1. Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 7 Modern World Governments – Spring 2013 Supplemental Power Point Material #11
2. LECTURE HIGHLIGHTS (1)• State Interdependence• Foreign Policy Impacts Domestic Politics• International Organizations• Towards European Integration• Why Some Don’t Embrace Democracy• From Wilson’s 14 Points to The United Nations• Institutions Remain Strong Post-Cold War• Human Rights As Foreign Policy• Conventional Forces• Types Of Forces• Evolving Technologies• Terrorism
3. LECTURE HIGHLIGHTS (2)• Weapons Of Mass Destruction• Nuclear Weapons• Examples of Nuclear Weapons• Ballistic Missiles & Other Delivery Systems• Chemical & Biological Weapons• Proliferation• Nuclear Strategy & Arms Control• Military Economies• Control Of Military Forces• Stabilization• Instability
4. STATE INTERDEPENDENCY (1)Societal interdependence addresses situations in whichevents within one society affect events in another.Government involvement in instigating these events doesnot have to take place for this to occur. Transnationalrelations helped to encourage interdependency betweenstates. Nation-states interdependent on one anotherpresented each with economic and political trade-offswhereas gains in one may lead to the weakening of another.Economic gains that may be derived from external sourcesthat are able to produce them more efficiently while onlyretaining those industries that are efficient may allow a stateto achieve higher overall productivity. This comes at a pricewhen a state becomes so dependent on foreign sources ofgoods that it affects how its foreign policy is conducted.
5. STATE INTERDEPENDENCY (2)As a state becomes more interdependent on one another italso serves to prevent it from acting overly aggressiveagainst those states that it has become dependent.Interdependence reversed the low levels of politicaloptimism beginning in the 1970s that established linkagesbetween the West, Latin America, and Asia and culminatedwith the collapse of the Soviet Union.
6. STATE INTERDEPENDENCY (3)Simple interdependency is morphing into a complexinterdependence that was uniting economic and political interests ofstates into one cohesive block. War among the advanced statesbecame unthinkable as interdependence made it ever more costly.Interdependent world of liberal-democratic states can at some pointin time lead to world peace. Regardless of these economic forces,security concerns as well as the drive for national honor canoverrule the costs associated with breaking linkages. Countries thatwish to attract foreign investments or accrue technologicalinnovations have to wear a “golden straitjacket”. This is a set ofpolicies that include balanced budgets, economic deregulation, freetrade, a stable currency and most importantly an overalltransparency so that people can predict the overall direction of acountry.
7. STATE INTERDEPENDENCY (4)Societal and economic interdependence can interlink thedomestic policies of two nation-states. Take the example ofCanada and the United States. The high degree of societalinterdependence assures that Canada will be strongly affectedby American policies. The most powerful nation-state canmore affect the policies of another country interdependent onits society as the US and Canada example shows.
8. STATE INTERDEPENDENCY (5)Underlying most analyses of world politics and internationalorganization is the state-centric approach. This makes twoassumptions:(1) Governments remain the most significant actors in world politics.(2) Governments are unified actors. Transgovernmental is a reference to direct interactions between agencies (government subunits) of different governments where those agencies act relatively autonomously from central governmental control.
9. FOREIGN POLICY IMPACTS DOMESTIC POLITICS (1)The quest continues for researchers to explain conflict andintegration in a fashion that allows for the political sciences tounderstand how the relationship between the structure of theinternational system and the patterns of foreign policy impactsdomestic politics and political structures of a given country’sforeign policy. Understanding these international – domesticlinkages would further allow researchers to study decision-making and bureaucratic process and how they affect foreignpolicy behavior. Scholars have sought to explain how theinternational system affects domestic political systems andsubsystems.
10. FOREIGN POLICY IMPACTS DOMESTIC POLITICS (2)Realists are prone to argue that the anarchic internationalsystem affects domestic policies and those subservientsystems, as national survival requires the functions of thenation-state to coordinate its policies. Neo-realists wouldargue that it works both ways with the international systemaffecting domestic policies and vice versa. National-interestsdo not merely have to deal with survival, but also otherinterests that may vary according to moral, economic or eventhe quest for additional resources for consumption.
11. FOREIGN POLICY IMPACTS DOMESTIC POLITICS (3)Kenneth Waltz refers to globalization as a homogenizationprocess that equalizes prices, products, wages, wealth, ratesof interest and profit margins. It is a movement that can sparkresistance both within the United States as well as around theworld. This can come from religious fundamentalists, andlabor unions. Thomas Friedman would disagree with TipO’Neill’s assertion that “all politics are local”. Friedman wouldsay this was wrong, for all politics is now global in nature, “Theelectronic herd turns the whole world into a parliamentarysystem, in which every government lives under the fear of ano-confidence vote from the herd”. It is interesting to point outhere that most economies remain local. In fact those countrieswith the largest economies do most of their businessdomestically.
12. TOWARDS EUROPEAN INTEGRATION (1)The European Union is a supranational organization of 27European member states. With the goal of establishingpolitical and economic union, some member states—particularly the United Kingdom—fear the establishment of apan-European “superstate.” As the European Union hasexpanded from 15 members when it was created in 1995, to27 members in 2007 (and with still more members on thehorizon), it addresses a greater number of policy areas and isan increasingly important actor on the world stage.
13. TOWARDS EUROPEAN INTEGRATION (2)Discussions to develop a new EuropeanConstitution began in 1994. While progresswas quickly made in some areas, in otherareas negotiations faltered. As of 2007, thefuture of the new European Constitution isuncertain. Already, twenty EU membershave ratified the Constitution, and severalothers are in the process of ratifying thedocument. However, to come into force, theEuropean Constitution has to be ratified byall EU member states, and voters in Franceand the Netherlands have already rejectedthe Constitution in popular referenda.
14. WHY SOME DON’T EMBRACE DEMOCRACYConsolidated democracies possess capitalist economies withless certain democracies making slow progress in this regard,while authoritarian governments are most likely to shun fromeconomic reform. Various reasons exist why some countrieshave failed to fully embrace liberal and free-market reforms. First,the public may have different opinions about these reforms thatmay or may not be equally shared by opposition forces. Second,how the transition to liberal and free-market reforms areundertaken can affect the decision of authoritarian elites to tradein their political capital for economic gains. Third, the method ofthe transition to capitalism can determine what side wins orloses. Fourth, degrees of nationalism can determine whetherpolitical leaders are able to hold their society together during thetribulation transformation to democracy.
15. WILSON’S 14 POINTS TO THE UN (1)World War I, or commonly referred to at that time as the GreatWar, originated in Europe due to mounting militant nationalismthat had been escalating for decades. With the immediatecause of the war being the assassination of ArchdukeFerdinand of Austria-Hungary by Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year oldSerbian nationalist, in Sarajevo on June 18, 1914. As the warbegan to spread across Europe, President Woodrow Wilsonappeared before a joint session of Congress on April 2, 1917to ask for a declaration of war against Germany.
16. WILSON’S 14 POINTS TO THE UN (2)President Woodrow Wilson addressed the United StatesCongress on January 8, 1918 to enunciate American war aimsconstrued in “The Fourteen Points”, with the last pointestablishing “A general association of nations…affordingmutual guarantees of political independence and territorialintegrity to great and small states alike.” However, only theworld’s acceptance of all 14 points could the establishment ofa general association of nations be made. Woodrow Wilson’sproclamation that America’s entrance into World War I was acrusade to “make the world safe for democracy” would in turnpresent an opportunity for his 14 points to construct andmaintain world peace.
17. WILSON’S 14 POINTS TO THE UN (3)Wilson had borne witness to the frightfulness of war. Born inVirginia in 1856, the son of a Presbyterian minister who duringthe Civil War was a pastor in Augusta, Georgia, and duringReconstruction a professor in the charred city of Columbia,South Carolina. In time, Woodrow Wilson established aphilosophy based upon Communitarianism measured in partthrough Idealism. Perhaps the last American President toenter into office professing such beliefs, it had a profoundimpact on those policies pursued by his Administration.
18. WILSON’S 14 POINTS TO THE UN (4)The Communitarianism methodology of Woodrow Wilsonemanates throughout “The Fourteen Points”, through hisenunciation of secret dialogues among nation states, hisattempt to offer suggestions of reconciliation to those nationstates that continue to maintain disputes among neighbors, aswell as the call for a newly established world order consistingof a general association of nations for purpose of affordingmutual guarantees. However, one may also witness theunderlying idealist methodology of Wilson, for “The FourteenPoints” does not reflect human nature, or in this case therelationships of nation states. Wilson’s proposition is basedupon his communitarianist-idealist theories on the good ofman, not the harsh realities of human nature.
19. WILSON’S 14 POINTS TO THE UN (5)“The Fourteen Points” does not reflect the reality of the timesduring which it was authored, for there still remained issues thatrequired nation states to address, whether militarily ordiplomatically. It can be argued quite effectively that “The FourteenPoints” was the actual starting point of what is today the UnitedNations. However, what Woodrow Wilson proposed is certainly notthe consortium of mutual goodwill and understanding amongnation states. Human nature remains prevalent, so we shallcontinue to live in a world that harbors a consortium of nationstates bidding to achieve dominance among neighbors. As wehave yet to achieve a worldwide higher consciousness amongmankind that would allow unity among nation states, it isunderstood that Woodrow Wilson’s philosophy was certainlyahead of not only his time, but for generations to come.
20. INSTITUTIONS REMAIN STRONG POST-COLD WARNeo-liberalism institutionalism accurately proclaimed thatNATO, the European Union and other institutions would notdisappear following the end of the Cold War as realists hadincorrectly assumed. Institutionalist research even drew on USpolitics to understand why these organizations like NATOcontinued to exist. One argument is that member states saw itto be in their best interests to remain committed to institutionswhich preserved level playing fields as well as serving asguarantees to their security. Institutionalist thinking has evenlaunched research programs within International PoliticalEconomy over the past 15 years that made students aware ofrelationships existing between interests, power, andinstitutions.
21. HUMAN RIGHTS AS FOREIGN POLICYThe rise of international law and the recognition of universalhuman rights have in turn affected those processes availablefor states to control. To sum up, it can be argued that we areapproaching a time when a world of regions maintain statesthat remain sovereign, yet committed to universal principlesthat in turn create new political arenas that maintain relationsbetween actors. Glocalization assists us with understandinghow this is taking place. The theory focuses on therelationships among units that according to John Mearsheimer“are transforming the identities, interests, and strategies ofactors through a combination of global and local processesand are thus adding new political actors and processes to anincreasingly global politics.” Human rights has become afundamental principle of American Foreign Policy.
22. CONVENTIONAL FORCES (1)• State leaders involved in a conflict can use various kinds of leverage to reach a more favorable outcome: – Nonviolent levers – foreign aid, economic sanctions, and personal diplomacy, etc. – Violent levers – violent actions such as sending out armies, suicide bombers, or missiles. • Costly to the sender and receiver and tend to be a last resort. • Declining in use over time.
23. CONVENTIONAL FORCES (2)• Most states, however, still devote vast resources to military capabilities. – Defending territories. – Deter attack. – Compel other states to behave certain ways by threatening an attack. – Humanitarian assistance for disasters. – Surveillance of drug trafficking. – Repression of political dissent.
24. CONVENTIONAL FORCES (3)• Great powers continue to dominate the makeup of world military forces.• Military capabilities divide into three types: – conventional forces. – irregular forces. – weapons of mass destruction.
25. TYPES OF FORCES (1)• Most wars involve a struggle to control territory. – The fundamental purpose of conventional forces is to take, hold, or defend territory.• Armies: – Infantry: foot soldiers who use assault rifles and other light weapons.• Counter-insurgency: – Includes programs to “win the hearts and minds” of populations so they stop sheltering the guerrillas. – Guerrillas often use landmines, which continue to harm populations even after the war is over.
26. TYPES OF FORCES (2)• Navies: – Adapted primarily to control passage through the seas and to attack land near coastlines. – Aircraft carries – instruments of power projections• Air Forces: – Strategic bombing of land or sea targets, close air support, interception of other aircraft, reconnaissance, and airlift.• Logistics and intelligence: – GPS. – NSA. – Budgets of U.S. intelligence agencies: $44 billion (2005).
27. EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES• The resort to force in international conflicts now has more profound costs and consequences than in the past, causing massive destruction and economic ruin.• Military engagements now occur across greater standoff distances between opposing forces. – Missiles• Electronic warfare.• Stealth technology.
28. TERRORISM (1)• Political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. – But one person’s freedom fighter is another’s terrorist. – Shadowy world of faceless enemies and irregular tactics marked by extreme brutality.
29. TERRORISM (2)• Primary effect of terrorism is psychological: – World Trade Center. – Violation of norms of the international system.• State-sponsored terrorism: – Use of terrorist groups by states. – Libya example. – North Korea, Iran, Syria, Sudan, and Cuba.
30. WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION• Comprise three general types: nuclear, chemical and biological. – Enormously lethal; no discrimination in whom they kill.• Serve different purposes than conventional weapons: – Deter attack by giving state leaders the means to influence great pain against a would-be conqueror or destroyer. – Symbolic equalizer for middle powers – For terrorists, their purpose is to kill a great many people.
31. NUCLEAR WEAPONS• Fission weapons: – Two elements can be split or fissioned: uranium-235 and plutonium. – Obstacle often is finding fissionable material – Plutonium bomb is more difficult to build than a uranium one.• Fusion weapons: – Extremely expensive and technically demanding. – No splitting of atoms, but rather fusing two together to make one larger one, releasing energy.• Heat and radiation.• Electro Magnetic Pulse (EMP).• Nuclear winter.
32. EXAMPLES OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS (1)The United States possesses the mostadvanced military hardware known toman. Here is a sample of ouroverwhelming nuclear firepower. Allfootage of launches and warheaddetonations are made courtesy of TheUnited States Department of Energy.This agency is responsible formaintaining our nation’s nuclearstockpile. Students will be asked thefollowing question following this videopresentation: “What prevents theUnited States from utilizing its fullmilitary capacity?
33. EXAMPLES OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS (2) The Soviet Union holds title to the world’s largest nuclear warhead detonation. “TSAR Bomba” was the largest nuclear weapon ever constructed or detonated. This three stage weapon was actually a 100 megaton bomb design, but the uranium fusion stage tamper of the tertiary (and possibly the secondary) stage(s) was replaced by one(s) made of lead. This reduced the yield by 50% by eliminating the fast fissioning of the uranium tamper by the fusion neutrons, and eliminated 97% of the fallout (1.5 megatons of fission, instead of about 51.5 Mt), yet still proved the full yield design. It was the "cleanest" weapon ever tested with 97% of the energy coming from fusion reactions. The drop area was over land at the Mityushikha Bay test site, on the west coast of Novaya Zemlya Island, above test field D-2, near Cape Sukhoy Nos.
34. EXAMPLES OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS (3) The United States Department Of Defense and the Office of Civil Defense commissioned “About Fallout” to educate citizens about the effects of fallout. This film was produced in 1963, during the Cold War. Students should keep in mind that the film offers a very optimistic view of nuclear warfare.
35. EXAMPLES OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS (5) The United States Air Force, Special Weapons Project Agency commissioned “The Medical Aspects Of Nuclear Radiation” in 1950. The film urges people to not have a fatalistic view about nuclear radiation. Students should recognize the true message behind this film” Nuclear war may be inevitable. We can survive nuclear war”.
36. BALLISTIC MISSILES & OTHER DELIVERY SYSTEMS• Delivery systems for getting nuclear weapons to their targets are the basis of states’ nuclear arsenals and strategies. – Ballistic missiles. – Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). – Short-range ballistic missiles. – Cruise missiles. – Missile Technology Control Regime: • Industrialized states try to limit the flow of missile-relevant technologies to states in the global South.
37. CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS• A chemical weapon releases chemicals that disable and kill people. – Range from tear gas to nerve gas. – Indiscriminate about whom they kill. – Use has been rare. – Chemical Weapons Convention (1992).• Biological weapons: – Resemble chemical weapons, except they use microorganisms or biologically derived toxins. – Biological Weapons Convention (1972).
38. PROLIFERATION (1)• The spread of weapons of mass destruction into the hands of more actors.• Two sides to the proliferation argument: – Realists – not worried. – Others put less faith in the rationality of state leaders and are very concerned.• Selling of technology with proliferation potential.
39. PROLIFERATION (2)• Arms races in regional conflicts and rivalries.• Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968).• International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). – UN agency based in Vienna charged with inspecting the nuclear power industry in member states to prevent secret military diversions of nuclear materials.
40. NUCLEAR STRATEGY & ARMS CONTROL • Nuclear strategy refers to: – decisions about how many nuclear weapons to deploy. – what delivery systems to put them on. – what policies to adopt regarding the circumstances in which they should be used. • Deterrence: – Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD). • Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). • Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1972). • Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties (SALT). • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
41. MILITARY ECONOMIES (1)• Given the range of military capabilities available to states (at various costs), how much and what types should state leaders choose to acquire?• Economics of military spending is not so favorable. – Long run: allocating economic resources for military purposes deprives the rest of the economy and reduces its growth. – Tradeoff: increasing their available military leverage and increasing their overall economic health.
42. MILITARY ECONOMIES (2)• Economic conversion.• Arms imports by states in the global South: – Make up more than half of all arms sales. – Of all international arms exports, a third come from the United States, with Russia and Britain ranked next. – Worldwide, these three countries and France together account for three-quarters of international arms sales. – Globally, arms sales have declined in the post- Cold War era.
43. CONTROL OF MILITARY FORCES (1)• Coordination of many individuals performing many different military functions in many locations. This refers to controlling the military. – Chain of command – Value of military hierarchy – Discipline – Training – Group solidarity – Logistical support – Role of accurate information
44. CONTROL OF MILITARY FORCES (2)• Human error: – Friendly fire.• Military governments: – Most common in poor countries, where the military may be the only large modern institution in the country. – Coup d’etat is the seizure of political power by domestic military forces – a change of political power outside the state’s constitutional order. • Outcome difficult to predict. • Difficulty gaining popular legitimacy.• Civilian-military relations.
45. CONTROL OF MILITARY FORCES (3)• NATO forces operate under strong civilian control.• Covert operations.• Role of private companies to provide services to military.• World order is evolving even as military technologies do.
46. STABILIZATIONSudden instability is the greatest threat to humanity for itthreatens to cause irreparable harm to the individual. Onemay never consider harming another person in a state ofnature. Elimination of one’s sustenance throws theindividual into a state of war, because their survival is nowthreatened. Nation-states consist of multiple spheres ofinterest in turn consisting of individual units consisting ofpeople. As survival is the primary goal of man, so it is theultimate pursuit of nation-states. The primary concern isthat of stability. This philosophy has prevented a major warfrom taking place over the last sixty years. Instability is theprimary cause of all conflict both within and betweennation-states.
47. INSTABILITY – A NIGHTMARE SCENARIOSudden instability results in thepotential destruction of a relationship.Everyone has experienced thenegative effects of instability.Relationships between loved ones isjust one of many examples. Onemajor cause of rampant instability isthe breakdown of communicationbetween spheres. This is a videodocumentary titled “First Strike”. Itpresents a nightmare scenarioresulting from souring relationsbetween the United States and theSoviet Union.