Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 7    Modern World Governments – Spring 2013     Supplemental Power Point Material #8
LECTURE HIGHLIGHTS (1)•   Deterrence•   Obsolescence Of War•   Security Dilemma•   Counterbalancing•   Strategic Defense I...
LECTURE HIGHLIGHTS (2)•   Crisis Management•   Domestic Politics•   Bureaucracies•   Interest Groups•   Military Industria...
DETERRENCEDeterrence has worked because neither sidereally knew what the other side was thinking. Aproblem with deterrence...
OBSOLESCENCE OF WARRealists argue that the struggle for power remainsconstant in the international system. The only variab...
SECURITY DILEMMANation-states pursue their individual national-interests ona never-ending basis, which in turn leads to a ...
COUNTERBALANCING (1)One can argue that the People’s Republic Of China (PRC)will continue to seek a counterbalancing force ...
COUNTERBALANCING (2)The PRC has nothing to worry about as anti-missiledefenses are not even worth considering if they are ...
MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (1)• Foreign policies are the strategies  governments use to guide their actions in  the internation...
MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (2)• Comparative foreign policy.   – Study of foreign policy in various states     in order to disco...
MODELS OF DECISION MAKING (1)• Rational model:  – Decision makers set goals, evaluate    their relative importance, calcul...
MODELS OF DECISION MAKING (2)• Organizational process model:  – Foreign policy makers generally skip the labor-    intensi...
DECISION MAKING AS STEERING
INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKERS (1)• Study of individual decision making revolves  around the question of rationality.   – To w...
INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKERS (2)•    Beyond individual idiosyncrasies, individual     decision making diverges from the rati...
INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKERS (3)  •   Cognitive biases are systematic distortions of      rational calculations based not on...
INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKERS (4)• Two specific modifications of the rational model of  decision making have been proposed to...
GROUP PSYCHOLOGY• Group dynamics can be a promoter of state interests but  they can also introduce new sources of irration...
CRISIS MANAGEMENT• Crises are foreign policy situations in  which outcomes are very important  and time frames are compres...
DOMESTIC POLITICS• Foreign policy is shaped not only by the  internal dynamics of individual and group  decision making bu...
BUREAUCRACIES• Diplomats:   – Virtually all states maintain a diplomatic corps, or     foreign service, of diplomats in em...
INTEREST GROUPS• Coalitions of people who share a common interest in the  outcome of some political issue and who organize...
MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX (1)• Huge interlocking network of governmental agencies,  industrial corporations, and researc...
MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX (2)The phrase, “Military Industrial Complex” wasfirst used by President Dwight D. Eisenhowerdu...
PUBLIC OPINION (1)• Range of views on foreign policy issues  held by the citizens of a state.• Has a greater influence on ...
PUBLIC OPINION (2)• In democracies, public opinion generally  has less effect on foreign policy than on  domestic policy. ...
LEGISLATURES (1)• Conduit through which interest groups and public opinion  can wield influence.   – Presidential systems;...
LEGISLATURES (2)– Parliamentary systems; political parties are  dominant   • Often parliamentary executives do not need   ...
STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE (1)AIRBORNE LASER LABORATORYThe Airborne Laser Lab was a gas-dynamiclaser mounted in a modifi...
STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE (2)
MDA’s mision is to develop and field anintegrated, layered, ballistic missile defensesystem to defend the United States, i...
The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has developed aresearch, development and test program focusing on missiledefense as a sin...
Midcourse phase is the longest part ofthe missile flight. It is where the missilepayload has separated from thebooster roc...
BOOST PHASE DEFENSEThe boost phase is the part of a missile flight path fromlaunch until it stops accelerating under its o...
The two types of boost defense elements are:1. Directed energy systems using high power lasers such   as the Airborne Lase...
AIRBORNE LASER1. Designed to detect, track, target, and kill   threatening missiles, no matter if they are   short, medium...
OverviewThe Airborne Laser program brings together a combinationof technologies: a 747 aircraft, an advanced detection and...
AIRBORNE LASER PROGRAM
Operational Sequence1. The Airborne Laser uses six strategically placed infrared sensors   to detect the exhaust plume of ...
Development1. Testing was completed on the High Energy Chemical Oxygen Iodine   Laser on December 6, 2005. The laser was f...
KINETIC ENERGY WEAPONS1. The programs primary objective over the next few   years is developing an interceptor capable of ...
Kinetic Energy InterceptorsThe Kinetic Energy Interceptors program’s mission is to providethe Ballistic Missile Defense Sy...
OverviewThe Kinetic Energy Interceptors weaponsystem is comprised of three majorcomponents: a missile launcher; a firecont...
Details1. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors destroy ballistic missiles in   the boost, ascent, or midcourse phases of flight...
4. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors weapon system’s   mobility enables rapid deployment near an adversary’s   launch sites ...
MIDCOURSE PHASE DEFENSEThe midcourse phase of a ballistic missile trajectory allows thelongest window of opportunity to in...
Primary Elements Of Midcourse Defense Segment1. Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)2. Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Ae...
Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)The mission of the Ground-Based MidcourseDefense element of the Ballistic Missile Defe...
DetailsGround-Based     Midcourse    Defense      iscomposed of three main components:sensors, ground-based interceptors, ...
2. Ground-Based Interceptor: A Ground-Based Interceptor is   made up of a three-stage, solid fuel booster and an   exoatmo...
Development1. Interceptor missiles are emplaced at Fort Greely, Alaska and   Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. More are pl...
AEGISThe sea-based system is intended tointercept short to medium range hostilemissiles in the ascent and descent phase of...
Aegis Ballistic Missile DefenseAegis Ballistic Missile Defense is the sea-basedelement of the Missile Defense Agency’s Bal...
Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Long Range Surveillance andTrack:1. Aegis Destroyers, on Ballistic Missile Defense patrol,...
Engagement Capability1. Aegis Cruisers and Long Range Surveillance and Track   Destroyers are equipped with the capability...
TestingTo date, including a dual engagement in November, 2007 and thefirst test by an allied Navy in December, 2007, the A...
TERMINAL PHASE DEFENSEA missile enters the terminal phase when the warhead fallsback into the atmosphere. This phase gener...
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense System (THAAD)1. THAAD will destroy a ballistic missile as it transitions   from the m...
Arrow1. Developed jointly by the U.S. and Israel.   Provides capability to defend against short and   medium-range ballist...
PATRIOT PAC-3 Program1. The most mature elements of the BMDS2. Transferred to the U. S. Army in 2003.3. MDA still responsi...
Medium Extended Air Defense System1. A cooperative effort between the United States,   Germany, and Italy to develop an ai...
4. MEADS role in ballistic missile defense is to   bridge the gap between man-portable systems   like the Stinger missile ...
SensorsAn effective layered defense incorporates a wide-rangeof sensors to detect and track threat missiles through allpha...
Defense Support Program (DSP) SatellitesExisting Defense Support Program (DSP)satellites, now orbiting the earth in ageosy...
Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS)The Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS)constellation will provide early warning of ball...
Early Warning Radars (EWR)MDA is upgrading the hardware andsoftware of existing ground-based radarslocated in California, ...
THAAD RadarThe TPS-X radar produced for theTerminal High Altitude Area Defense(THAAD) missile system will beupgraded to be...
Forward Deployable Radars (FDR)Forward Deployable Radars would provideadditional layers of sensor capability and moreeffec...
STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE (1)AIRBORNE LASER LABORATORYThe Airborne Laser Lab was a gas-dynamiclaser mounted in a modifi...
STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE (2)
MDA’s mision is to develop and field anintegrated, layered, ballistic missile defensesystem to defend the United States, i...
The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has developed aresearch, development and test program focusing on missiledefense as a sin...
Midcourse phase is the longest part ofthe missile flight. It is where the missilepayload has separated from thebooster roc...
MDAS GOALS1. Retain, recruit, and develop a high-performing and accountable   workforce.2. Deliver near-term additional de...
THE THREATWhile the end of the Cold War signaled a reduction in the likelihood of globalnuclear conflict, the threat from ...
BOOST PHASE DEFENSEThe boost phase is the part of a missile flight path fromlaunch until it stops accelerating under its o...
The two types of boost defense elements are:1. Directed energy systems using high power lasers such   as the Airborne Lase...
AIRBORNE LASER1. Designed to detect, track, target, and kill   threatening missiles, no matter if they are   short, medium...
OverviewThe Airborne Laser program brings together a combinationof technologies: a 747 aircraft, an advanced detection and...
Operational Sequence1. The Airborne Laser uses six strategically placed infrared sensors   to detect the exhaust plume of ...
Development1. Testing was completed on the High Energy Chemical Oxygen Iodine   Laser on December 6, 2005. The laser was f...
KINETIC ENERGY WEAPONS1. The programs primary objective over the next few   years is developing an interceptor capable of ...
Kinetic Energy InterceptorsThe Kinetic Energy Interceptors program’s mission is to providethe Ballistic Missile Defense Sy...
OverviewThe Kinetic Energy Interceptors weaponsystem is comprised of three majorcomponents: a missile launcher; a firecont...
Details1. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors destroy ballistic missiles in   the boost, ascent, or midcourse phases of flight...
4. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors weapon system’s mobility   enables rapid deployment near an adversary’s launch sites an...
MIDCOURSE PHASE DEFENSEThe midcourse phase of a ballistic missile trajectory allows thelongest window of opportunity to in...
The primary elements of the Midcourse Defense Segmentare:1. Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)2. Aegis Ballistic Missile...
Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)The mission of the Ground-Based MidcourseDefense element of the Ballistic Missile Defe...
DetailsGround-Based     Midcourse    Defense      iscomposed of three main components:sensors, ground-based interceptors, ...
2. Ground-Based Interceptor: A Ground-Based Interceptor is   made up of a three-stage, solid fuel booster and an   exoatmo...
Development1. Interceptor missiles are emplaced at Fort Greely, Alaska and   Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. More are pl...
AEGIS BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSEThe sea-based system is intended tointercept short to medium range hostilemissiles in the a...
Aegis Ballistic Missile DefenseAegis Ballistic Missile Defense is the sea-basedelement of the Missile Defense Agency’s Bal...
Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Long Range Surveillance andTrack:1. Aegis Destroyers, on Ballistic Missile Defense patrol,...
Engagement Capability1. Aegis Cruisers and Long Range Surveillance and Track   Destroyers are being equipped with the capa...
Testing• To date, including a dual engagement in November, 2007 and   the first test by an allied Navy in December, 2007, ...
TERMINAL PHASE DEFENSEA missile enters the terminal phase when the warhead fallsback into the atmosphere. This phase gener...
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense System (THAAD)1. THAAD will destroy a ballistic missile as it transitions   from the m...
Arrow1. Developed jointly by the U.S. and Israel.   Provides Israel with a capability to defend its   borders and U.S. tro...
PATRIOT PAC-3 Program1. The most mature elements of the BMDS.2. Transferred to the U. S. Army in 2003.3. MDA still respons...
Medium Extended Air Defense System1. A cooperative effort between the United States,   Germany, and Italy to develop an ai...
4. MEADS role in ballistic missile defense is to   bridge the gap between man-portable systems   like the Stinger missile ...
SensorsAn effective layered defense incorporates a wide-rangeof sensors to detect and track threat missiles through allpha...
Defense Support Program (DSP) SatellitesExisting Defense Support Program (DSP)satellites, now orbiting the earth in ageosy...
Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS)The Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS)constellation will provide early warning of ball...
Early Warning Radars (EWR)MDA is upgrading the hardware andsoftware of existing ground-based radarslocated in California, ...
THAAD RadarThe TPS-X radar produced for theTerminal High Altitude Area Defense(THAAD) missile system will beupgraded to be...
Forward Deployable Radars (FDR)Forward Deployable Radars would provideadditional layers of sensor capability and moreeffec...
This is a film produced by the Missile DefenseAgency. It is titled “BMDS Overview: A Day in the    Life of Global Ballisti...
Political Science 7 – International Relations - Power Point #8
Political Science 7 – International Relations - Power Point #8
Political Science 7 – International Relations - Power Point #8
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Political Science 7 – International Relations - Power Point #8

1,457

Published on

Political Science 7 – International Relations - Spring 2013 - Power Point Presentation #8 - © 2013 Tabakian, Inc.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,457
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
45
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Political Science 7 – International Relations - Power Point #8"

  1. 1. Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 7 Modern World Governments – Spring 2013 Supplemental Power Point Material #8
  2. 2. LECTURE HIGHLIGHTS (1)• Deterrence• Obsolescence Of War• Security Dilemma• Counterbalancing• Strategic Defense Initiative• Missile Defense Agency• Making Foreign Policy• Models Of Decision Making• Decision Making As Steering• Individual Decision Makers• Group Psychology
  3. 3. LECTURE HIGHLIGHTS (2)• Crisis Management• Domestic Politics• Bureaucracies• Interest Groups• Military Industrial Complex• Public Opinion• Legislatures
  4. 4. DETERRENCEDeterrence has worked because neither sidereally knew what the other side was thinking. Aproblem with deterrence is that the more timesbluffs are made it may lead to a time whensomeone is going to make the call. At this pointthere are only three alternatives:1. Resort to nuclear war2. Retreat3. Resort to conventional war
  5. 5. OBSOLESCENCE OF WARRealists argue that the struggle for power remainsconstant in the international system. The only variable isthe makeup of the balance of power. This may be bipolar,or multipolar, which in turn determines whether war orpeace. When one state assumes unilateral control overits neighbors, war will most likely erupt. A multipolarbalance of power leads to a constant struggle for poweramong those states that continuing “tit for tat”advantages. Bipolar distributions of power have shown tobe the best method for maintaining peace. Deterrencetheory argues that war will become obsolete and that itwill become transfixed in the moral arena.
  6. 6. SECURITY DILEMMANation-states pursue their individual national-interests ona never-ending basis, which in turn leads to a stableinternational system. Defenders of a competitive securitysystem suggest that states are forever striving to increasetheir security in relation to that of other states. This wouldentail ego’s gain as alter’s loss and as a result is prone tosecurity dilemmas. In a cooperative security system,states equate the security of each as a contribution to thecollective good. National interests are seen to bolsterinternational interests.
  7. 7. COUNTERBALANCING (1)One can argue that the People’s Republic Of China (PRC)will continue to seek a counterbalancing force to preventthe US from extending its realm of influence in Asia. Thedefensive posture of the US along with its cooperationwith Japan in building nationally based and theatre wideanti-missile defense systems is plainly seen as a threat tothe PRC as it can also have offensive capabilities.Realists affirm that power can serve to deter threats, buttoo much power can force other actors to respond harshly,sparking a “security dilemma”, which is a situation whenactors begin pursuing more power, resulting in anenvironment that is less safe.
  8. 8. COUNTERBALANCING (2)The PRC has nothing to worry about as anti-missiledefenses are not even worth considering if they are notclose to 100% effective. Once a state is in possession ofa delivery system that is able to withstand a first-strikeand deliver warheads to all targets, then it has achievedthe rational limits of nuclear armament. The rules ofWorld War II do not apply in the nuclear age with respectto arms races
  9. 9. MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (1)• Foreign policies are the strategies governments use to guide their actions in the international arena. – Spell out the objectives state leaders have decided to pursue in a given relationship or situation. – Foreign policy process: How policies are arrived at and implemented.
  10. 10. MAKING FOREIGN POLICY (2)• Comparative foreign policy. – Study of foreign policy in various states in order to discover whether similar types of societies or governments consistently have similar types of foreign policies.• Foreign policy outcomes result from multiple forces at various levels of analysis.
  11. 11. MODELS OF DECISION MAKING (1)• Rational model: – Decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, and then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs. – Role of uncertainty. – Accepting of risk versus averse to risk.
  12. 12. MODELS OF DECISION MAKING (2)• Organizational process model: – Foreign policy makers generally skip the labor- intensive process of identifying goals and alternative actions, relying instead for most decisions on standardized responses or standard operating procedures (sop).• Government bargaining (bureaucratic) model: – Foreign policy decisions result from the bargaining process among various government agencies with somewhat divergent interests in the outcome.
  13. 13. DECISION MAKING AS STEERING
  14. 14. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKERS (1)• Study of individual decision making revolves around the question of rationality. – To what extent are national leaders (or citizens) able to make rational decisions in the national interest and thus conform to the realist view of IR?• Difficulties of oversimplification – Individual decision makers have differing values and beliefs and have unique personalities. – Idiosyncrasies.
  15. 15. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKERS (2)• Beyond individual idiosyncrasies, individual decision making diverges from the rational model in at least three systematic ways: • Decision makers suffer from misperceptions and selective perceptions when they compile information on the likely consequences of their choices. • The rationality of individual cost-benefit calculations is undermined by emotions that decision makers feel while thinking about the consequences of their actions (affective bias).
  16. 16. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKERS (3) • Cognitive biases are systematic distortions of rational calculations based not on emotional feelings but simply on the limitations of the human brain in making choices. • Cognitive dissonance • Justification of effort • Wishful thinking • Mirror image • Projection • Historical analogies
  17. 17. INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKERS (4)• Two specific modifications of the rational model of decision making have been proposed to accommodate psychological realities. – Bounded rationality: • Takes into account the costs of seeking and processing information. – Optimizing. – Satisfying. – Prospect theory: • Decision makes go through two phases: editing phase and the evaluation phase. • Holds that evaluations take place by comparison with a reference point, which is often the status quo but might be some past or expected situation.
  18. 18. GROUP PSYCHOLOGY• Group dynamics can be a promoter of state interests but they can also introduce new sources of irrationality into the decision-making process.• Groupthink – Refers to the tendency for groups to reach decisions without accurately assessing their consequences, because individual members tend to go along with ideas they think the others support – Groups tend to be overly optimistic about the chances of success and are thus more willing to take risks. • Iran-Contra scandal
  19. 19. CRISIS MANAGEMENT• Crises are foreign policy situations in which outcomes are very important and time frames are compressed. –Time constraints –Groupthink –Psychological stress
  20. 20. DOMESTIC POLITICS• Foreign policy is shaped not only by the internal dynamics of individual and group decision making but also by the states and societies within which decision makers operate.
  21. 21. BUREAUCRACIES• Diplomats: – Virtually all states maintain a diplomatic corps, or foreign service, of diplomats in embassies in foreign capitals. – Political appointees. – Career diplomats. – Tension common between state leaders and foreign policy bureaucrats.• Interagency tensions: – Bureaucratic rivalry as an influence on foreign policy challenges the notion of states as unitary actors in the international system.
  22. 22. INTEREST GROUPS• Coalitions of people who share a common interest in the outcome of some political issue and who organize themselves to try to influence the outcome.• Lobbying: – The process of talking with legislators or officials to influence their decisions on some set of issues. – Three important elements: • Ability to gain a hearing with busy officials. • Ability to present cogent arguments for one’s case. • Ability to trade favors in return for positive action on an issue.
  23. 23. MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX (1)• Huge interlocking network of governmental agencies, industrial corporations, and research institutes, working together to supply a nation’s military forces.• Response to the growing importance of technology• Encompasses a variety of constituencies, each of which has an interest in military spending. – Corporations, military officers, universities, and scientific institutes that receive military research contracts. – Revolving door. – PACS from the military industry.
  24. 24. MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX (2)The phrase, “Military Industrial Complex” wasfirst used by President Dwight D. Eisenhowerduring his farewell address to the nation onJanuary 17, 1961. He warns against theincreasing influence of corporate influence inall areas of government. More significant isthe fact that before the presidency, DwightEisenhower’s was a five-star general in theUnited States Army. During the Second WorldWar, he served as Supreme Commander ofthe Allied forces in Europe, with responsibilityfor planning and supervising the successfulinvasion of France and Germany in 1944–45.In 1951, he became the first supremecommander of NATO.
  25. 25. PUBLIC OPINION (1)• Range of views on foreign policy issues held by the citizens of a state.• Has a greater influence on foreign policy in democracies than in authoritarian governments. – Legitimacy – Propaganda – Journalists as gatekeepers
  26. 26. PUBLIC OPINION (2)• In democracies, public opinion generally has less effect on foreign policy than on domestic policy. – Attentive public – Foreign policy elite – Rally ’round the flag syndrome – Diversionary foreign policy
  27. 27. LEGISLATURES (1)• Conduit through which interest groups and public opinion can wield influence. – Presidential systems; separate elections. • Legislatures play a direct role in making foreign policy. • Different rules apply, however, to the use of military force. – Rally ’round the flag. – May challenge the president if they have power of the “purse”.
  28. 28. LEGISLATURES (2)– Parliamentary systems; political parties are dominant • Often parliamentary executives do not need to submit treaties or policies for formal approval by the legislature. • Call elections; new executive • Legislatures play a key role in designing and implementing foreign policy.
  29. 29. STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE (1)AIRBORNE LASER LABORATORYThe Airborne Laser Lab was a gas-dynamiclaser mounted in a modified version of a KC-135 used for flight testing. Similar to thecommercial Boeing 707, the slightly smallerKC-135 was designed to military specificationsand operated at hight gross weights. TheNKC-135A (S/N 55-3123) is one of 14 KC-135As permanently converted for specialtesting. It was extensively modified by the AirForce weapons Labratory at Kirtland AFB,New Mexico, and used in an 11-yearexperiment to prove a high-energy laser couldbe operated in an aircraft and employedagainst airborne targets. During theexperiment, the Airborne Laser Lab destroyedfive AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles and aNavy BQM-34A target drone.
  30. 30. STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE (2)
  31. 31. MDA’s mision is to develop and field anintegrated, layered, ballistic missile defensesystem to defend the United States, itsdeployed forces, allies, and friends against allranges of enemy ballistic missiles in all phasesof flight. The fundamental objective of theBallistic Missile Defense (BMD) program is todevelop the capability to defend forces andterritories of the United States, its allies andfriends against all classes and ranges ofballistic missile threats.
  32. 32. The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has developed aresearch, development and test program focusing on missiledefense as a single layered defense system. The structureinvolves three basic phases of ballistic missile trajectories:boost, midcourse and terminal. Boost phase is the portion offlight immediately after launch, when the missile is to gainacceleration under power to lift its payload into the air(airspace). This lasts 3-5 minutes.
  33. 33. Midcourse phase is the longest part ofthe missile flight. It is where the missilepayload has separated from thebooster rocket and is coastingunpowered toward a target. This phasecan be as long as 20 minutes. The finalphase is called terminal. This is whenthe missiles warhead re-enters theearths atmosphere and falls towardsits target, propelled only by itsmomentum and the force of gravity.However, its speed can be thousandsof miles per hour. This phase lastsapproximately 30 seconds.
  34. 34. BOOST PHASE DEFENSEThe boost phase is the part of a missile flight path fromlaunch until it stops accelerating under its own power.Typically the boost phase ends at altitudes of 300 miles orless, and within the first 3 to 5 minutes of flight. During thisphase, the rocket is climbing against the Earths gravity.Intercepting a missile in its boost phase is the ideal solution.We can defend a large area of the globe and preventmidcourse decoys from being deployed by destroying themissile early in its flight. Of the boost phase defenses, theAirborne Laser (ABL) is the most mature.
  35. 35. The two types of boost defense elements are:1. Directed energy systems using high power lasers such as the Airborne Laser2. Kinetic energy interceptorsBoost phase elements will be integrated into an overallBallistic Missile Defense operational concept. Sensorsdeveloped in this segment will have multi-missioncapabilities intended to provide critical tracking data forthreat ballistic missiles in all phases of flight.
  36. 36. AIRBORNE LASER1. Designed to detect, track, target, and kill threatening missiles, no matter if they are short, medium, or long-range2. Uses an amalgamation of technologies including a Boeing 747-400 freighter and Chemical, Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL)3. Laser destroys the missile by heating its metal skin until it cracks4. Infrared sensors were first tested on the F- 14 "Tomcat" fighter aircraft shortly before the first Gulf War
  37. 37. OverviewThe Airborne Laser program brings together a combinationof technologies: a 747 aircraft, an advanced detection andtracking system, adaptive optics, and a revolutionary high-energy laser, all of which are being integrated into a singleweapon system for the first time
  38. 38. AIRBORNE LASER PROGRAM
  39. 39. Operational Sequence1. The Airborne Laser uses six strategically placed infrared sensors to detect the exhaust plume of a boosting missile2. Once a target is detected, a kilowatt-class laser, the Track Illuminator, tracks the missile and determines a precise aim point3. The Beacon Illuminator, a second kilowatt-class laser, then measures disturbances in the atmosphere, which are corrected by the adaptive optics system to accurately point and focus the high energy laser4. Using a very large telescope located in the nose turret, the beam control/fire control system focuses the megawatt class laser beam onto a pressurized area of the boosting missile
  40. 40. Development1. Testing was completed on the High Energy Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser on December 6, 2005. The laser was fired continuously for more than 10 seconds at a power level sufficient to destroy a hostile ballistic missile.2. The Low Power System Integration-active flight test series was successfully completed on Aug. 23, 2007 at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. During the test, ABL used all three of the aircrafts laser systems to detect, track, and then engaged a target mounted on a test aircraft with a low-power laser that is serving as a surrogate for the high-power laser.3. ABL has begun integration of the High Energy Laser system on the aircraft. Upon completion, the aircraft will undergo additional ground and flight tests prior to the lethal demonstration against a boosting missile in 2009.
  41. 41. KINETIC ENERGY WEAPONS1. The programs primary objective over the next few years is developing an interceptor capable of destroying incoming missiles2. The longer-term objective is to develop an interceptor that can kill ballistic missiles in the midcourse phase of flight3. The first generation of these interceptors, called the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) element4. System was tested fully in 2011
  42. 42. Kinetic Energy InterceptorsThe Kinetic Energy Interceptors program’s mission is to providethe Ballistic Missile Defense System a strategically deployable,tactically mobile land and sea-based capability to defeat mediumto long-range ballistic missiles during the boost, ascent, andmidcourse phases of flight. The Kinetic Energy Interceptorsweapon system has the potential capacity to be deployed as anelement of the Integrated Ballistic Missile Defense System inthree configurations: land-mobile, sea-mobile, and land-fixed.These multiple deployment configurations increase engagementopportunities, enhance the Ballistic Missile Defense System’slayered defensive capability, and decrease life-cycle operationcosts by leveraging common sub-components across the threedeployed configurations.
  43. 43. OverviewThe Kinetic Energy Interceptors weaponsystem is comprised of three majorcomponents: a missile launcher; a firecontrol and communications unit; and ahigh acceleration interceptor that deliverspayloads capable of destroying adversaryballistic missiles and their lethal payloadsusing kinetic energy.
  44. 44. Details1. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors destroy ballistic missiles in the boost, ascent, or midcourse phases of flight2. During boost or ascent phase intercepts, the interceptor’s payload acquires, homes, and kinetically destroys a hot burning threat ballistic missile prior to deployment of its lethal payload, decoys, and countermeasures3. For midcourse phase intercepts, the interceptor’s payload acquires, discriminates the missile’s deployed lethal payload from accompanying decoys, countermeasures and exhausted boost motors, and then destroys the lethal payload
  45. 45. 4. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors weapon system’s mobility enables rapid deployment near an adversary’s launch sites and subsequent early battle-space engagements of the adversary’s ballistic missile in the boost, ascent, and early midcourse phases of flight.5. Mobility provides the operational flexibility to respond to changing adversary conditions (countries, countermeasures, and tactics) and mitigates an adversary’s capability to exploit our fixed-site ballistic missile defense weapon systems.6. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors fire control component interfaces with the Ballistic Missile Defense System command and control element, Ballistic Missile Defense System sensors and other overhead sensors to obtain threat tracking data.
  46. 46. MIDCOURSE PHASE DEFENSEThe midcourse phase of a ballistic missile trajectory allows thelongest window of opportunity to intercept an incoming missile upto 20 minutes. This is the point where the missile has stoppedthrusting so it follows a more predictable glide path. Themidcourse interceptor and a variety of radars and other sensorshave a longer time to track and engage the target compared toboost and terminal interceptors. Also, more than one interceptorcould be launched to ensure a successful hit. A downside to thelonger intercept window is the attacker has an opportunity todeploy countermeasures against a defensive system.
  47. 47. Primary Elements Of Midcourse Defense Segment1. Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)2. Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD)Ground Based Midcourse (GMD)1. Defends against long-range ballistic missile attacks2. During a GMD intercept, a booster missile flies toward a targets predicted location and releases a "kill vehicle" on a path with the incoming target.3. The kill vehicle uses data from ground-based radars and its own on-board sensors to collide with the target, thus destroying both the target and the kill vehicle using only the force of the impact
  48. 48. Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)The mission of the Ground-Based MidcourseDefense element of the Ballistic Missile DefenseSystem is to defend the nation, our deployedpersonnel, and our friends and allies against alimited long-range ballistic missile attack.Overview1. Uses an array of sensors, radars, and ground-based interceptors that are capable of shooting down long-range ballistic missiles during the midcourse phase2. Directly hits the incoming missile by ramming the warhead with a closing speed of approximately 15,000 miles per hour to destroy it. This is called “hit-to-kill” technology and has been proven to work
  49. 49. DetailsGround-Based Midcourse Defense iscomposed of three main components:sensors, ground-based interceptors, and firecontrol and communications1. Sensors: Ground-Based Midcourse Defense uses a variety of sensors and radars to obtain information on missile launches and to track, discriminate, and target an incoming warhead. This information is provided to the Ground- Based Interceptor before launch and during flight to help it find the incoming ballistic missile and close with it.
  50. 50. 2. Ground-Based Interceptor: A Ground-Based Interceptor is made up of a three-stage, solid fuel booster and an exoatmospheric kill vehicle. When launched, the booster missile carries the kill vehicle toward the target’s predicted location in space. Once released from the booster, the 152 pound kill vehicle uses data received in-flight from ground- based radars and its own on-board sensors to close with and destroy the target using only the force of the impact.3. Fire Control and Communications: This is the central nervous system of the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense element. It connects all of the hardware, software and communications systems necessary for planning, tasking and controlling Ground-Based Midcourse Defense.
  51. 51. Development1. Interceptor missiles are emplaced at Fort Greely, Alaska and Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. More are planned to be emplaced in 20062. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense fire control centers are in Colorado and Alaska3. Several existing early warning radars located around the world, including one on Shemya Island in the Alaskan Aleutian chain, have been upgraded to support flight tests and to provide tracking information in the event of a hostile missile attack4. Nearing completion is a powerful, mobile Sea-based X-Band radar that is scheduled to be fully integrated into the Ballistic Missile Defense System in 2006
  52. 52. AEGISThe sea-based system is intended tointercept short to medium range hostilemissiles in the ascent and descent phase ofmidcourse flight. Engaging missiles in theascent phase reduces the overall BMDSystems susceptibility to countermeasures.Builds upon technologies in the existingAegis Weapons System now aboard U.S.Navy ships and uses the Standard Missile 3.
  53. 53. Aegis Ballistic Missile DefenseAegis Ballistic Missile Defense is the sea-basedelement of the Missile Defense Agency’s BallisticMissile Defense System that has been tacticallycertified, deployed and contributes to the ongoingBMD System under development. Aegis BallisticMissile Defense leverages and builds uponcapabilities inherent in the Aegis Weapon System,Standard Missile, and Navy Ballistic MissileCommand, Control, Communications, Computers,and Intelligence systems. Aegis is at sea, on patrol,certified, and on alert, performing a strategic role inHomeland Defense.
  54. 54. Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Long Range Surveillance andTrack:1. Aegis Destroyers, on Ballistic Missile Defense patrol, detect and track Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles and report track data to the missile defense system. This capability shares tracking data to cue other missile defense sensors and provides fire control data to Ground-based Midcourse Defense interceptors located at Fort Greely, Alaska and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. To date, sixteen Aegis Cruisers and Destroyers have been upgraded with the Long Range Surveillance and Track capability.2. At-sea tracking events and flight tests have verified the capability to track Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles and demonstrated the connectivity and reliability of long-haul transmission of track data across nine time zones.
  55. 55. Engagement Capability1. Aegis Cruisers and Long Range Surveillance and Track Destroyers are equipped with the capability to intercept short and medium range, unitary and separating ballistic missile threats with the Standard Missile 3.2. Flight tests are conducted using operational warships, operated by fleet Sailors and Officers. Each test progressively increases the operational realism and complexity of targets and scenarios. To date, there have been nine successful intercepts out of eleven attempts. The next flight mission is scheduled for summer, 2008.3. The engagement capability will be resident in three Aegis Cruisers and 15 Destroyers by 2009. Additionally, the capability is present on several Japanese ships and other nations are interested.
  56. 56. TestingTo date, including a dual engagement in November, 2007 and thefirst test by an allied Navy in December, 2007, the Aegis BMDhas had 12 intercepts in 14 attempts, including two intercepts bytwo interceptors during one test. Multiple tests are planned foreach year.Future Capabilities1. Increased precision track data via radar signal processing upgrades, improving both Long Range Surveillance and Track and engagement capabilities2. Defense against intermediate and intercontinental ballistic missiles3. Increased international participation in sea-based ballistic missile defense capabilities
  57. 57. TERMINAL PHASE DEFENSEA missile enters the terminal phase when the warhead fallsback into the atmosphere. This phase generally lasts from 30seconds to one minute. The primary elements in the TerminalDefense Segment are:1. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)2. PATRIOT Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3)3. Arrow, a joint effort between the U.S. and Israel4. Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS), a co- developmental program with Germany and Italy
  58. 58. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense System (THAAD)1. THAAD will destroy a ballistic missile as it transitions from the midcourse to terminal phase of its trajectory2. A land-based element that has the capability to shoot down a short or medium range ballistic missile in its final stages of flight3. Consists of four principal components: truck-mounted launchers; interceptors; radars; and command, control and battle management (C2BM)4. All system components fit inside a C-130 aircraft for transport around the world
  59. 59. Arrow1. Developed jointly by the U.S. and Israel. Provides capability to defend against short and medium-range ballistic missiles2. Became operational in October 20003. Arrow Deployability Program (ADP) supports Israels acquisition of a third Arrow battery and Arrows interoperability with U.S. systems4. Arrow System Improvement Program (ASIP) includes both technical cooperation to improve the performance of the AWS and a cooperative test and evaluation program to validate the improved performance
  60. 60. PATRIOT PAC-3 Program1. The most mature elements of the BMDS2. Transferred to the U. S. Army in 2003.3. MDA still responsible for PAC-3s integration into BMDS4. Builds on the previous PATRIOT air and missile defense infrastructure5. PAC-3 missiles were deployed to Southwest Asia as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003
  61. 61. Medium Extended Air Defense System1. A cooperative effort between the United States, Germany, and Italy to develop an air and missile defense system that is mobile and transportable2. Capable of countering ballistic missiles and air- breathing threats such as aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and cruise missiles, utilizing a radar with a 360 degree capability3. Uses the combat-proven Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) as a platform
  62. 62. 4. MEADS role in ballistic missile defense is to bridge the gap between man-portable systems like the Stinger missile and the higher levels of the (BMDS), such as the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system5. Offers the opportunity for U. S. forces to work in conjunction with our allies and contributes to the interoperability of U. S. and allied forces ballistic missile defense systems6. Future development will be an Army-led effort because of its close association with PAC-3
  63. 63. SensorsAn effective layered defense incorporates a wide-rangeof sensors to detect and track threat missiles through allphases of their trajectory. Satellites and a family of land-and sea-based radars provide worldwide sensorcoverage.Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS)The restructured Space Tracking and SurveillanceSystem (STSS) will be a constellation of interoperableResearch and Development (R&D) satellites andsupporting ground infrastructure for the detection,tracking and discrimination of ballistic missiles. Datafrom STSS will be used to allow BMDS interceptors toengage incoming missiles earlier in flight. Plans are forSTSS to be incorporated into the missile defense TestBed beginning in 2006-2007.
  64. 64. Defense Support Program (DSP) SatellitesExisting Defense Support Program (DSP)satellites, now orbiting the earth in ageosynchronous orbit, provide global coveragefor early warning, tracking and identification.Besides warning of a ballistic missile launch,satellite sensors can develop an early estimate ofwhere the hostile missile is headed. Integrationof DSP into the initial missile defense capabilityprovides first, accurate warning and earlytracking of a ballistic missile launch.
  65. 65. Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS)The Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS)constellation will provide early warning of ballisticmissile attacks and accurate state vectorinformation to effectively cue other Ballistic MissileDefense System elements to support, interceptand negate the threat. Currently underdevelopment by the U.S. Air Force, SBIRS willprovide early warning messages, accurate launchpoint estimates to support theater attackoperations, radar cue for enhanced active defensefor both theater operations and Ground MissileDefense operations.
  66. 66. Early Warning Radars (EWR)MDA is upgrading the hardware andsoftware of existing ground-based radarslocated in California, Alaska andoverseas for incorporation into initialdefense capabilities. These upgradeswill allow the radar to more accuratelydetermine where an incoming ballisticmissile is headed.
  67. 67. THAAD RadarThe TPS-X radar produced for theTerminal High Altitude Area Defense(THAAD) missile system will beupgraded to be used in the Test Bedto validate algorithms and supportforward based capability for nearand long-term missile defensecapabilities.
  68. 68. Forward Deployable Radars (FDR)Forward Deployable Radars would provideadditional layers of sensor capability and moreeffective tracking of hostile missiles. Forwardbasing of ground based radars places theradar where it can obtain data from early partsof an ICBM’s trajectory and provides for earlyand accurate target-tracing and signaturedata, permitting earlier launch of defenseinterceptors and a greater battle space withinwhich they can operate. Derived from theTerminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)X-band radar, it is air-transportable, addingthe ability to quickly move the radar to where itis most needed.
  69. 69. STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE (1)AIRBORNE LASER LABORATORYThe Airborne Laser Lab was a gas-dynamiclaser mounted in a modified version of a KC-135 used for flight testing. Similar to thecommercial Boeing 707, the slightly smallerKC-135 was designed to military specificationsand operated at hight gross weights. TheNKC-135A (S/N 55-3123) is one of 14 KC-135As permanently converted for specialtesting. It was extensively modified by the AirForce weapons Labratory at Kirtland AFB,New Mexico, and used in an 11-yearexperiment to prove a high-energy laser couldbe operated in an aircraft and employedagainst airborne targets. During theexperiment, the Airborne Laser Lab destroyedfive AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles and aNavy BQM-34A target drone.
  70. 70. STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE (2)
  71. 71. MDA’s mision is to develop and field anintegrated, layered, ballistic missile defensesystem to defend the United States, itsdeployed forces, allies, and friends against allranges of enemy ballistic missiles in all phasesof flight. The fundamental objective of theBallistic Missile Defense (BMD) program is todevelop the capability to defend forces andterritories of the United States, its allies andfriends against all classes and ranges ofballistic missile threats. On December 17, 2002,President George W. Bush directed theDepartment of Defense to begin fielding in 2004a capability to protect our homeland, deployedforces, and our friends and allies from ballisticmissile attack.
  72. 72. The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) has developed aresearch, development and test program focusing on missiledefense as a single layered defense system. The structureinvolves three basic phases of ballistic missile trajectories:boost, midcourse and terminal. Boost phase is the portion offlight immediately after launch, when the missile is to gainacceleration under power to lift its payload into the air(airspace). This lasts 3-5 minutes.
  73. 73. Midcourse phase is the longest part ofthe missile flight. It is where the missilepayload has separated from thebooster rocket and is coastingunpowered toward a target. This phasecan be as long as 20 minutes. The finalphase is called terminal. This is whenthe missiles warhead re-enters theearths atmosphere and falls towardsits target, propelled only by itsmomentum and the force of gravity.However, its speed can be thousandsof miles per hour. This phase lastsapproximately 30 seconds.
  74. 74. MDAS GOALS1. Retain, recruit, and develop a high-performing and accountable workforce.2. Deliver near-term additional defensive capability in a structured Block approach to close gaps and improve the BMDS.3. Establish partnerships with the Services to enable their operations and support of the BMDS components for the Combatant Commanders.4. Substantially improve and demonstrate the military utility of the BMDS through increased system integration and testing.5. Execute a robust BMDS technology and development program to address the challenges of the evolving threat through the use of key knowledge points.6. Expand international cooperation through a comprehensive strategy to support our mutual security interests in missile defense.7. Maximize mission assurance and cost effectiveness of MDAs management and operations through continuous process improvement.
  75. 75. THE THREATWhile the end of the Cold War signaled a reduction in the likelihood of globalnuclear conflict, the threat from ballistic missiles has grown steadily assophisticated missile technology becomes available on a wider scale tocountries hostile to the U.S. and its allies.The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the ballistic and cruisemissiles that could deliver them pose a direct and immediate threat to thesecurity of the United States and its deployed military forces, allies andfriends.We have already witnessed the willingness of countries to use theater-classballistic missiles for military purposes. Since 1980, ballistic missiles havebeen used in six regional conflicts. Ballistic missiles, includingintercontinental and submarine launched ballistic missiles (ICBMs andSLBMs) exist in abundance around the world today.
  76. 76. BOOST PHASE DEFENSEThe boost phase is the part of a missile flight path fromlaunch until it stops accelerating under its own power.Typically the boost phase ends at altitudes of 300 miles orless, and within the first 3 to 5 minutes of flight. During thisphase, the rocket is climbing against the Earths gravity.Intercepting a missile in its boost phase is the ideal solution.We can defend a large area of the globe and preventmidcourse decoys from being deployed by destroying themissile early in its flight. Of the boost phase defenses, theAirborne Laser (ABL) is the most mature.
  77. 77. The two types of boost defense elements are:1. Directed energy systems using high power lasers such as the Airborne Laser.2. Kinetic energy interceptors.Boost phase elements will be integrated into an overallBallistic Missile Defense operational concept. Sensorsdeveloped in this segment will have multi-missioncapabilities intended to provide critical tracking data forthreat ballistic missiles in all phases of flight.
  78. 78. AIRBORNE LASER1. Designed to detect, track, target, and kill threatening missiles, no matter if they are short, medium, or long-range.2. Uses an amalgamation of technologies including a Boeing 747-400 freighter and Chemical, Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL).3. Laser destroys the missile by heating its metal skin until it cracks, which causes the boosting missile to fail.4. Infrared sensors were first tested on the F- 14 "Tomcat" fighter aircraft shortly before the first Gulf War.
  79. 79. OverviewThe Airborne Laser program brings together a combinationof technologies: a 747 aircraft, an advanced detection andtracking system, adaptive optics, and a revolutionary high-energy laser, all of which are being integrated into a singleweapon system for the first time.
  80. 80. Operational Sequence1. The Airborne Laser uses six strategically placed infrared sensors to detect the exhaust plume of a boosting missile.2. Once a target is detected, a kilowatt-class laser, the Track Illuminator, tracks the missile and determines a precise aim point.3. The Beacon Illuminator, a second kilowatt-class laser, then measures disturbances in the atmosphere, which are corrected by the adaptive optics system to accurately point and focus the high energy laser at its intended target.4. Using a very large telescope located in the nose turret, the beam control/fire control system focuses the megawattclass laser beam onto a pressurized area of the boosting missile, holding it there until the concentrated energy causes the missile to break apart.
  81. 81. Development1. Testing was completed on the High Energy Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser on December 6, 2005. The laser was fired continuously for more than 10 seconds at a power level sufficient to destroy a hostile ballistic missile at operational ranges.2. The Low Power System Integration-active flight test series was successfully completed on Aug. 23, 2007 at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. During the test, ABL used all three of the aircrafts laser systems to detect, track, and then engaged a target mounted on a test aircraft with a low-power laser that is serving as a surrogate for the high-power laser, and therefore demonstrating all steps required to support a ballistic missile intercept.3. ABL has begun integration of the High Energy Laser system on the aircraft. Upon completion, the aircraft will undergo additional ground and flight tests prior to the lethal demonstration against a boosting missile in 2009.
  82. 82. KINETIC ENERGY WEAPONS1. The programs primary objective over the next few years is developing an interceptor capable of destroying incoming missiles while their booster rockets are still burning.2. The longer-term objective is to develop an interceptor that can kill ballistic missiles in the midcourse phase of flight.3. The first generation of these interceptors, called the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) element, will be built and launched from mobile launchers.4. System will be tested fully between 2010 and 2011. MDA plans to integrate the missile into a sea-based capability, giving the system worldwide availability.
  83. 83. Kinetic Energy InterceptorsThe Kinetic Energy Interceptors program’s mission is to providethe Ballistic Missile Defense System a strategically deployable,tactically mobile land and sea-based capability to defeat mediumto long-range ballistic missiles during the boost, ascent, andmidcourse phases of flight. The Kinetic Energy Interceptorsweapon system has the potential capacity to be deployed as anelement of the Integrated Ballistic Missile Defense System inthree configurations: land-mobile, sea-mobile, and land-fixed.These multiple deployment configurations increase engagementopportunities, enhance the Ballistic Missile Defense System’slayered defensive capability, and decrease life-cycle operationcosts by leveraging common sub-components across the threedeployed configurations.
  84. 84. OverviewThe Kinetic Energy Interceptors weaponsystem is comprised of three majorcomponents: a missile launcher; a firecontrol and communications unit; and ahigh acceleration interceptor that deliverspayloads capable of destroying adversaryballistic missiles and their lethal payloadsusing kinetic energy.
  85. 85. Details1. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors destroy ballistic missiles in the boost, ascent, or midcourse phases of flight.2. During boost or ascent phase intercepts, the interceptor’s payload acquires, homes, and kinetically destroys a hotburning threat ballistic missile prior to deployment of its lethal payload, decoys, and countermeasures.3. For midcourse phase intercepts, the interceptor’s payload acquires, discriminates the missile’s deployed lethal payload from accompanying decoys, countermeasures and exhausted boost motors, and then autonomously homes in, and kinetically destroys the lethal payload.
  86. 86. 4. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors weapon system’s mobility enables rapid deployment near an adversary’s launch sites and subsequent early battle-space engagements of the adversary’s ballistic missile in the boost, ascent, and early midcourse phases of flight.5. Mobility provides the operational flexibility to respond to changing adversary conditions (countries, countermeasures, and tactics) and mitigates an adversary’s capability to exploit our fixed-site ballistic missile defense weapon systems.6. The Kinetic Energy Interceptors fire control component interfaces with the Ballistic Missile Defense System command and control element, Ballistic Missile Defense System sensors and other overhead sensors to obtain threat tracking data.
  87. 87. MIDCOURSE PHASE DEFENSEThe midcourse phase of a ballistic missile trajectory allows thelongest window of opportunity to intercept an incoming missile upto 20 minutes. This is the point where the missile has stoppedthrusting so it follows a more predictable glide path. Themidcourse interceptor and a variety of radars and other sensorshave a longer time to track and engage the target compared toboost and terminal interceptors. Also, more than one interceptorcould be launched to ensure a successful hit. A downside to thelonger intercept window is the attacker has an opportunity todeploy countermeasures against a defensive system. However,the interceptor and other sensors have more time to observe anddiscriminate countermeasures from the warhead. The MidcourseDefense Segment has ground-and sea-based elements.
  88. 88. The primary elements of the Midcourse Defense Segmentare:1. Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)2. Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD)Ground Based Midcourse (GMD)1. Defends against long-range ballistic missile attacks.2. During a GMD intercept, a booster missile flies toward a targets predicted location and releases a "kill vehicle" on a path with the incoming target.3. The kill vehicle uses data from ground-based radars and its own on-board sensors to collide with the target, thus destroying both the target and the kill vehicle using only the force of the impact.
  89. 89. Ground Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)The mission of the Ground-Based MidcourseDefense element of the Ballistic Missile DefenseSystem is to defend the nation, our deployedpersonnel, and our friends and allies against alimited long-range ballistic missile attack.Overview1. Uses an array of sensors, radars, and ground-based interceptors that are capable of shooting down long-range ballistic missiles during the midcourse phase of flight.2. Directly hits the incoming missile by ramming the warhead with a closing speed of approximately 15,000 miles per hour to destroy it. This is called “hit-to-kill” technology and has been proven to work in a number of flight tests.
  90. 90. DetailsGround-Based Midcourse Defense iscomposed of three main components:sensors, ground-based interceptors, and firecontrol and communications.1. Sensors: Ground-Based Midcourse Defense uses a variety of sensors and radars to obtain information on missile launches and to track, discriminate, and target an incoming warhead. This information is provided to the Ground- Based Interceptor before launch and during flight to help it find the incoming ballistic missile and close with it.
  91. 91. 2. Ground-Based Interceptor: A Ground-Based Interceptor is made up of a three-stage, solid fuel booster and an exoatmospheric kill vehicle. When launched, the booster missile carries the kill vehicle toward the target’s predicted location in space. Once released from the booster, the 152 pound kill vehicle uses data received in-flight from ground- based radars and its own on-board sensors to close with and destroy the target using only the force of the impact.3. Fire Control and Communications: This is the central nervous system of the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense element. It connects all of the hardware, software and communications systems necessary for planning, tasking and controlling Ground-Based Midcourse Defense.
  92. 92. Development1. Interceptor missiles are emplaced at Fort Greely, Alaska and Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. More are planned to be emplaced in 2006.2. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense fire control centers have been established in Colorado and Alaska.3. Several existing early warning radars located around the world, including one on Shemya Island in the Alaskan Aleutian chain, have been upgraded to support flight tests and to provide tracking information in the event of a hostile missile attack.4. Also nearing completion is a powerful, mobile Sea-based X- Band radar that is scheduled to be fully integrated into the Ballistic Missile Defense System in 2006.
  93. 93. AEGIS BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSEThe sea-based system is intended tointercept short to medium range hostilemissiles in the ascent and descent phase ofmidcourse flight. Engaging missiles in theascent phase reduces the overall BMDSystems susceptibility to countermeasures.Builds upon technologies in the existingAegis Weapons System now aboard U.S.Navy ships and uses the Standard Missile 3.
  94. 94. Aegis Ballistic Missile DefenseAegis Ballistic Missile Defense is the sea-basedelement of the Missile Defense Agency’s BallisticMissile Defense System that has been tacticallycertified, deployed and contributes to the ongoingBMD System under development. Aegis BallisticMissile Defense leverages and builds uponcapabilities inherent in the Aegis Weapon System,Standard Missile, and Navy Ballistic MissileCommand, Control, Communications, Computers,and Intelligence systems. Aegis is at sea, on patrol,certified, and on alert, performing a strategic role inHomeland Defense. It is a core mission of the U.S.Navy, and a keystone in its “Cooperative Strategy for21st Century Seapower.”
  95. 95. Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Long Range Surveillance andTrack:1. Aegis Destroyers, on Ballistic Missile Defense patrol, detect and track Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles and report track data to the missile defense system. This capability shares tracking data to cue other missile defense sensors and provides fire control data to Ground-based Midcourse Defense interceptors located at Fort Greely, Alaska and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. To date, sixteen Aegis Cruisers and Destroyers have been upgraded with the Long Range Surveillance and Track capability.2. At-sea tracking events and flight tests have verified the capability to track Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles and demonstrated the connectivity and reliability of long-haul transmission of track data (across nine time zones) necessary to support missile defense situational awareness, target cueing, and engagements.
  96. 96. Engagement Capability1. Aegis Cruisers and Long Range Surveillance and Track Destroyers are being equipped with the capability to intercept short and medium range, unitary and separating ballistic missile threats with the Standard Missile 3.2. Flight tests are conducted using operational warships, operated by fleet Sailors and Officers. Each test progressively increases the operational realism and complexity of targets and scenarios. To date, there have been nine successful intercepts out of eleven attempts. The next flight mission is scheduled for summer, 2008.3. The engagement capability will be resident in three Aegis Cruisers and 15 Destroyers by 2009. Additionally, the capability is present on several Japanese ships and other nations are interested.
  97. 97. Testing• To date, including a dual engagement in November, 2007 and the first test by an allied Navy in December, 2007, the Aegis BMD has had 12 intercepts in 14 attempts, including two intercepts by two interceptors during one test. Multiple tests are planned for each year.Future Capabilities1. Increased precision track data via radar signal processing upgrades, improving both Long Range Surveillance and Track and engagement capabilities.2. Defense against intermediate and intercontinental ballistic missiles.3. Increased international participation in sea-based ballistic missile defense capabilities.
  98. 98. TERMINAL PHASE DEFENSEA missile enters the terminal phase when the warhead fallsback into the atmosphere. This phase generally lasts from 30seconds to one minute. The primary elements in the TerminalDefense Segment are:1. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)2. PATRIOT Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3)3. Arrow, a joint effort between the U.S. and Israel4. Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS), a co- developmental program with Germany and Italy.
  99. 99. Terminal High Altitude Area Defense System (THAAD)1. THAAD will destroy a ballistic missile as it transitions from the midcourse to terminal phase of its trajectory.2. A land-based element that has the capability to shoot down a short or medium range ballistic missile in its final stages of flight, both inside and just outside of the atmosphere.3. Consists of four principal components: truck-mounted launchers; interceptors; radars; and command, control and battle management (C2BM). System has rapid mobility so that it can be air-lifted to almost anywhere in the world within hours.4. All system components fit inside a C-130 aircraft for transport around the world.
  100. 100. Arrow1. Developed jointly by the U.S. and Israel. Provides Israel with a capability to defend its borders and U.S. troops deployed in the region against short- and medium-range ballistic missiles.2. System became operational in October 2000.3. Arrow Deployability Program (ADP) supports Israels acquisition of a third Arrow battery and Arrows interoperability with U.S. systems.4. Arrow System Improvement Program (ASIP) includes both technical cooperation to improve the performance of the AWS and a cooperative test and evaluation program to validate the improved performance.
  101. 101. PATRIOT PAC-3 Program1. The most mature elements of the BMDS.2. Transferred to the U. S. Army in 2003.3. MDA still responsible for PAC-3s integration into BMDS.4. Builds on the previous PATRIOT air and missile defense infrastructure.5. PAC-3 missiles were deployed to Southwest Asia as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003.
  102. 102. Medium Extended Air Defense System1. A cooperative effort between the United States, Germany, and Italy to develop an air and missile defense system that is mobile and transportable.2. Capable of countering ballistic missiles and air- breathing threats such as aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and cruise missiles, utilizing a radar with a 360 degree capability.3. Uses the combat-proven Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) as a platform.
  103. 103. 4. MEADS role in ballistic missile defense is to bridge the gap between man-portable systems like the Stinger missile and the higher levels of the (BMDS), such as the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system.5. Offers the opportunity for U. S. forces to work in conjunction with our allies and contributes to the interoperability of U. S. and allied forces ballistic missile defense systems.6. Future development will be an Army-led effort because of its close association with PAC-3.
  104. 104. SensorsAn effective layered defense incorporates a wide-rangeof sensors to detect and track threat missiles through allphases of their trajectory. Satellites and a family of land-and sea-based radars provide worldwide sensorcoverage.Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS)The restructured Space Tracking and SurveillanceSystem (STSS) will be a constellation of interoperableResearch and Development (R&D) satellites andsupporting ground infrastructure for the detection,tracking and discrimination of ballistic missiles. Datafrom STSS will be used to allow BMDS interceptors toengage incoming missiles earlier in flight. Plans are forSTSS to be incorporated into the missile defense TestBed beginning in 2006-2007.
  105. 105. Defense Support Program (DSP) SatellitesExisting Defense Support Program (DSP)satellites, now orbiting the earth in ageosynchronous orbit, provide global coveragefor early warning, tracking and identification.Besides warning of a ballistic missile launch,satellite sensors can develop an early estimate ofwhere the hostile missile is headed. Integrationof DSP into the initial missile defense capabilityprovides first, accurate warning and earlytracking of a ballistic missile launch.
  106. 106. Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS)The Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS)constellation will provide early warning of ballisticmissile attacks and accurate state vectorinformation to effectively cue other Ballistic MissileDefense System elements to support, interceptand negate the threat. Currently underdevelopment by the U.S. Air Force, SBIRS willprovide early warning messages, accurate launchpoint estimates to support theater attackoperations, radar cue for enhanced active defensefor both theater operations and Ground MissileDefense operations, and impact area predictions.
  107. 107. Early Warning Radars (EWR)MDA is upgrading the hardware andsoftware of existing ground-based radarslocated in California, Alaska andoverseas for incorporation into initialdefense capabilities. These upgradeswill allow the radar to more accuratelydetermine where an incoming ballisticmissile is headed.
  108. 108. THAAD RadarThe TPS-X radar produced for theTerminal High Altitude Area Defense(THAAD) missile system will beupgraded to be used in the Test Bedto validate algorithms and supportforward based capability for nearand long-term missile defensecapabilities.
  109. 109. Forward Deployable Radars (FDR)Forward Deployable Radars would provideadditional layers of sensor capability and moreeffective tracking of hostile missiles. Forwardbasing of ground based radars places theradar where it can obtain data from early partsof an ICBM’s trajectory and provides for earlyand accurate target-tracing and signaturedata, permitting earlier launch of defenseinterceptors and a greater battle space withinwhich they can operate. Derived from theTerminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD)X-band radar, it is air-transportable, addingthe ability to quickly move the radar to where itis most needed.
  110. 110. This is a film produced by the Missile DefenseAgency. It is titled “BMDS Overview: A Day in the Life of Global Ballistic Missile Defense”
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×