgreat returns for humanity. The constant strive formarketplace acceptance has resulted in Americaprogressing from a predominantly agriculturalsociety to an industrial, nuclear, and informationbased society. The United States is unique in that itexcels in more than one particular capitalistendeavor. Innovation has led to advancements thathave greatly influenced every aspect of society.
TRANSITIONAL EFFECTS (2)Society has benefited from advancements in:•Energy harvesting•Computers•Communication•Water purification• Medicine• And all other areas not listed for the list would beenormous.
TRANSITIONAL EFFECTS (3)Every significant discovery has in turn greatlyinfluenced societal norms of behavior. Masses todayview internet communications as a vital necessity. Itis nearly impossible to operate in a complex societywithout easy access to the web. The majority ofmasses did not have this belief fifteen years ago.Only society determining that the internet allowed forgreater efficiency was it adopted as a societal norm.Those not willing to adapt became obsolete.
STABILIZATIONSudden instability is the greatest threat to humanity for itthreatens to cause irreparable harm to the individual. Onemay never consider harming another person in a state ofnature. Elimination of one’s sustenance throws the individualinto a state of war, because their survival is now threatened.Nation-states consist of multiple spheres of interest in turnconsisting of individual units consisting of people. As survivalis the primary goal of man, so it is the ultimate pursuit ofnation-states. The primary concern is that of stability. Thisphilosophy has prevented a major war from taking placeover the last sixty years. Instability is the primary cause of allconflict both within and between nation-states.
STATE INTERDEPENDENCY (1)Societal interdependence addresses situations inwhich events within one society affect events inanother. Government involvement in instigatingthese events does not have to take place for this tooccur. Transnational relations helped to encourageinterdependency between states. Statesinterdependent on one another presented each witheconomic and political trade-offs whereas gains inone may lead to the weakening of another existingin the political sciences.
STATE INTERDEPENDENCY (2)Economic gains that may be derived from externalsources that are able to produce them moreefficiently while only retaining those industries thatare efficient may allow a state to achieve higheroverall productivity. This comes at a price when astate becomes so dependent on foreign sources ofgoods that it affects how its foreign policy. As astate becomes increasingly interdependent, it alsoserves to prevent it from acting overly aggressiveagainst those states that it has become dependent.